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1.
Neurogenetics ; 20(4): 209-213, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372774

RESUMO

Regulation of neuronal connectivity and synaptic communication are key to proper functioning of the brain. The Netrin-G subfamily and their cognate receptors are vertebrate-specific synaptic cell adhesion molecules with a role in synapse establishment and function, which seem to have co-evolved to contribute to higher brain functions. We identified a homozygous frameshift variant in NTNG2 (NM_032536.3: c.376dup), encoding Netrin-G2, in eight individuals from four families with global developmental delay, hypotonia, secondary microcephaly, and autistic features. Comparison of haplotypes established this as a founder variant. Previous studies showed that Ntng2-knockout mice have impaired visual, auditory, and motor coordination abilities required for demanding tasks, as well as possible spatial learning and memory deficits. Knockout of Ntng2 in a cellular model resulted in short neurites, and knockout of its trans-synaptic partner Ngl2/Lrrc4 in mice revealed autistic-like behavior and reduced NMDAR synaptic plasticity. The Ngl2/Lrrc4-knockout mouse phenotype was rescued by NMDAR activation, suggesting a mechanistic link to autism spectrum disorder. We thus propose NTNG2 as a candidate disease gene and provide further support for the involvement of Netrin-G2 in neuropsychiatric phenotypes.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 48-64, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178128

RESUMO

We report biallelic missense and frameshift pathogenic variants in the gene encoding human nucleoporin NUP214 causing acute febrile encephalopathy. Clinical symptoms include neurodevelopmental regression, seizures, myoclonic jerks, progressive microcephaly, and cerebellar atrophy. NUP214 and NUP88 protein levels were reduced in primary skin fibroblasts derived from affected individuals, while the total number and density of nuclear pore complexes remained normal. Nuclear transport assays exhibited defects in the classical protein import and mRNA export pathways in affected cells. Direct surface imaging of fibroblast nuclei by scanning electron microscopy revealed a large increase in the presence of central particles (known as "plugs") in the nuclear pore channels of affected cells. This observation suggests that large transport cargoes may be delayed in passage through the nuclear pore channel, affecting its selective barrier function. Exposure of fibroblasts from affected individuals to heat shock resulted in a marked delay in their stress response, followed by a surge in apoptotic cell death. This suggests a mechanistic link between decreased cell survival in cell culture and severe fever-induced brain damage in affected individuals. Our study provides evidence by direct imaging at the single nuclear pore level of functional changes linked to a human disease.

3.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(8): 1315-1319, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976112

RESUMO

The transforming growth factor-beta (TGFß) signaling pathway is essential for palatogenesis and retinal development. Glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP), encoded by LRRC32, is a TGFß cell surface receptor that has been studied primarily in the context of cellular immunity. We identified a homozygous stop-gain variant in LRRC32 (c.1630C>T; p.(Arg544Ter)) in two families with developmental delay, cleft palate, and proliferative retinopathy. Garp-null mice have palate defects and die within 24 h after birth. Our study establishes LRRC32 as a candidate disease-associated gene in humans and lends further support to the role of the TGFß pathway in palatogenesis and retinal development.

4.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(9): 1419-1426, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976113

RESUMO

The ATP/GTP-Binding Protein 1 (AGTPBP1) gene (OMIM *606830) catalyzes deglutamylation of polyglutamylated proteins, and its deficiency manifests by cerebellar ataxia and peripheral neuropathy in mice and lower motor neuron-like disease in sheep. In the mutant mice, cerebellar atrophy due to Purkinje cell degeneration is observed, likely due to increased tubulin polyglutamylation in affected brain areas. We report two unrelated individuals who presented with early onset cerebellar atrophy, developmental arrest with progressive muscle weakness, and feeding and respiratory difficulties, accompanied by severe motor neuronopathy. Whole exome sequencing followed by segregation analysis in the families and cDNA studies revealed deleterious biallelic variants in the AGTPBP1 gene. We conclude that complete loss-of-function of AGTPBP1 in humans, just like in mice and sheep, is associated with cerebellar and motor neuron disease, reminiscent of Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia Type 1 (PCH1).

5.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 12, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental disorders are genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous encompassing developmental delay (DD), intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), structural brain abnormalities, and neurological manifestations with variants in a large number of genes (hundreds) associated. To date, a few de novo mutations potentially disrupting TCF20 function in patients with ID, ASD, and hypotonia have been reported. TCF20 encodes a transcriptional co-regulator structurally related to RAI1, the dosage-sensitive gene responsible for Smith-Magenis syndrome (deletion/haploinsufficiency) and Potocki-Lupski syndrome (duplication/triplosensitivity). METHODS: Genome-wide analyses by exome sequencing (ES) and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) identified individuals with heterozygous, likely damaging, loss-of-function alleles in TCF20. We implemented further molecular and clinical analyses to determine the inheritance of the pathogenic variant alleles and studied the spectrum of phenotypes. RESULTS: We report 25 unique inactivating single nucleotide variants/indels (1 missense, 1 canonical splice-site variant, 18 frameshift, and 5 nonsense) and 4 deletions of TCF20. The pathogenic variants were detected in 32 patients and 4 affected parents from 31 unrelated families. Among cases with available parental samples, the variants were de novo in 20 instances and inherited from 4 symptomatic parents in 5, including in one set of monozygotic twins. Two pathogenic loss-of-function variants were recurrent in unrelated families. Patients presented with a phenotype characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, variable dysmorphic features, movement disorders, and sleep disturbances. CONCLUSIONS: TCF20 pathogenic variants are associated with a novel syndrome manifesting clinical characteristics similar to those observed in Smith-Magenis syndrome. Together with previously described cases, the clinical entity of TCF20-associated neurodevelopmental disorders (TAND) emerges from a genotype-driven perspective.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Mutação INDEL , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Hipotonia Muscular/patologia , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
6.
Blood Adv ; 3(6): 862-868, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885997

RESUMO

Osteopetrosis (OP) is a rare disease caused by defective osteoclast differentiation or function. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative treatment available in the infantile "malignant" form of OP. Improved clinical and genetic diagnosis of OP has seen the emergence of a cohort of patients with less severe and heterogeneous clinical presentations. This intermediate form of OP does not call for urgent intervention, but patients accumulate debilitating skeletal complications over years and decades, which are severe enough to require curative treatment and may also require intermittent transfusion of blood products. Here we present data from 7 patients with intermediate OP caused by mutations in TCIRG1 (n = 2), CLCN7 (n = 2), RANK (n = 1), SNX10 (n = 1), and CA2 (n = 1), who were transplanted between the ages of 5 to 30 years (mean, 15; median, 12). Donors were matched siblings or family (n = 4), matched unrelated (n = 2), or HLA haploidentical family donors (n = 1). Conditioning was fludarabine and treosulfan based. All 6 patients transplanted from matched donors are currently alive with a follow-up period between 1 and 8 years at time of publication (median, 4 years) and have demonstrated a significant improvement in symptoms and quality of life. Patients with intermediate OP should be considered for HSCT.

8.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(7): 1072-1080, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770860

RESUMO

Here, we describe a single patient from a consanguineous family, who suffers from developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypermetropia, moderate alternating esotropia, unsteady gait, and peripheral polyneuropathy. Brain MRI revealed basal ganglia disease. Exome analysis disclosed a homozygous variant, c.452G>C (p.(Arg151Thr)), in TID1, encoding a mitochondrial J-protein chaperone that is known for its function in assisting the Hsp70 chaperone, mortalin, in mediating the refolding of denatured protein and dissolving protein aggregates. Results from in vitro import assays showed that both wild type and c.452G>C (p.(Arg151Thr)) are efficiently imported into isolated mitochondria. However, the import rate of the c.452G>C (p.(Arg151Thr)) variant was less than that of the wild-type protein. In the second part of this study, we demonstrated, in vitro, that the disaggregation function of the mortalin/Tid1 team is compromised in the TID1 c.452G>C (p.(Arg151Thr)) variant, as its chaperone activity has a level similar to that of the non-functional H→Q HPD domain variant. The results shed light on the essential function played by Tid1 during neuronal development.

9.
EMBO Mol Med ; 11(3)2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804083

RESUMO

The deubiquitinase OTULIN removes methionine-1 (M1)-linked polyubiquitin signals conjugated by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) and is critical for preventing TNF-driven inflammation in OTULIN-related autoinflammatory syndrome (ORAS). Five ORAS patients have been reported, but how dysregulated M1-linked polyubiquitin signalling causes their symptoms is unclear. Here, we report a new case of ORAS in which an OTULIN-Gly281Arg mutation leads to reduced activity and stability in vitro and in cells. In contrast to OTULIN-deficient monocytes, in which TNF signalling and NF-κB activation are increased, loss of OTULIN in patient-derived fibroblasts leads to a reduction in LUBAC levels and an impaired response to TNF Interestingly, both patient-derived fibroblasts and OTULIN-deficient monocytes are sensitised to certain types of TNF-induced death, and apoptotic cells are evident in ORAS patient skin lesions. Remarkably, haematopoietic stem cell transplantation leads to complete resolution of inflammatory symptoms, including fevers, panniculitis and diarrhoea. Therefore, haematopoietic cells are necessary for clinical manifestation of ORAS Together, our data suggest that ORAS pathogenesis involves hyper-inflammatory immune cells and TNF-induced death of both leukocytes and non-haematopoietic cells.

10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 708, 2019 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755616

RESUMO

Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (ARSs) link specific amino acids with their cognate transfer RNAs in a critical early step of protein translation. Mutations in ARSs have emerged as a cause of recessive, often complex neurological disease traits. Here we report an allelic series consisting of seven novel and two previously reported biallelic variants in valyl-tRNA synthetase (VARS) in ten patients with a developmental encephalopathy with microcephaly, often associated with early-onset epilepsy. In silico, in vitro, and yeast complementation assays demonstrate that the underlying pathomechanism of these mutations is most likely a loss of protein function. Zebrafish modeling accurately recapitulated some of the key neurological disease traits. These results provide both genetic and biological insights into neurodevelopmental disease and pave the way for further in-depth research on ARS related recessive disorders and precision therapies.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Valina-tRNA Ligase/genética , Alelos , Animais , Encefalopatias/enzimologia , Encefalopatias/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epilepsia/enzimologia , Epilepsia/genética , Epilepsia/patologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Microcefalia/enzimologia , Microcefalia/patologia , Modelos Moleculares , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/enzimologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Linhagem , Prosencéfalo/patologia , Peixe-Zebra
11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 605, 2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723199

RESUMO

Nuclear envelopathies comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases caused by mutations in genes encoding nuclear envelope proteins. Mutations affecting lamina-associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1) result in two discrete phenotypes of muscular dystrophy and progressive dystonia with cerebellar atrophy. We report 7 patients presenting at birth with severe progressive neurological impairment, bilateral cataract, growth retardation and early lethality. All the patients are homozygous for a nonsense mutation in the TOR1AIP1 gene resulting in the loss of both protein isoforms LAP1B and LAP1C. Patient-derived fibroblasts exhibit changes in nuclear envelope morphology and large nuclear-spanning channels containing trapped cytoplasmic organelles. Decreased and inefficient cellular motility is also observed in these fibroblasts. Our study describes the complete absence of both major human LAP1 isoforms, underscoring their crucial role in early development and organogenesis. LAP1-associated defects may thus comprise a broad clinical spectrum depending on the availability of both isoforms in the nuclear envelope throughout life.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Membrana Nuclear/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Membrana Nuclear/metabolismo , Membrana Nuclear/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo
12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 179-185, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595371

RESUMO

Accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) initiates a stress response mechanism to clear out the unfolded proteins by either facilitating their re-folding or inducing their degradation. When this fails, an apoptotic cascade is initiated so that the affected cell is eliminated. IRE1α is a critical sensor of the unfolded-protein response, essential for initiating the apoptotic signaling. Here, we report an infantile neurodegenerative disorder associated with enhanced activation of IRE1α and increased apoptosis. Three unrelated affected individuals with congenital microcephaly, infantile epileptic encephalopathy, and profound developmental delay were found to carry heterozygous variants (c.932T>C [p.Leu311Ser] or c.935T>C [p.Leu312Pro]) in RNF13, which codes for an IRE1α-interacting protein. Structural modeling predicted that the variants, located on the surface of the protein, would not alter overall protein folding. Accordingly, the abundance of RNF13 and IRE1α was not altered in affected individuals' cells. However, both IRE1α-mediated stress signaling and stress-induced apoptosis were increased in affected individuals' cells. These results indicate that the RNF13 variants confer gain of function to the encoded protein and thereby lead to altered signaling of the ER stress response associated with severe neurodegeneration in infancy.


Assuntos
Cegueira/congênito , Cegueira/genética , Insuficiência de Crescimento/genética , Mutação com Ganho de Função , Heterozigoto , Microcefalia/genética , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Apoptose , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Espasmos Infantis/congênito , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/química , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas
13.
Metab Brain Dis ; 34(2): 557-563, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30637540

RESUMO

D-glycerate 2 kinase (DGK) is an enzyme that mediates the conversion of D-glycerate, an intermediate metabolite of serine and fructose metabolism, to 2-phosphoglycerate. Deficiency of DGK leads to accumulation of D-glycerate in various tissues and its massive excretion in urine. D-glyceric aciduria (DGA) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the GLYCTK gene. The clinical spectrum of DGA is highly variable, ranging from severe progressive infantile encephalopathy to a practically asymptomatic condition. We describe a male patient from a consanguineous Arab family with infantile onset of DGA, characterized by profound psychomotor retardation, progressive microcephaly, intractable seizures, cortical blindness and deafness. Consecutive brain MR imaging showed an evolving brain atrophy, thinning of the corpus callosum and diffuse abnormal white matter signals. Whole exome sequencing identified the homozygous missense variant in the GLYCTK gene [c.455 T > C, NM_145262.3], which affected a highly conserved leucine residue located at a domain of yet unknown function of the enzyme [p.Leu152Pro, NP_660305]. In silico analysis of the variant supported its pathogenicity. A review of the 15 previously reported patients, together with the current one, confirms a clear association between DGA and severe neurological impairment. Yet, future studies of additional patients with DGA are required to better understand the clinical phenotype and pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/metabolismo , Epilepsia/metabolismo , Hiperoxalúria Primária/metabolismo , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/metabolismo , Encefalopatias/genética , Criança , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/genética , Ácidos Glicéricos/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperoxalúria Primária/genética , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Espasmos Infantis/metabolismo
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(2): 566-574, 2019 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587587

RESUMO

We report a patient who presented with congenital hypotonia, hypoventilation, and cerebellar histopathological alterations. Exome analysis revealed a homozygous mutation in the initiation codon of the NME3 gene, which encodes an NDP kinase. The initiation-codon mutation leads to deficiency in NME3 protein expression. NME3 is a mitochondrial outer-membrane protein capable of interacting with MFN1/2, and its depletion causes dysfunction in mitochondrial dynamics. Consistently, the patient's fibroblasts were characterized by a slow rate of mitochondrial dynamics, which was reversed by expression of wild-type or catalytic-dead NME3. Moreover, glucose starvation caused mitochondrial fragmentation and cell death in the patient's cells. The expression of wild-type and catalytic-dead but not oligomerization-attenuated NME3 restored mitochondrial elongation. However, only wild-type NME3 sustained ATP production and viability. Thus, the separate functions of NME3 in mitochondrial fusion and NDP kinase cooperate in metabolic adaptation for cell survival in response to glucose starvation. Given the critical role of mitochondrial dynamics and energy requirements in neuronal development, the homozygous mutation in NME3 is linked to a fatal mitochondrial neurodegenerative disorder.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Homozigoto , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/genética , Nucleosídeo NM23 Difosfato Quinases , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Trifosfato de Adenosina/genética , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Nucleosídeo NM23 Difosfato Quinases/genética , Nucleosídeo NM23 Difosfato Quinases/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/enzimologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia
15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2018 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30244534

RESUMO

De novo mutations of the TRIM8 gene, which codes for a tripartite motif protein, have been identified using whole exome sequencing (WES) in two patients with epileptic encephalopathy (EE), but these reports were not sufficient to conclude that TRIM8 was a novel gene responsible for EE. Here we report four additional patients presenting with EE and de novo truncating mutations of TRIM8 detected by WES, and give further details of the patient previously reported by the Epi4K consortium. Epilepsy of variable severity was diagnosed in children aged 2 months to 3.5 years of age. All patients had developmental delay of variable severity with no or very limited language, often associated with behavioral anomalies and unspecific facial features or MRI brain abnormalities. The phenotypic variability observed in these patients appeared related to the severity of the epilepsy. One patient presented pharmacoresistant EE with regression, recurrent infections and nephrotic syndrome, compatible with the brain and kidney expression of TRIM8. Interestingly, all mutations were located at the highly conserved C-terminus section of TRIM8. This collaborative study confirms that TRIM8 is a novel gene responsible for EE, possibly associated with nephrotic syndrome. This report brings new evidence on the pathogenicity of TRIM8 mutations and highlights the value of data-sharing to delineate the phenotypic characteristics and biological basis of extremely rare disorders.

16.
Brain ; 141(9): 2576-2591, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107533

RESUMO

Synaptotagmin 1 (SYT1) is a critical mediator of fast, synchronous, calcium-dependent neurotransmitter release and also modulates synaptic vesicle endocytosis. This paper describes 11 patients with de novo heterozygous missense mutations in SYT1. All mutations alter highly conserved residues, and cluster in two regions of the SYT1 C2B domain at positions Met303 (M303K), Asp304 (D304G), Asp366 (D366E), Ile368 (I368T) and Asn371 (N371K). Phenotypic features include infantile hypotonia, congenital ophthalmic abnormalities, childhood-onset hyperkinetic movement disorders, motor stereotypies, and developmental delay varying in severity from moderate to profound. Behavioural characteristics include sleep disturbance and episodic agitation. Absence of epileptic seizures and normal orbitofrontal head circumference are important negative features. Structural MRI is unremarkable but EEG disturbance is universal, characterized by intermittent low frequency high amplitude oscillations. The functional impact of these five de novo SYT1 mutations has been assessed by expressing rat SYT1 protein containing the equivalent human variants in wild-type mouse primary hippocampal cultures. All mutant forms of SYT1 were expressed at levels approximately equal to endogenous wild-type protein, and correctly localized to nerve terminals at rest, except for SYT1M303K, which was expressed at a lower level and failed to localize at nerve terminals. Following stimulation, SYT1I368T and SYT1N371K relocalized to nerve terminals at least as efficiently as wild-type SYT1. However, SYT1D304G and SYT1D366E failed to relocalize to nerve terminals following stimulation, indicative of impairments in endocytic retrieval and trafficking of SYT1. In addition, the presence of SYT1 variants at nerve terminals induced a slowing of exocytic rate following sustained action potential stimulation. The extent of disturbance to synaptic vesicle kinetics is mirrored by the severity of the affected individuals' phenotypes, suggesting that the efficiency of SYT1-mediated neurotransmitter release is critical to cognitive development. In summary, de novo dominant SYT1 missense mutations are associated with a recognizable neurodevelopmental syndrome, and further cases can now be diagnosed based on clinical features, electrophysiological signature and mutation characteristics. Variation in phenotype severity may reflect mutation-specific impact on the diverse physiological functions of SYT1.

17.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(12): 1773-1783, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089820

RESUMO

ST3GAL3 encodes the Golgi enzyme beta-galactoside-alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase-III that in humans forms, among others, the sialyl Lewis a (sLea) epitope on proteins. Functionally deleterious variants in this gene were previously identified in patients with either non-syndromic or syndromic intellectual disability such as West syndrome, an age-dependent epileptic encephalopathic syndrome associated with developmental arrest or regression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate the molecular and cellular mechanisms causing West syndrome by lack of ST3GAL3 function. For this purpose we generated induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from fibroblasts obtained from a patient with West syndrome, carrying a variant in exon 12 (c.958G>C, p.(Ala320Pro)) of ST3GAL3, and a healthy sibling, using lentiviral reprogramming. iPSCs and cortical neurons derived thereof were analysed by lectin blots, mRNA sequencing, adherence assays, and FACS. While no significant difference was observed at stem cell or fibroblast level between patient and control cells, patient-derived cortical neurons displayed an altered lectin blot staining pattern, enhanced adherence to a poly-L-ornithine/laminin-coated surface and decreased levels of neurons expressing T-box transcription factor brain 1. Our results suggest that changes in the sialylation pattern on the surface of specific neuronal cell types affect adhesive interactions during development, which in turn may cause subtle changes in tissue composition that could result in the occurrence of epilepsy and might impair neural development to an extent that is detrimental to the development and maintenance of normal cognitive functions.

18.
PLoS Genet ; 14(8): e1007602, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30148830

RESUMO

The clinical spectrum of ciliopathies affecting motile cilia spans impaired mucociliary clearance in the respiratory system, laterality defects including heart malformations, infertility and hydrocephalus. Using linkage analysis and whole exome sequencing, we identified two recessive loss-of-function MNS1 mutations in five individuals from four consanguineous families: 1) a homozygous nonsense mutation p.Arg242* in four males with laterality defects and infertility and 2) a homozygous nonsense mutation p.Gln203* in one female with laterality defects and recurrent respiratory infections additionally carrying homozygous mutations in DNAH5. Consistent with the laterality defects observed in these individuals, we found Mns1 to be expressed in mouse embryonic ventral node. Immunofluorescence analysis further revealed that MNS1 localizes to the axonemes of respiratory cilia as well as sperm flagella in human. In-depth ultrastructural analyses confirmed a subtle outer dynein arm (ODA) defect in the axonemes of respiratory epithelial cells resembling findings reported in Mns1-deficient mice. Ultrastructural analyses in the female carrying combined mutations in MNS1 and DNAH5 indicated a role for MNS1 in the process of ODA docking (ODA-DC) in the distal respiratory axonemes. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation and yeast two hybrid analyses demonstrated that MNS1 dimerizes and interacts with the ODA docking complex component CCDC114. Overall, we demonstrate that MNS1 deficiency in humans causes laterality defects (situs inversus) and likely male infertility and that MNS1 plays a role in the ODA-DC assembly.

19.
Neurogenetics ; 19(4): 227-235, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30043326

RESUMO

The major facilitator superfamily domain-containing protein 2A (MFSD2A) is a constituent of the blood-brain barrier and functions to transport lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) into the central nervous system. LPCs such as that derived from docosahexanoic acid (DHA) are indispensable to neurogenesis and maintenance of neurons, yet cannot be synthesized within the brain and are dependent on MFSD2A for brain uptake. Recent studies have implicated MFSD2A mutations in lethal and non-lethal microcephaly syndromes, with the severity correlating to the residual activity of the transporter. We describe two siblings with shared parental ancestry, in whom we identified a homozygous missense mutation (c.1205C > A; p.Pro402His) in MFSD2A. Both affected individuals had microcephaly, hypotonia, appendicular spasticity, dystonia, strabismus, and global developmental delay. Neuroimaging revealed paucity of white matter with enlarged lateral ventricles. Plasma lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) levels were elevated, reflecting reduced brain transport. Cell-based studies of the p.Pro402His mutant protein indicated complete loss of activity of the transporter despite the non-lethal, attenuated phenotype. The aggregate data of MFSD2A-associated genotypes and phenotypes suggest that additional factors, such as nutritional supplementation or modifying genetic factors, may modulate the severity of disease and call for consideration of treatment options for affected individuals.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29947050

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the indications and diagnostic outcomes of fetal exomes in a single referral center. METHODS: 77 unrelated fetal samples underwent exome sequencing between 2012-2017. Indications, turnaround time, diagnostic rates, and pregnancy outcomes were investigated. RESULTS: The most common indication for fetal exome sequencing was multiple malformations (21/77, 27%), followed by isolated brain malformations (15/77, 19%). Twelve fetuses (15%) were referred for isolated increased nuchal translucency (IINT). Exome analysis was diagnostic for 16 fetuses (21%); when sub-classified to fetal malformations vs. IINT it became clear that exome analysis did not reveal any known or probable pathogenic variants in IINT whereas among the remaining fetuses, a molecular diagnosis was reached in 16/65 (25%). Proband-only cases received a diagnosis more often than trio exomes. CONCLUSION: Exome sequencing has the potential to provide molecular diagnoses in cases where conventional prenatal cytogenetic testing is negative. A referral bias of consanguineous cases could account for the high diagnostic rate for proband-only sequencing. Syndrome-specific prognostic information enables parents to make informed decisions, whereas challenges include time limitations and variant interpretation in the setting of non-specific fetal findings. As we report only established disease-gene associations, further segregation and functional studies in a research setting are expected to significantly increase the diagnostic yield. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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