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1.
Georgian Med News ; (203): 37-40, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22466539

RESUMO

Epidemiology of meningococcal infection in Georgia was studied for 2009-2011. As the official surveillance data shows, morbidity with the infection is characterized by a downward trend. During the analyzed period the morbidity level declined by 2,4 times. The average incidence rate for the period composed 0,95 ± 0,12 per 100 000 population. The infection is unequally spread throughout the country. High incidence is indicated in Tbilisi city and the regions: Ajara and Kvemo Kartli. Children are the most vulnerable population. 81,3% of all the cases fell on the children' population. High incidence rate in children of the age under 1 year is especially alarming, composing 11,52 per 100 000 population. Irrespective of the downward trend meningococcal infection in Georgia remains as a severe disease, high level of lethal outcome (lethality 18,6±3,0%) is the confirmation of that. Lethality is even higher in small children under 1 year - 27,7 ± 7,4%. The study of the isolated N. meningitides from patients with meningococcal meningitides as well as with meningococcemia showed that N. meningitides of the serosgoups B and C are being circulated in Georgia. Epidemiological investigation of the infection foci in terms of medical examination of contact persons of the cases indicated that the causative agents of the same serogroups are also widely circulated among contact subjects. Along of the passive surveillance data on the meningococcal disease, results of active investigation of epidemiological foci of the infection may serve as valuable information for planning of specific prevention measures against the infection.


Assuntos
Infecções Meningocócicas/epidemiologia , Neisseria meningitidis/isolamento & purificação , Sorotipagem , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , República da Geórgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Infecções Meningocócicas/sangue , Infecções Meningocócicas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Infecções Meningocócicas/diagnóstico
2.
Georgian Med News ; (184-185): 44-50, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20834075

RESUMO

In summer of 2009, During the period of 20-June - 31-August in total 32 patients with the clinical diagnosis of bacterial meningitis were hospitalized in two hospitals of Tbilisi (Center for Infectious Pathologies and Iashvili Child Clinic). Within a week's time (13 July-19 July) 9 persons with suspected cases of bacterial meningitis were hospitalized in both clinic. Our attention was attracted by the increased number of hospitalized patients within non-seasonal period. Goal of investigation was to establish the extent of the outbreak, to detect possible exposures, and to establish recommendations for prevention activities of disease. For laboratory confirmation cerebral spinal fluid biochemical and bacteriological (culturing) testing was used, but no single causative agent was isolated. To detect risk factors patients' were interviewed. 78.5% (25) of the hospitalized persons were under 14 years of age, and among them--70% (22) preschool children. The most common exposure identified through the interviews with patients included active or passive exposure to tobacco smoking (38%), an existence of the recent upper respiratory infection (31%), and attending crowded places (23%). Since causative agents were not isolated, we were not able to establish whether the increasing number of disease was caused from different etiologic pathogens or from single agent. We were not able to establish the presence of an outbreak since no single causative agent was isolated. Previous use of antibiotics remains the only likely reason for low detection of the pathogen. Detected risk-factors for distribution of disease were smoking, existence of the recent upper respiratory infection, and attending crowded places. In order to control increasing number of bacterial meningitis, improving basic laboratory diagnosis by implementing advanced methods that are not affected by the prior use of antibiotics, such as serological testing might be crucial, as well as increasing awareness of population about risk factors of bacterial meningitis and importance of early seeking medical care.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Meningites Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , República da Geórgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
3.
Georgian Med News ; (163): 47-53, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18997254

RESUMO

Based on long term (1960-1990) surveillance data analysis of the plague natural foci activity on the territory of Georgia hypothetical parameters of epizootic activity algorithm have been revealed and potential role for susceptibility of noncultivated forms in the ecology of plague has been suggested. The article emphasizes the importance of circumstances, when reversal of noncultivated forms of Y. pestis creates real opportunity of microfoci development, however lack of appropriate density of rodent's population and index of abundance limit this process and do not allow initiation of epizootic processes. It is suggested that in case of surveillance of the plague foci, along with another factors more attention should be paid to identification of "additional" reservoirs and vectors, and also determine conditions, under such, they could be connected to epizootic processes. Significance of the study of influence Mingenchaury reservoir on the ecology of plain- foothill foci of plague has been also pointed out. Special attention is devoted to the fact that now when global scale of terrorism is taking place; it becomes extremely important to work toward the ensuring of biosecurity. A possibility of using biological weapons not only for bioterrorism but also for biodiversity, without much publicity for responsibility for the completed action, has been also discussed. In this case selected infectious agent is usually not exotic for the given country or region. Considering all stated above, it is becoming clear, that it is important to have strong monitoring on the natural foci of plague and detailed molecular-biological passportisation of Y. pestis strains circulating in these foci.


Assuntos
Peste , Animais , República da Geórgia , História do Século XX , Incidência , Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/história , Peste/microbiologia , Roedores
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