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2.
Anesth Analg ; 132(4): 1138-1145, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidural block are often used for analgesia after open nephrectomy surgery. Subcostal anterior quadratus lumborum block may be an alternative. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the continuous subcostal anterior quadratus lumborum block is noninferior to epidural block for analgesia in patients having open partial nephrectomies. METHODS: Adults having open partial nephrectomies were randomly allocated to epidural or unilateral subcostal anterior quadratus lumborum block. The joint primary outcomes were opioid consumption measured in morphine equivalents and pain measured on a numeric rating scale (0-10) from postanesthesia care unit (PACU) until 72 hours after surgery. The noninferiority deltas were 30% for opioid consumption and 1 point on a 0-10 scale for pain. Secondary outcomes included patient global assessment of pain management on the third postoperative day, the number of antiemetic medication doses through the third postoperative day, duration of PACU stay, and postoperative duration of hospitalization. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were randomized to anterior quadratus lumborum block and 29 to epidural analgesia. Neither pain scores nor opioid consumption in the quadratus lumborum patients were noninferior to epidural analgesia. At 72 hours, mean ± standard deviation pain scores in subcoastal anterior quadratus lumborum block and epidural group were 4.7 ± 1.8 and 4.1 ± 1.7, with an estimated difference in pain scores of 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-1.99; noninferiority P = .21). The median [Q1, Q3] opioid consumption was more than doubled in quadratus lumborum patients at 70 mg [43, 125] versus 30 mg [18, 75] in the epidural group with an estimated ratio of geometric means of 1.69 (95% CI, 0.66-4.33; noninferiority P = .80). Patient global assessment and duration of PACU and hospital stays did not differ significantly in the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: We were unable to show that subcostal anterior quadratus lumborum block are noninferior to epidural analgesia in terms of pain scores and opioid consumption for open partial nephrectomies. Effectiveness of novel blocks should be rigorously tested in specific surgical setting before widespread adoption.


Assuntos
Analgesia Epidural , Nefrectomia , Bloqueio Nervoso , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Analgesia Epidural/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrectomia/efeitos adversos , Bloqueio Nervoso/efeitos adversos , Ohio , Medição da Dor , Limiar da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Ochsner J ; 20(3): 267-271, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071658

RESUMO

Background: Renal autotransplantation is a complex procedure performed for various indications such as treatment of renal vascular and urologic lesions and loin pain hematuria syndrome (LPHS). Because of the rarity of the procedure, few reports have been published, and little is known about anesthetic management and postoperative outcomes of patients with LPHS. The goal of this study was to review and describe all cases of renal autotransplantation performed at Cleveland Clinic during a specified period, focusing on anesthetic management and postoperative 30-day outcomes. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of the records of all patients who underwent renal autotransplantation from 2005 to 2014 at the Cleveland Clinic and collected demographic, anesthetic, surgical, and postoperative data. Results: A total of 64 patients underwent renal autotransplantation from 2005 to 2014. The most frequent indications were nephrolithiasis and LPHS. General endotracheal anesthesia with epidural for pain control was used in 47% of cases. Median duration of anesthesia was 528 minutes. Most patients were sent to a regular nursing floor postoperatively, but 28% of patients required intensive care unit admission. Two patients developed graft ischemia, and 1 patient developed graft failure requiring nephrectomy. No anesthetic-related complications and no mortality were associated with this procedure during the study. Conclusion: Renal autotransplantation is a safe option for patients with LPHS. Additional studies are needed to assess the effect of intraoperative anesthetic management on outcomes in this patient population.

4.
Anesth Analg ; 131(5): 1540-1550, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuous blood pressure monitoring may facilitate early detection and prompt treatment of hypotension. We tested the hypothesis that area under the curve (AUC) mean arterial pressure (MAP) <65 mm Hg is reduced by continuous invasive arterial pressure monitoring. METHODS: Adults having noncardiac surgery were randomly assigned to continuous invasive arterial pressure or intermittent oscillometric blood pressure monitoring. Arterial catheter pressures were recorded at 1-minute intervals; oscillometric pressures were typically recorded at 5-minute intervals. We estimated the arterial catheter effect on AUC-MAP <65 mm Hg using a multivariable proportional odds model adjusting for imbalanced baseline variables and duration of surgery. Pressures <65 mm Hg were categorized as 0, 1-17, 18-91, and >91 mm Hg × minutes of AUC-MAP <65 mm Hg (ie, no hypotension and 3 equally sized groups of increasing hypotension). RESULTS: One hundred fifty-two patients were randomly assigned to arterial catheter use and 154 to oscillometric monitoring. For various clinical reasons, 143 patients received an arterial catheter, while 163 were monitored oscillometrically. There were a median [Q1, Q3] of 246 [187, 308] pressure measurements in patients with arterial catheters versus 55 (46, 75) measurements in patients monitored oscillometrically. In the primary intent-to-treat analysis, catheter-based monitoring increased detection of AUC-MAP <65 mm Hg, with an estimated proportional odds ratio (ie, odds of being in a worse hypotension category) of 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-2.70; P = .006). The result was robust over an as-treated analysis and for sensitivity analyses with thresholds of 60 and 70 mm Hg. CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative blood pressure monitoring with arterial catheters detected nearly twice as much hypotension as oscillometric measurements.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial , Cateteres , Hipotensão/diagnóstico , Complicações Intraoperatórias/diagnóstico , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/terapia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Oscilometria , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Saudi J Anaesth ; 14(3): 406-408, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934641

RESUMO

The quadratus lumborum (QL) block provides analgesia to the abdominal wall while sparing the side effects of neuraxial blocks. We describe a case series of eight patients treated with a continuous infusion of local anesthetic via bilateral posterior QL catheters infusion block for analgesia after abdominal surgeries. We found that the median duration of the procedure was 26 min and the median opioid consumption over the first postoperative 72 h was 110 mg of morphine equivalents. The bilateral continuous posterior QL block is a feasible analgesic intervention and can be considered as a component of multimodal analgesic pathways.

6.
Pain Med ; 21(10): 2423-2429, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869079

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The optimal continuous peripheral nerve block (CPNB) technique for total hip arthroplasty (THA) that maximizes both analgesia and mobility is unknown. Continuous erector spinae plane (ESP) blocks were implemented at our institution as a replacement for fascia iliaca (FI) catheters to improve our THA clinical pathway. We designed this study to test the hypothesis that this change will increase early postoperative ambulation for elective primary THA patients. METHODS: We identified all consecutive primary unilateral THA cases six months before and six months after the clinical pathway change to ESP catheters. All other aspects of the THA clinical pathway and multimodal analgesic regimen including perineural infusion protocol did not change. The primary outcome was total ambulation distance (meters) on postoperative day 1. Other outcomes included total ambulation on postoperative day 2, combined two-day ambulation distance, pain scores, opioid consumption, inpatient length of stay, and minor and major adverse events. RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients comprised the final sample (43 FI and 45 ESP). Postoperative day 1 total ambulation distance was greater for the ESP group compared with the FI group (median [10th-90th percentiles] = 24.4 [0.0-54.9] vs 9.1 [0.7-45.7] meters, respectively, P = 0.036), and two-day ambulation distance was greater for the ESP group compared with the FI group (median [10th-90th percentiles] = 68.6 [9.0-128.0] vs 46.6 [3.7-104.2] meters, respectively, P = 0.038). There were no differences in pain scores, opioid use, or other outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Replacing FI catheters with continuous ESP blocks within a clinical pathway results in increased early ambulation by elective primary THA patients.

9.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 45(7): 552-556, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical erector spinae plane (ESP) block has been described to anesthetize the brachial plexus (BP), however, the mechanism of its clinical effect remains unknown. As the prevertebral fascia encloses the phrenic nerves, BP and erector spinae muscles to form a prevertebral compartment, a local anesthetic injected in the cervical ESP could potentially spread throughout the prevertebral compartment. This study utilizes cadaveric models to evaluate the spread of ESP injections at the C6 and C7 levels to determine whether the injection can reach the BP and its surrounding structures. METHODS: For each of the five cadavers, an ESP injection posterior to the transverse process of C6 was performed on one side, and an ESP injection posterior to the transverse process of C7 was performed on the contralateral side. Injections were performed under ultrasound guidance and consisted of a 20 mL mixture of 18 mL water and 2 mL India ink. After cadaver dissection, craniocaudal and medial-lateral extent of the dye spread in relation to musculoskeletal anatomy as well as direct staining relevant nerves was recorded. The degree of dye staining was categorized as "deep," "faint," or "no." RESULTS: The phrenic nerve was deeply stained in 1 injection and faintly stained in 2 injections. Caudally, variable staining of C8 (100%) and T1 (50%) roots were seen. Faintly staining at C4 root was only seen in one sample (10%). There was variable staining of the anterior scalene muscles (40%) anterior to the BP and the rhomboid intercostal plane caudally (30%). CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound-guided cervical (C6 and C7) ESP injections consistently stain the roots of the BP and dorsal rami. This study supports the notion that the cervical ESP block has the potential to provide analgesia for patients undergoing shoulder and cervical spine surgeries.

10.
J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol ; 36(1): 110-114, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174670

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Liposomal bupivacaine (LB) is a formulation of local anesthetic that may exert analgesia over a prolonged period. Anecdotal use of LB suggests benefit and prolonged analgesia when used to supplement infiltration blocks. Our aim was to test the effect of a bolus of LB delivered through a nerve catheter in two types of interfascial plane blocks (transversus abdominis plane and anterior subcostal quadratus lumborum). The effect was evaluated through patient self-reporting of postsurgical pain up to 48 postoperative hours. Material and Methods: Medical records of adult postoperative patients who received LB in a peripheral nerve catheter were followed retrospectively and analysed for pain scores and spread of dermatomal numbness over 48 h following the postoperative dose. A chart review of patients who qualified between June 2015 and March 2017 was performed, and clinical data were obtained from the institutional Perioperative Health Documentation System. Results: Pain scores decreased following LB bolus, and all patients reported efficient block analgesia after bolus injection. Dermatomal numbness decreased gradually and was minimal by 48 h following bolus. Conclusion: LB can be injected through a peripheral nerve catheter to prolong analgesia after catheter removal.

11.
Korean J Anesthesiol ; 73(6): 550-556, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046475

RESUMO

Background: The rhomboid intercostal and subserratus plane (RISS) block is a new interfascial block technique that has shown promising results for abdominal and thoracic surgeries. Our objective was to describe the improved analgesia and dermatomal coverage in patients who received bilateral RISS blocks after a major abdominal surgery. Case: Twenty-one patients who underwent abdominal surgery received the rhomboid intercostal component of the block at the T5 to T6 levels, and the subserratus component block was performed at the T6 to T9 levels.The RISS blocks provided effective postoperative analgesia. There was a variation in the dermatomal coverage ranging from T3 to T12. Patients reported a high satisfaction rate from pain management. Conclusions: The RISS block in abdominal surgery seems to have an important role in perioperative pain management, complementing the multimodal analgesic regimen. To determine the efficacy of the RISS block for abdominal surgery, we need further randomized control trials.

13.
Anesth Analg ; 130(2): 360-366, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously reported that the duration of hospitalization was not different between isoflurane and sevoflurane. But more plausible consequences of using soluble volatile anesthetics are delayed emergence from anesthesia and prolonged stays in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). We therefore compared isoflurane and sevoflurane on emergence time and PACU duration. METHODS: We reanalyzed data from 1498 adults who participated in a previous alternating intervention trial comparing isoflurane and sevoflurane. Patients, mostly having colorectal surgery, were assigned to either volatile anesthetic in 2-week blocks that alternated for half a year. Emergence time was defined as the time from minimum alveolar concentration fraction reaching 0.3 at the end of the procedure until patients left the operating room. PACU duration was defined from admission to the end of phase 1 recovery. Treatment effect was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for imbalanced baseline variables. RESULTS: A total of 674 patients were given isoflurane, and 824 sevoflurane. Emergence time was slightly longer for isoflurane with a median (quartiles) of 16 minutes (12-22 minutes) vs 14 minutes (11-19 minutes) for sevoflurane, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.81 (97.5% CI, 0.71-0.92; P < .001). Duration in the PACU did not differ, with a median (quartiles) of 2.6 hours (2.0-3.6 hours) for isoflurane and 2.6 hours (2.0-3.7 hours) hours for sevoflurane. The adjusted hazard ratio for PACU discharge time was 1.04 (97.5% CI, 0.91-1.18; P = .56). CONCLUSIONS: Isoflurane prolonged emergence by only 2 minutes, which is not a clinically important amount, and did not prolong length of stay in the PACU. The more soluble and much less-expensive anesthetic isoflurane thus seems to be a reasonable alternative to sevoflurane.


Assuntos
Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestésicos Inalatórios/administração & dosagem , Isoflurano/administração & dosagem , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/tendências , Sevoflurano/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Anestésicos Inalatórios/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Isoflurano/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sevoflurano/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo
15.
J Med Imaging (Bellingham) ; 6(4): 047001, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720315

RESUMO

Paravertebral and intercostal nerve blocks have experienced a resurgence in popularity. Ultrasound has become the gold standard for visualization of the needle during injection of the analgesic, but the intercostal artery and vein can be difficult to visualize. We investigated the use of spectral analysis of raw radiofrequency (RF) ultrasound signals for identification of the intercostal vessels and six other tissue types in the intercostal and paravertebral spaces. Features derived from the one-dimensional spectrum, two-dimensional spectrum, and cepstrum were used to train four different machine learning algorithms. In addition, the use of the average normalized spectrum as the feature set was compared with the derived feature set. Compared to a support vector machine (SVM) (74.2%), an artificial neural network (ANN) (68.2%), and multinomial analysis (64.1%), a random forest (84.9%) resulted in the most accurate classification. The accuracy using a random forest trained with the first 15 principal components of the average normalized spectrum was 87.0%. These results demonstrate that using a machine learning algorithm with spectral analysis of raw RF ultrasound signals has the potential to provide tissue characterization in intercostal and paravertebral ultrasound.

16.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(4): eAO4905, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508661

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare analgesia and opioid consumption for patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty with preoperative posterior quadratus lumborum block with patients who did not receive quadratus lumborum block. METHODS: The medical records of patients undergoing unilateral total hip arthroplasty between January 1st, 2017 and March 31, 2018 were reviewed, and 238 patients were included in the study. The primary outcome was postoperative opioid consumption in the first 24 postoperative hours. Secondary outcomes were intraoperative, post anesthesia care unit, and 48-hour opioid consumption, postoperative pain Visual Analog Scale scores, and post-anesthesia care unit length of stay. Primary and secondary endpoint data were compared between patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty with preoperative posterior quadratus lumborum block with patients who did not receive quadratus lumborum block. RESULTS: For the patients who received quadratus lumborum block, the 24-hour total oral morphine equivalent (milligram) requirements were lower (53.82mg±37.41), compared to the patients who did not receive quadratus lumborum block (77.59mL±58.42), with p=0.0011. Opioid requirements were consistently lower for the patients who received quadratus lumborum block at each additional assessment time point up to 48 hours. Pain Visual Analog Scale scores were lower up to 12 hours after surgery for the patients who received a posterior quadratus lumborum block, and the post-anesthesia care unit length of stay was shorter for the patients who received quadratus lumborum block. CONCLUSION: Preoperative posterior quadratus lumborum block for primary total hip arthroplasty is associated with decreased opioid requirements up to 48 hours, decreased Visual Analog Scale pain scores up to 12 hours, and shorter post-anesthesia care unit length of stay. Level of evidence: III.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia de Quadril , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Músculos Abdominais/inervação , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestesia Geral , Raquianestesia , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Manejo da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Período Perioperatório/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Can J Anaesth ; 66(8): 894-906, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953311

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The local anesthetic injectate spread with fascial plane blocks and corresponding clinical outcomes may vary depending on the site of injection. We developed and evaluated a supra-iliac approach to the anterior quadratus lumborum (QL) block and hypothesized that this single injection might successfully block the lumbar and sacral plexus in cadavers and provide analgesia for patients undergoing hip surgery. METHODS: Ultrasound-guided bilateral supra-iliac anterior QL blocks were performed with 30 mL of India ink dye in six fresh adult cadavers. Cadavers were subsequently dissected to determine distribution of the dye. In five patients undergoing hip surgery, a unilateral supra-iliac anterior QL block with 25 mL ropivacaine 0.5% followed by a continuous catheter infusion was performed. Patients were clinically assessed daily for block efficacy. RESULTS: The cadaveric injections showed consistent dye involvement of the majority of the branches of the lumbar plexus, including the femoral nerve, lateral femoral cutaneous nerve, ilioinguinal nerve, and iliohypogastric nerve. The majority of cadaveric specimens (83%) also exhibited thoracic paravertebral spread of dye to the T10 level. No specimens showed L5 or sacral nerve root staining or caudal spread below L5. All patients had effective analgesia for total hip surgery and a T11-L3 sensory level following the initial bolus of local anesthetic as well as during the period of continuous catheter infusion. CONCLUSION: This cadaveric study and case series show that a supra-iliac approach to the anterior QL block involved T10--L3 nerve territories and dermatomal coverage with no sacral plexus spread. This technique may have clinical utility for analgesia in hip surgery.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Quadril/cirurgia , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Ropivacaina/administração & dosagem , Músculos Abdominais/inervação , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cadáver , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos
20.
Pain Med ; 20(9): 1750-1755, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The anatomical landmarks method is currently the most widely used technique for epidural needle insertion and is faced with multiple difficulties in certain patient populations. Real-time ultrasound guidance has been recently used to aid in epidural needle insertion, with promising results. Our aim was to test the feasibility, success rate, and satisfaction associated with a novel real-time ultrasound-guided lumbar epidural needle insertion in the transverse interlaminar view. DESIGN: Prospective descriptive trial on a novel approach. SETTING: Operating room and preoperative holding area at a tertiary care hospital. SUBJECTS: Adult patients presenting for elective open prostatectomy and planned for surgical epidural anesthesia. METHODS: Consented adult patients aged 30-80 years scheduled for open prostatectomy under epidural anesthesia were enrolled. Exclusion criteria included allergy to local anesthetics, infection at the needle insertion site, coagulopathy, and patient refusal. A curvilinear low-frequency (2-5 MHz) ultrasound probe and echogenic 17-G Tuohy needles were used by one of three attending anesthesiologists. Feasibility of epidural insertion was defined as a 90% success rate within 10 minutes. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were enrolled into the trial, 14 (63.6%) of whom found the process to be satisfactory or very satisfactory. The median time to perform the block was around 4.5 minutes, with an estimated success rate of 95%. No complications related to the epidural block were observed over the 48 hours after the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate the feasibility of a novel real-time ultrasound-guided epidural with transverse interlaminar view.


Assuntos
Anestesia Epidural/métodos , Espaço Epidural/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Região Lombossacral/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
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