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1.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(10): 2138-2143, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290619

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive COX4I1 deficiency has been previously reported in a single individual with a homozygous pathogenic variant in COX4I1, who presented with short stature, poor weight gain, dysmorphic features, and features of Fanconi anemia. COX4I1 encodes subunit 4, isoform 1 of cytochrome c oxidase. Cytochrome c oxidase is a respiratory chain enzyme that plays an important role in mitochondrial electron transport and reduces molecular oxygen to water leading to the formation of ATP. Defective production of cytochrome c oxidase leads to a variable phenotypic spectrum ranging from isolated myopathy to Leigh syndrome. Here, we describe two siblings, born to consanguineous parents, who presented with encephalopathy, developmental regression, hypotonia, pathognomonic brain imaging findings resembling Leigh-syndrome, and a novel homozygous variant on COX4I1, expanding the known clinical phenotype associated with pathogenic variants in COX4I1.

2.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 395, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many genome-wide association studies have detected genomic regions associated with traits, yet understanding the functional causes of association often remains elusive. Utilizing systems approaches and focusing on intermediate molecular phenotypes might facilitate biologic understanding. RESULTS: The availability of exome sequencing of two populations of African-Americans and European-Americans from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study allowed us to investigate the effects of annotated loss-of-function (LoF) mutations on 122 serum metabolites. To assess the findings, we built metabolomic causal networks for each population separately and utilized structural equation modeling. We then validated our findings with a set of independent samples. By use of methods based on concepts of Mendelian randomization of genetic variants, we showed that some of the affected metabolites are risk predictors in the causal pathway of disease. For example, LoF mutations in the gene KIAA1755 were identified to elevate the levels of eicosapentaenoate (p-value = 5E-14), an essential fatty acid clinically identified to increase essential hypertension. We showed that this gene is in the pathway to triglycerides, where both triglycerides and essential hypertension are risk factors of metabolomic disorder and heart attack. We also identified that the gene CLDN17, harboring loss-of-function mutations, had pleiotropic actions on metabolites from amino acid and lipid pathways. CONCLUSION: Using systems biology approaches for the analysis of metabolomics and genetic data, we integrated several biological processes, which lead to findings that may functionally connect genetic variants with complex diseases.


Assuntos
Pleiotropia Genética , Genoma Humano , Metaboloma/genética , Metabolômica , Mutação , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Afro-Americanos/genética , Algoritmos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Humanos
3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(6): 1015-1019, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864297

RESUMO

Ethylmalonic encephalopathy (EE) is a rapidly progressive autosomal recessive mitochondrial disease caused by biallelic pathogenic variants in the ETHE1 gene that encodes the mitochondrial sulfur dioxygenase. It is characterized by neurodevelopmental delay and regression, pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs, recurrent petechiae, chronic diarrhea, and orthostatic acrocyanosis. Laboratory findings include elevated serum levels of lactate and C4-C5 acylcarnitines, and elevated urinary excretion of ethylmalonic acid and C4-C6 acylglycines, notably isobutyrylglycine and 2-methylbutyrylglycine. These findings are attributed to deficiency of the mitochondrial sulfur dioxygenase resulting in toxic accumulation of hydrogen sulfide metabolites in vascular endothelium and mucosal cells of the large intestine. Medical management has thus far been directed toward decreasing the accumulation of hydrogen sulfide metabolites using a combination of metronidazole and N-acetylcysteine. More recently, orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) has been reported as a new therapeutic option for EE. Here, we report two additional cases of EE who achieved psychomotor developmental improvement after 7- and 22-months following OLT. The second case serves as the longest developmental outcome follow-up reported, thus far, following OLT for EE. This report provides additional evidence to validate OLT as a promising therapeutic approach for what was considered to be a fatal disease.

4.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 12, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental disorders are genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous encompassing developmental delay (DD), intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), structural brain abnormalities, and neurological manifestations with variants in a large number of genes (hundreds) associated. To date, a few de novo mutations potentially disrupting TCF20 function in patients with ID, ASD, and hypotonia have been reported. TCF20 encodes a transcriptional co-regulator structurally related to RAI1, the dosage-sensitive gene responsible for Smith-Magenis syndrome (deletion/haploinsufficiency) and Potocki-Lupski syndrome (duplication/triplosensitivity). METHODS: Genome-wide analyses by exome sequencing (ES) and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) identified individuals with heterozygous, likely damaging, loss-of-function alleles in TCF20. We implemented further molecular and clinical analyses to determine the inheritance of the pathogenic variant alleles and studied the spectrum of phenotypes. RESULTS: We report 25 unique inactivating single nucleotide variants/indels (1 missense, 1 canonical splice-site variant, 18 frameshift, and 5 nonsense) and 4 deletions of TCF20. The pathogenic variants were detected in 32 patients and 4 affected parents from 31 unrelated families. Among cases with available parental samples, the variants were de novo in 20 instances and inherited from 4 symptomatic parents in 5, including in one set of monozygotic twins. Two pathogenic loss-of-function variants were recurrent in unrelated families. Patients presented with a phenotype characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, variable dysmorphic features, movement disorders, and sleep disturbances. CONCLUSIONS: TCF20 pathogenic variants are associated with a novel syndrome manifesting clinical characteristics similar to those observed in Smith-Magenis syndrome. Together with previously described cases, the clinical entity of TCF20-associated neurodevelopmental disorders (TAND) emerges from a genotype-driven perspective.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Mutação INDEL , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Hipotonia Muscular/patologia , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850373

RESUMO

DNM1L encodes a GTPase of the dynamin superfamily, which plays a crucial role in mitochondrial and peroxisomal fission. Pathogenic variants affecting the middle domain and the GTPase domain of DNM1L have been implicated in encephalopathy because of defective mitochondrial and peroxisomal fission 1 (EMPF1, MIM #614388). Patients show variable phenotypes ranging from severe hypotonia leading to death in the neonatal period to developmental delay/regression, with or without seizures. Familial pathogenic variants in the GTPase domain have also been associated with isolated optic atrophy. We present a 27-yr-old woman with static encephalopathy, a history of seizures, and nystagmus, in whom a novel de novo heterozygous variant was detected in the GTPase effector domain (GED) of DNM1L (c.2072A>G, p.Tyr691Cys). Functional studies in Drosophila demonstrate large, abnormally distributed peroxisomes and mitochondria, an effect very similar to that of middle domain missense alleles observed in pediatric subjects with EMPF1. To our knowledge, not only is this the first report of a disease-causing variant in the GED domain in humans, but this is also the oldest living individual reported with EMPF1. Longitudinal data of this kind helps to expand our knowledge of the natural history of a growing list of DNM1L-related disorders.

6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(5): 782-791, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848064

RESUMO

The 2q37 deletion syndrome, also described in the literature as brachydactyly-mental retardation syndrome (MIM 600430), is caused by deletion or haploinsufficiency of the HDAC4 gene, which encodes the histone deacetylase 4 protein. Although the most commonly described hallmark features of the 2q37 deletion syndrome include brachydactyly type E, developmental delay, obesity, autistic features, and craniofacial or skeletal dysmorphism, a literature review of 101 published cases plus two newly reported individuals indicates that there is a high degree of variability in the presence of some of the features that are considered the most characteristic of the syndrome: overweight and obesity (34%), cognitive-behavioral issues (79%), dysmorphic craniofacial features (86%), and type E brachydactyly (48%). These features overlap with other neurodevelopmental conditions, including Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), and may be incompletely penetrant or demonstrate variable expressivity, depending on the specific chromosomal anomaly. With the advent of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), array-based comparative genomic hybridization, and next-generation DNA sequencing, more detailed molecular diagnoses are possible than in years past, enabling refined characterization of the genotype-phenotype correlation for subjects with 2q37 deletions. In addition, investigations into molecular and gene expression networks are expanding in neurodevelopmental conditions, and we surveyed HDAC4 downstream gene expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, further implicating HDAC4 in its role in the regulation of RAI1. Correlation of clinical data defining the impact on downstream gene expression and the potential clinical associations across neurodevelopment will improve our understanding of these complex conditions and potentially lead to common therapeutic approaches.

7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(5): 803-807, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848071

RESUMO

Short chain enoyl-CoA hydratase (SCEH) deficiency leads to a severe form of autosomal recessive Leigh syndrome with inevitable neurological decline and early mortality. SCEH is most notably involved in valine catabolism, a deficiency of which results in various metabolic alterations, including increased levels of the highly reactive metabolite 2-methacrylyl-CoA. With no proven treatments available to date, it has been speculated that patients may respond to a valine restricted diet and/or N-acetylcysteine supplementation, as suggested by early studies of a very similar inborn error of metabolism, 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase deficiency. We describe a patient with typical Leigh syndrome clinical findings and identified compound heterozygous variants in ECSH1. Valine-restricted diet was initiated at 6 months of age and N-acetylcysteine supplementation at 9 months with subsequent improvement in growth and slow progress in developmental milestones. However, at 15 months, the patient aspirated during a breakthrough seizure from which he did not recover and died soon after from related complications. This report highlights some of the challenges that remain in the management and treatment of SCEH deficiency, while demonstrating that a valine restricted diet and N-acetylcysteine can be safely administered with the potential for clinical improvement.

9.
Clin Genet ; 95(4): 462-478, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677142

RESUMO

Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, specific facial features, and marked autonomic nervous system dysfunction, especially with disturbances of regulating respiration and intestinal mobility. It is caused by variants in the transcription factor TCF4. Heterogeneity in the clinical and molecular diagnostic criteria and care practices has prompted a group of international experts to establish guidelines for diagnostics and care. For issues, for which there was limited information available in international literature, we collaborated with national support groups and the participants of a syndrome specific international conference to obtain further information. Here, we discuss the resultant consensus, including the clinical definition of PTHS and a molecular diagnostic pathway. Recommendations for managing particular health problems such as dysregulated respiration are provided. We emphasize the need for integration of care for physical and behavioral issues. The recommendations as presented here will need to be evaluated for improvements to allow for continued optimization of diagnostics and care.

10.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(3): 509-518, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684275

RESUMO

Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D) is a multi-organ autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in LIPA. We reviewed data from 681 samples (white blood cells [WBC] n = 625, fibroblasts = 30, liver = 4, amniocytes = 13, chorionic villus = 9) received for analysis of lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) activity over a 15-year period. LIPA sequencing was performed in 49 patients with reduced (n = 26) or deficient (n = 23) LAL activity. The Exome Aggregation Consortium and Genome Aggregation Database dataset were used for LAL-D prevalence calculations. LAL WBC activity was reduced in 67 patients (10.72%) and deficient in 37 (5.92%). The average of LAL activity ± margin of error (CI 95%) was 19.32 ± 0.86 pmol/min/mg for reduced activity patients and 5.90 ± 1.42 pmol/min/mg for deficient patients. The average age at diagnosis for LAL-D was 23.6 years with several patients older than age 30. The correlation between the age at diagnosis and LAL activity showed a significant moderate direct correlation (Pearson's r = 0.46, P < 0.005). Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations were identified in 9 out of 23 patients with deficient results (detection rate 39.1%). The average LAL activity in molecularly confirmed patients was 4.02 ± 2.02 pmol/min/mg protein, while in molecularly negative patients was 13.886 ± 1.49 pmol/min/mg (P < 0.0001). Twenty-two different mutations were identified including two novel variants (c.309C>A and c.856G>C). A carrier frequency of approximately 1 in 350 was inferred. LAL activity in WBC is a validated tool for LAL-D diagnosis. Higher residual enzymatic activity might result in a milder phenotype leading to diagnosis delay. A cut-off below 12 pmol/min/mg protein might be useful to discriminate patients with LIPA mutations.

11.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 1977-1986, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670878

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Untargeted metabolomic analysis is increasingly being used in the screening and management of individuals with inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). We aimed to test whether untargeted metabolomic analysis in plasma might be useful for monitoring the disease course and management of urea cycle disorders (UCDs). METHODS: Untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic analysis was used to generate z-scores for more than 900 metabolites in plasma from 48 individuals with various UCDs. Pathway analysis was used to identify common pathways that were perturbed in each UCD. RESULTS: Our metabolomic analysis in plasma identified multiple potentially neurotoxic metabolites of arginine in arginase deficiency and, thus, may have utility in monitoring the efficacy of treatment in arginase deficiency. In addition, we were also able to detect multiple biochemical perturbations in all UCDs that likely reflect clinical management, including metabolite alterations secondary to dietary and medication management. CONCLUSION: In addition to utility in screening for IEM, our results suggest that untargeted metabolomic analysis in plasma may be beneficial for monitoring efficacy of clinical management and off-target effects of medications in UCDs and potentially other IEM.

12.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 32(2): 73-78, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557269

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update of the most recent studies on Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) with a focus on the unique pattern of behavioral and sleep disturbances associated with the condition. RECENT FINDINGS: The recent literature on SMS has focused on the characteristic severe behavioral and sleep disturbances. A better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and common clinical course has helped further characterize SMS, while much is left to be discovered in regard to effective treatment/management. SUMMARY: SMS is a difficult to manage genetic condition defined by pervasive and progressive behavioral and sleep disturbances with a unique pattern that can often be easily discerned from other neurodevelopmental disorders. Common behavioral features include maladaptive/self-injurious, aggressive, stereotypic, and the newly appreciated food seeking behaviors associated with SMS. In addition, there is a sleep disturbance defined by an altered circadian rhythm with frequent nighttime waking and daytime sleepiness, causing patients and families significant distress. Small studies have suggested some treatment/management approaches to the behavioral and sleep disturbances, however, much remains to be discovered.

13.
Gastroenterology ; 155(6): 1967-1970.e6, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Despite advances in gene editing technologies, generation of tissue-specific knockout mice is time-consuming. We used CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing to disrupt genes in livers of adult mice in just a few months, which we refer to as somatic liver knockouts. METHODS: In this system, Fah-/- mice are given hydrodynamic tail vein injections of plasmids carrying CRISPR/Cas9 designed to excise exons in Hpd; the Hpd-edited hepatocytes have a survival advantage in these mice. Plasmids that target Hpd and a separate gene of interest can therefore be used to rapidly generate mice with liver-specific deletion of nearly any gene product. RESULTS: We used this system to create mice with liver-specific knockout of argininosuccinate lyase, which develop hyperammonemia, observed in humans with mutations in this gene. We also created mice with liver-specific knockout of ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 11, which encodes the bile salt export pump. We found that these mice have a biochemical phenotype similar to that of Abcb11-/- mice. We then used this system to knock out expression of 5 different enzymes involved in drug metabolism within the same mouse. CONCLUSIONS: This approach might be used to develop new models of liver diseases and study liver functions of genes that are required during development.

14.
J Mass Spectrom ; 53(11): 1143-1154, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30242936

RESUMO

Metabolomics is the untargeted measurement of the metabolome, which is composed of the complement of small molecules detected in a biological sample. As such, metabolomic analysis produces a global biochemical phenotype. It is a technology that has been utilized in the research setting for over a decade. The metabolome is directly linked to and is influenced by genetics, epigenetics, environmental factors, and the microbiome-all of which affect health. Metabolomics can be applied to human clinical diagnostics and to other fields such as veterinary medicine, nutrition, exercise, physiology, agriculture/plant biochemistry, and toxicology. Applications of metabolomics in clinical testing are emerging, but several aspects of its use as a clinical test differ from applications focused on research or biomarker discovery and need to be considered for metabolomics clinical test data to have optimum impact, be meaningful, and be used responsibly. In this review, we deconstruct aspects and challenges of metabolomics for clinical testing by illustrating the significance of test design, accurate and precise data acquisition, quality control, data processing, n-of-1 comparison to a reference population, and biochemical pathway analysis. We describe how metabolomics technology is integral to defining individual biochemical phenotypes, elaborates on human health and disease, and fits within the precision medicine landscape. Finally, we conclude by outlining some future steps needed to bring metabolomics into the clinical space and to be recognized by the broader medical and regulatory fields.

15.
Bioanalysis ; 10(10): 747-756, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29774761

RESUMO

AIM: Molybdenum co-factor deficiencies and isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency are rare autosomal recessively inherited diseases characterized by severe psychomotor impairment, intractable seizures, dislocated lens and dysmorphic facial features. The biochemical diagnosis of these diseases requires the determination of urine sulfocysteine. MATERIALS & METHODS: Urine sulfocysteine was quantified by an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-MS/MS assay. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery and stability. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: Total imprecision of accuracy was less than 6%. Intra-assay and inter-assay precisions were less than 5%. The recovery was higher than 98%. The method is inexpensive, fast, accurate and has been successfully used for identifying five molybdenum co-factor deficient and six sulfite oxidase deficient patients since deployed.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/diagnóstico , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/urina , Cisteína/análogos & derivados , Molibdênio/deficiência , Sulfito Oxidase/deficiência , Urinálise/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Coenzimas/deficiência , Cisteína/urina , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Sulfito Oxidase/urina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(5): 1184-1189, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29681092

RESUMO

Lipoic acid is an essential cofactor for the mitochondrial 2-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes and the glycine cleavage system. Lipoyltransferase 1 catalyzes the covalent attachment of lipoate to these enzyme systems. Pathogenic variants in LIPT1 gene have recently been described in four patients from three families, commonly presenting with severe lactic acidosis resulting in neonatal death and/or poor neurocognitive outcomes. We report a 2-month-old male with severe lactic acidosis, refractory status epilepticus, and brain imaging suggestive of Leigh disease. Exome sequencing implicated compound heterozygous LIPT1 pathogenic variants. We describe the fifth case of LIPT1 deficiency, whose phenotype progressed to that of an early infantile epileptic encephalopathy, which is novel compared to previously described patients whom we will review. Due to the significant biochemical and phenotypic overlap that LIPT1 deficiency and mitochondrial energy cofactor disorders have with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency and/or nonketotic hyperglycinemia, they are and have been presumptively under-diagnosed without exome sequencing.

17.
Genet Med ; 20(10): 1274-1283, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29419819

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Peroxisome biogenesis disorders-Zellweger spectrum disorders (PBD-ZSD) are metabolic diseases with multisystem manifestations. Individuals with PBD-ZSD exhibit impaired peroxisomal biochemical functions and have abnormal levels of peroxisomal metabolites, but the broader metabolic impact of peroxisomal dysfunction and the utility of metabolomic methods is unknown. METHODS: We studied 19 individuals with clinically and molecularly characterized PBD-ZSD. We performed both quantitative peroxisomal biochemical diagnostic studies in parallel with untargeted small molecule metabolomic profiling in plasma samples with detection of >650 named compounds. RESULTS: The cohort represented intermediate to mild PBD-ZSD subjects with peroxisomal biochemical alterations on targeted analysis. Untargeted metabolomic profiling of these samples revealed elevations in pipecolic acid and long-chain lysophosphatidylcholines, as well as an unanticipated reduction in multiple sphingomyelin species. These sphingomyelin reductions observed were consistent across the PBD-ZSD samples and were rare in a population of >1,000 clinical samples. Interestingly, the pattern or "PBD-ZSD metabolome" was more pronounced in younger subjects suggesting studies earlier in life reveal larger biochemical changes. CONCLUSION: Untargeted metabolomics is effective in detecting mild to intermediate cases of PBD-ZSD. Surprisingly, dramatic reductions in plasma sphingomyelin are a consistent feature of the PBD-ZSD metabolome. The use of metabolomics in PBD-ZSD can provide insight into novel biomarkers of disease.

18.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(2): 483-486, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29278455

RESUMO

It is a matter of course that in high-income countries, infants born with features suggestive of Down syndrome (DS) are offered genetic testing for confirmation of a clinical diagnosis. Benefits of a definitive diagnosis include an end to the diagnostic odyssey, informed prognosis, opportunities for caregiver support, inclusion to social support networks, and more meaningful genetic counseling. The healthcare experience for families of children born with DS in low- and middle-income nations is in stark contrast with such a level of care. Barriers to obtaining genetic diagnosis might include economic disparities, geographical isolation, and lack of access to health care professionals trained in genetic medicine. As part of a combined research and community outreach effort, we provided genetic testing for several patients with DS. These individuals and their families live on several resource-limited Caribbean islands and have either limited or virtually no access to medical genetics services. Within this group were three families with recurrent DS. Karyotype established that translocation events were not involved in the DS in any of these families. This information enabled genetic counseling to help family members understand their recurrent DS. A definitive diagnosis of DS is beneficial to families in resource-limited communities and may help to provide such families with genetic counseling, reassurance, and peace of mind.

19.
Mol Genet Metab ; 123(3): 309-316, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29269105

RESUMO

Serine biosynthesis defects are autosomal recessive metabolic disorders resulting from the deficiency of any of the three enzymes involved in de novo serine biosynthesis, specifically phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH), phosphoserine aminotransferase (PSAT), and phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP). In this study, we performed metabolomic profiling on 4 children with serine biosynthesis defects; 3 with PGDH deficiency and 1 with PSAT deficiency. The evaluations were performed at baseline and with serine and glycine supplementation. Metabolomic profiling performed at baseline showed low phospholipid species, including glycerophosphocholine, glycerophosphoethanolamine, and sphingomyelin. All children had low serine and glycine as expected. Low glycerophosphocholine compounds were found in 4 children, low glycerophosphoethanolamine compounds in 3 children, and low sphingomyelin species in 2 children. Metabolic profiling with serine and glycine supplementation showed normalization of most of the low phospholipid compounds in the 4 children. Phospholipids are the major component of plasma and intracellular membranes, and phosphatidylcholine is the most abundant phospholipid of all mammalian cell types and subcellular organelles. Phosphatidylcholine is of particular importance for the nervous system, where it is essential for neuronal differentiation. The observed low phosphatidylcholine species in children with serine biosynthesis defects that improved after serine supplementation, supports the role of serine as a significant precursor for phosphatidylcholine. The vital role that phosphatidylcholine has during neuronal differentiation and the pronounced neurological manifestations in serine biosynthesis defects suggest that phosphatidylcholine deficiency occurring secondary to serine deficiency may have a significant contribution to the development of the neurological manifestations in individuals with serine biosynthesis defects.

20.
PLoS One ; 12(9): e0184022, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28961260

RESUMO

Global metabolomic profiling offers novel opportunities for the discovery of biomarkers and for the elucidation of pathogenic mechanisms that might lead to the development of novel therapies. GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS) is an inborn error of metabolism due to reduced function of glucose transporter type 1. Clinical presentation of GLUT1-DS is heterogeneous and the disorder mirrors patients with epilepsy, movement disorders, or any paroxysmal events or unexplained neurological manifestation triggered by exercise or fasting. The diagnostic biochemical hallmark of the disease is a reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/blood glucose ratio and the only available treatment is ketogenic diet. This study aimed at advancing our understanding of the biochemical perturbations in GLUT1-DS pathogenesis through biochemical phenotyping and the treatment of GLUT1-DS with a ketogenic diet. Metabolomic analysis of three CSF samples from GLUT1-DS patients not on ketogenic diet was feasible inasmuch as CSF sampling was used for diagnosis before to start with ketogenic diet. The analysis of plasma and urine samples obtained from GLUT1-DS patients treated with a ketogenic diet showed alterations in lipid and amino acid profiles. While subtle, these were consistent findings across the patients with GLUT1-DS on ketogenic diet, suggesting impacts on mitochondrial physiology. Moreover, low levels of free carnitine were present suggesting its consumption in GLUT1-DS on ketogenic diet. 3-hydroxybutyrate, 3-hydroxybutyrylcarnitine, 3-methyladipate, and N-acetylglycine were identified as potential biomarkers of GLUT1-DS on ketogenic diet. This is the first study to identify CSF, plasma, and urine metabolites associated with GLUT1-DS, as well as biochemical changes impacted by a ketogenic diet. Potential biomarkers and metabolic insights deserve further investigation.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Dieta Cetogênica , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/deficiência , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Metabolismo Energético , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolômica , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/química , Fenótipo
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