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Iran J Biotechnol ; 14(4): 221-229, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28959339


BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in the natural and constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. While nutrient removal in wetlands has been extensively investigated, information regarding the degradation of the pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) has only recently been emerging. PPCPs are widely distributed in urban wastewaters and can be removed to some extent by the constructed wetlands. The medium-term (3-5 years) behavior of these systems regarding PPCP removal is still unknown. OBJECTIVES: The efficiency of a Leca-based laboratory-scale constructed wetland planted with Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. Ex. Steudel in treating an aqueous solution of the pharmaceuticals, namely, carbamazepine, ibuprofen, and sulfadiazine, was to investigate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The two pilot-scale constructed wetlands (CW) were operated in parallel; one as an experimental unit (a planted reactor with P. australis) and the other as a control (an unplanted reactor with Leca). Pretreatment and analyses of the carbamazepine, ibuprofen, sulfadiazine, and tissue samples (Leca, P. australis body and P.australis leaf) were conducted using HPLC. RESULTS: The carbamazepine, ibuprofen, and sulfadiazine removal efficiencies for the planted and unplanted reactors were 89.23% and 95.94%, 89.50% and 94.73%, and 67.20% and 93.68%, respectively. The Leca bed permitted an efficient removal. Leca has a high sorption capacity for these pharmaceuticals, with removal efficiencies of 93.68-95.94% in the unplanted reactors. CONCLUSIONS: Sorption processes might be of a major importance in achieving efficient treatment of wastewater, particularly in the removal of organic material that are resistant to biodegradation, in which case the materials composing the support matrix may play an important role. The results obtained in the present study indicate that a constructed wetland with Leca as a substrate and planted with P. australis is effective in the treatment of wastewater contaminated with carbamazepine, ibuprofen, and sulfadiazine.

J Environ Biol ; 30(5): 757-60, 2009 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20136061


Lake Uluabat, which is located in Marmara region, is one of the most productive lakes in Turkey. Due to concerns about potential pollution resulting from watershed sources and adjacent agricultural lands, a study of the trophic state of lake Uluabat was conducted during the period February 2003 to January 2004. Total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), Secchi disc depth (SD) and chlorophyll a (Chl a) were analyzed monthly in order to assess the trophic state of the lake. According to calculated nutrient ratios, phosphorus was found to be the primary limiting nutrient in lake Uluabat. Carlson's trophic state index values, based on TP, SD and Chl a, indicated that lake Uluabat is an eutrophic system.

Água Doce/química , Clorofila/análise , Clorofila A , Condutividade Elétrica , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nitrogênio/análise , Oxigênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/análise , Temperatura , Turquia , Poluição da Água
J Environ Biol ; 29(2): 205-10, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18831376


Lake Uluabat, known for its scenic beauty and richness of aquatic life, is situated in Marmara Region, Bursa (Turkey). On account of its importance, lake Uluabat was designated by the Ministry of Environment as a Ramsar site in 1998. Physical, chemical and microbiological parameters of the aquatic ecosystem in lake Uluabat were measured monthly at five stations from February 2003 to January 2004. The results showed that lake Uluabat can be classified as Class I with respect to temperature (16.36 +/- 7.47 degrees C), nitrate nitrogen (0.63 +/- 0.50 mgl(-1)), sodium (9.64 +/- 2.78 mgl(-1)), chloride (20.45 +/- 4.59 mgl(-1)), sulphate (54.80 +/- 29.97 mgl(-1)); as Class II with respect to dissolved oxygen (7.62 +/- 1.99 mgl(-1)), ammonium nitrogen (0.52 +/- 0.49 mgl(-1)), chemical oxygen demand (35.74 +/- 10.66 mgl(-1)), total coliform (2027 MPN100 ml(-1) (average value)); as Class III with respect to pH (8.69 +/- 0.16) and as Class IV with respect to total nitrogen (84.94 +/- 66.13 mgl(-1)), total phosphorus (1.11 +/- 3.01 mgl(-1)), biochemical oxygen demand (21.21 +/- 6.60 mgl(-1)) according to TWPCR (Turkey Water Pollution Control Regulation). The nutrient content of lake waterapparently indicated that lake had an eutrophic characteristic. Phosphorus was determined as a limiting factor in lake. The measured hardness values (140.94 +/- 14.61 CaCO3 mgl(-1)) indicated that lake water was classified as soft/hard during the study period. Eutrophic characteristic of the lake and contaminant accumulation in water will probably affect the future use of the lake. Therefore, pollution parameters must be regularly monitored and evaluated according to aquatic living and local regulations.

Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Doce/química , Água Doce/microbiologia , Poluentes da Água/análise , Carbonato de Cálcio/análise , Cloretos/análise , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Nitratos/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Oxigênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Sódio/análise , Sulfatos/análise , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Turquia
J Environ Biol ; 28(2): 307-14, 2007 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17915771


Duckweed (Lemna minor L.) has a wide application in Turkey having suitable climatic conditions. In this study, the growth of duckweed was assessed in laboratory scale experiments. They were fed with municipal and industrial wastewater at constant temprature. COD, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and ortho-phosphate (OP) removal efficiencies of the reactors were monitored by sampling influent and effluent of the system. Removal efficiency in this study reflects optimal results: 73-84% COD removal, 83-87% TN removal, 70-85% TP removal and 83-95% OP removal. The results show that the duckweed-based wastewater treatment is capable of treating the laboratory wastewater.

Araceae/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Resíduos Industriais , Nitrogênio/análise , Oxigênio/química , Fosfatos/análise , Fósforo/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
Water Environ Res ; 79(9): 1000-5, 2007 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17910369


The aim of this research was to expose individual removals of copper, chromium, nickel, and lead from aqueous solutions via biosorption using nonliving algae species, Chara sp. and Cladophora sp. Optimum pH values for biosorption of copper (II), chromium (III), nickel (II), and lead (II) from aqueous solutions were determined to be 6, 7, 7, and 3 for Cladophora sp. and 5, 3, 5, and 4 for Chara sp. respectively. Maximum adsorption capacities of Chara sp. [10.54 for chromium (III) and 61.72 for lead (II)] and Cladophora sp. [6.59 for chromium (III) and 16.75 and 23.25 for lead (II)] for chromium (III) and lead (II) are similar. On the other hand, copper (II) and nickel (II) biosorption capacity of Cladophora sp. [14.28 for copper (II) and 16.75 for nickel (II)] is greater than Chara sp. [6.506 for copper (II) and 11.76 for nickel (II)]. Significantly high correlation coefficients indicated for the Langmuir adsorption isotherm models can be used to describe the equilibrium behavior of copper, chromium, nickel, and lead adsorption onto Cladophora sp. and Chara sp.

Chara/metabolismo , Clorófitas/metabolismo , Metais/metabolismo , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Cromo/isolamento & purificação , Cromo/metabolismo , Cobre/isolamento & purificação , Cobre/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Chumbo/isolamento & purificação , Chumbo/metabolismo , Metais/isolamento & purificação , Níquel/isolamento & purificação , Níquel/metabolismo , Termodinâmica , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação
Environ Monit Assess ; 112(1-3): 1-22, 2006 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16404531


Nilüfer Stream is an important water source in the industrial and metropolitan city of Bursa, Turkey. The stream catchment has been influenced by high human impact. The downstream receives sewage water from households and industry, whereas the headwater of the stream has a source of high-quality drinkable water. In this paper, abundances of epipelic diatom taxa, faecal coliforms (FC), total coliforms (TC) and total bacteria (TB) were studied in relation to measured environmental variables (T, pH, DO, BOD(5), EC, TDS) for the period July 1997 to June 1998 at six stations in the heavily polluted Nilüfer Stream catchment. It is observed that the physicochemical variables and bacterial abundances varied seasonally at all stations, and the level of pollution reached at its highest point in the summer. The results of Kruskal-Wallis and one-way ANOVA indicated that DO gradually decreased, whereas BOD(5), EC, TDS, TB, FC and TC gradually increased from upstream to downstream. The ordination method of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was carried out for both biologic and physicochemical variables, and the results were supported by the former statistical procedures. The frequency of occurrence of dominant diatoms was examined in relation to the spatial variations in chemical constituents. Both diatoms and bacteria showed strong correlations with the measured physicochemical variables. In Canonical Correlation Analysis (CANCORR) measures of bacterial abundances also displayed strong correlations with abundances of 11 diatom taxa. The results showed that the stream catchment is polluted gradually from upstream to downstream. In addition, pollution load in the stream catchment has been gradually increased, compared with recent years. Urbanisation and industrialisation of the city have affected increasing pollution in Nilüfer Stream. The results also indicated that diatoms are not affected by environmental variables such as bacteria. Bacteria are more sensitive to organic pollution, while diatoms are indicators of different environmental conditions.

Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Enterobacteriaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resíduos Industriais , Microbiologia da Água , Poluição da Água/análise , Análise de Variância , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos Industriais/efeitos adversos , Dinâmica Populacional , Análise de Componente Principal , Estações do Ano , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Turquia , Poluentes da Água/análise