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1.
Korean J Anesthesiol ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046475

RESUMO

Background: The Rhomboid intercostal and Subserratus plane (RISS) block is a new interfascial block that has shown promising results for abdominal and thoracic surgeries. Our objective was to describe improved analgesia and dermatomal coverage within the patients who received bilateral ARISS blocks after major abdominal surgery. Case: Twenty-one patients who underwent abdominal surgery received the rhomboid intercostal component of the block at the level of T5 to T6 and the subserratus component block was performed at T6 to T9 level (either single injections or catheter infusion). RISS blocks provided effective postoperative analgesia. There was a variation of dermatomal coverage ranging from T3 to T12. Patients reported a high satisfaction rate from pain management. Conclusions: RISS block in abdominal surgery seems to have an important role in perioperative pain management complementing the multimodal analgesic regimen. To determine the efficacy of RISS block for abdominal surgery, further randomized control trials are needed.

3.
Anesth Analg ; 130(2): 360-366, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously reported that the duration of hospitalization was not different between isoflurane and sevoflurane. But more plausible consequences of using soluble volatile anesthetics are delayed emergence from anesthesia and prolonged stays in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). We therefore compared isoflurane and sevoflurane on emergence time and PACU duration. METHODS: We reanalyzed data from 1498 adults who participated in a previous alternating intervention trial comparing isoflurane and sevoflurane. Patients, mostly having colorectal surgery, were assigned to either volatile anesthetic in 2-week blocks that alternated for half a year. Emergence time was defined as the time from minimum alveolar concentration fraction reaching 0.3 at the end of the procedure until patients left the operating room. PACU duration was defined from admission to the end of phase 1 recovery. Treatment effect was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for imbalanced baseline variables. RESULTS: A total of 674 patients were given isoflurane, and 824 sevoflurane. Emergence time was slightly longer for isoflurane with a median (quartiles) of 16 minutes (12-22 minutes) vs 14 minutes (11-19 minutes) for sevoflurane, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.81 (97.5% CI, 0.71-0.92; P < .001). Duration in the PACU did not differ, with a median (quartiles) of 2.6 hours (2.0-3.6 hours) for isoflurane and 2.6 hours (2.0-3.7 hours) hours for sevoflurane. The adjusted hazard ratio for PACU discharge time was 1.04 (97.5% CI, 0.91-1.18; P = .56). CONCLUSIONS: Isoflurane prolonged emergence by only 2 minutes, which is not a clinically important amount, and did not prolong length of stay in the PACU. The more soluble and much less-expensive anesthetic isoflurane thus seems to be a reasonable alternative to sevoflurane.

5.
J Med Imaging (Bellingham) ; 6(4): 047001, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720315

RESUMO

Paravertebral and intercostal nerve blocks have experienced a resurgence in popularity. Ultrasound has become the gold standard for visualization of the needle during injection of the analgesic, but the intercostal artery and vein can be difficult to visualize. We investigated the use of spectral analysis of raw radiofrequency (RF) ultrasound signals for identification of the intercostal vessels and six other tissue types in the intercostal and paravertebral spaces. Features derived from the one-dimensional spectrum, two-dimensional spectrum, and cepstrum were used to train four different machine learning algorithms. In addition, the use of the average normalized spectrum as the feature set was compared with the derived feature set. Compared to a support vector machine (SVM) (74.2%), an artificial neural network (ANN) (68.2%), and multinomial analysis (64.1%), a random forest (84.9%) resulted in the most accurate classification. The accuracy using a random forest trained with the first 15 principal components of the average normalized spectrum was 87.0%. These results demonstrate that using a machine learning algorithm with spectral analysis of raw RF ultrasound signals has the potential to provide tissue characterization in intercostal and paravertebral ultrasound.

6.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(4): eAO4905, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508661

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare analgesia and opioid consumption for patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty with preoperative posterior quadratus lumborum block with patients who did not receive quadratus lumborum block. METHODS: The medical records of patients undergoing unilateral total hip arthroplasty between January 1st, 2017 and March 31, 2018 were reviewed, and 238 patients were included in the study. The primary outcome was postoperative opioid consumption in the first 24 postoperative hours. Secondary outcomes were intraoperative, post anesthesia care unit, and 48-hour opioid consumption, postoperative pain Visual Analog Scale scores, and post-anesthesia care unit length of stay. Primary and secondary endpoint data were compared between patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty with preoperative posterior quadratus lumborum block with patients who did not receive quadratus lumborum block. RESULTS: For the patients who received quadratus lumborum block, the 24-hour total oral morphine equivalent (milligram) requirements were lower (53.82mg±37.41), compared to the patients who did not receive quadratus lumborum block (77.59mL±58.42), with p=0.0011. Opioid requirements were consistently lower for the patients who received quadratus lumborum block at each additional assessment time point up to 48 hours. Pain Visual Analog Scale scores were lower up to 12 hours after surgery for the patients who received a posterior quadratus lumborum block, and the post-anesthesia care unit length of stay was shorter for the patients who received quadratus lumborum block. CONCLUSION: Preoperative posterior quadratus lumborum block for primary total hip arthroplasty is associated with decreased opioid requirements up to 48 hours, decreased Visual Analog Scale pain scores up to 12 hours, and shorter post-anesthesia care unit length of stay. Level of evidence: III.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia de Quadril , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Músculos Abdominais/inervação , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestesia Geral , Raquianestesia , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Manejo da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Período Perioperatório/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Anesth Analg ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuous blood pressure monitoring may facilitate early detection and prompt treatment of hypotension. We tested the hypothesis that area under the curve (AUC) mean arterial pressure (MAP) <65 mm Hg is reduced by continuous invasive arterial pressure monitoring. METHODS: Adults having noncardiac surgery were randomly assigned to continuous invasive arterial pressure or intermittent oscillometric blood pressure monitoring. Arterial catheter pressures were recorded at 1-minute intervals; oscillometric pressures were typically recorded at 5-minute intervals. We estimated the arterial catheter effect on AUC-MAP <65 mm Hg using a multivariable proportional odds model adjusting for imbalanced baseline variables and duration of surgery. Pressures <65 mm Hg were categorized as 0, 1-17, 18-91, and >91 mm Hg × minutes of AUC-MAP <65 mm Hg (ie, no hypotension and 3 equally sized groups of increasing hypotension). RESULTS: One hundred fifty-two patients were randomly assigned to arterial catheter use and 154 to oscillometric monitoring. For various clinical reasons, 143 patients received an arterial catheter, while 163 were monitored oscillometrically. There were a median [Q1, Q3] of 246 [187, 308] pressure measurements in patients with arterial catheters versus 55 (46, 75) measurements in patients monitored oscillometrically. In the primary intent-to-treat analysis, catheter-based monitoring increased detection of AUC-MAP <65 mm Hg, with an estimated proportional odds ratio (ie, odds of being in a worse hypotension category) of 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-2.70; P = .006). The result was robust over an as-treated analysis and for sensitivity analyses with thresholds of 60 and 70 mm Hg. CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative blood pressure monitoring with arterial catheters detected nearly twice as much hypotension as oscillometric measurements.

10.
Can J Anaesth ; 66(8): 894-906, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953311

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The local anesthetic injectate spread with fascial plane blocks and corresponding clinical outcomes may vary depending on the site of injection. We developed and evaluated a supra-iliac approach to the anterior quadratus lumborum (QL) block and hypothesized that this single injection might successfully block the lumbar and sacral plexus in cadavers and provide analgesia for patients undergoing hip surgery. METHODS: Ultrasound-guided bilateral supra-iliac anterior QL blocks were performed with 30 mL of India ink dye in six fresh adult cadavers. Cadavers were subsequently dissected to determine distribution of the dye. In five patients undergoing hip surgery, a unilateral supra-iliac anterior QL block with 25 mL ropivacaine 0.5% followed by a continuous catheter infusion was performed. Patients were clinically assessed daily for block efficacy. RESULTS: The cadaveric injections showed consistent dye involvement of the majority of the branches of the lumbar plexus, including the femoral nerve, lateral femoral cutaneous nerve, ilioinguinal nerve, and iliohypogastric nerve. The majority of cadaveric specimens (83%) also exhibited thoracic paravertebral spread of dye to the T10 level. No specimens showed L5 or sacral nerve root staining or caudal spread below L5. All patients had effective analgesia for total hip surgery and a T11-L3 sensory level following the initial bolus of local anesthetic as well as during the period of continuous catheter infusion. CONCLUSION: This cadaveric study and case series show that a supra-iliac approach to the anterior QL block involved T10--L3 nerve territories and dermatomal coverage with no sacral plexus spread. This technique may have clinical utility for analgesia in hip surgery.

11.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Both posterior quadratus lumborum (QL) and erector spinae plane (ESP) blocks have been described as new truncal interfascial plane blocks. Distribution of injectate is influenced by fascial anatomy; therefore, different injection sites may produce similar spread. This anatomic study was designed to test the hypothesis that a posteromedial QL block at L2 level will more closely resemble a low thoracic ESP block when compared with the posterolateral approach at L2 level. METHODS: Left-sided ESP blocks were performed in six cadavers at T10-11. Three of these cadavers received right-sided posteromedial QL block at L2, while the other three received right-sided posterolateral QL block at L2. All injections were composed of 20 mL methylcellulose 0.5 % mixed with India ink and 10 mL of Omnipaque (Iohexol) 240 mg/mL. CT 24 hours after injection and cadaver dissection were used to evaluate injectate spread. RESULTS: Cephalocaudal spread of injectate by CT and cadaveric dissection was highly correlated (r=0.85 [95% CI 0.51 to 0.95]). Cadaver dissection showed ESP injectate spread deep to the muscle (mean [SD]) 11.7 (2.3) levels compared with 7.3 (1.2) levels for posterolateral QL and 9.7 (1.5) for posteromedial QL (p=0.04 overall, with a statistically significant pairwise difference between ESP and posterolateral QL only). The subcostal nerve and dorsal rami were commonly involved in most blocks, but the paravertebral space and ventral rami had inconsistent involvement. The lumbocostal ligament limited cranial spread from the posterlateral QL block approach. CONCLUSIONS: The posteromedial QL block at L2 produces more cranial spread beyond the lumbocostal ligament than the posterolateral QL block, and this spread is comparable with a low thoracic ESP block. Both posterior QL and ESP blocks show unreliable spread of injectate to the paravertebral space and ventral rami, but the dorsal rami were frequently covered.

12.
Pain Med ; 20(9): 1750-1755, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The anatomical landmarks method is currently the most widely used technique for epidural needle insertion and is faced with multiple difficulties in certain patient populations. Real-time ultrasound guidance has been recently used to aid in epidural needle insertion, with promising results. Our aim was to test the feasibility, success rate, and satisfaction associated with a novel real-time ultrasound-guided lumbar epidural needle insertion in the transverse interlaminar view. DESIGN: Prospective descriptive trial on a novel approach. SETTING: Operating room and preoperative holding area at a tertiary care hospital. SUBJECTS: Adult patients presenting for elective open prostatectomy and planned for surgical epidural anesthesia. METHODS: Consented adult patients aged 30-80 years scheduled for open prostatectomy under epidural anesthesia were enrolled. Exclusion criteria included allergy to local anesthetics, infection at the needle insertion site, coagulopathy, and patient refusal. A curvilinear low-frequency (2-5 MHz) ultrasound probe and echogenic 17-G Tuohy needles were used by one of three attending anesthesiologists. Feasibility of epidural insertion was defined as a 90% success rate within 10 minutes. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were enrolled into the trial, 14 (63.6%) of whom found the process to be satisfactory or very satisfactory. The median time to perform the block was around 4.5 minutes, with an estimated success rate of 95%. No complications related to the epidural block were observed over the 48 hours after the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate the feasibility of a novel real-time ultrasound-guided epidural with transverse interlaminar view.

17.
J Anesth ; 33(1): 148-154, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659364

RESUMO

In the case of open urological surgeries, analgesic coverage at mid thoracic dermatomal levels is required. As shown in cadaveric studies, the site of QL block injection is an important determinant of the extent of dye spread and presumably local anesthetic dermatomal coverage. In this case series, we evaluated dermatomal blockade and analgesic efficacy of a subcostal approach to anterior QL block following open urological surgeries. Twenty-two adult patients undergoing renal transplant surgery (60%) and open nephrectomy (40%) received unilateral ultrasound-guided subcostal anterior QL block with catheter insertion. Sensory level, pain score (numeric rating scale, NRS), local anesthetic consumption, and opioid consumption (morphine equivalent dose, MED) were assessed daily for 3 days. The block achieved sensory blockade between T6-7 and L1-2. The most frequently affected dermatomes were T8 -T12 and the number of blocked segments was 3 (mean 2.8). The median (interquartile range Q1, Q3) of NRS pain score was 3.7 (2.8-5.5), 3.3 (2.4-4.7), 2.9 (1.9-3.6), and 2.3 (1.0-4.2) on POD0, POD1, POD2, and POD3, respectively. Our preliminary data showed that the subcostal approach to anterior QL block provides appropriate thoracic dermatome level needed for analgesia following open urological surgical procedures between T6-7 and L1-2.

18.
Anesth Analg ; 128(3): 494-501, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29697506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuraxial anesthesia improves components of the Virchow's triad (hypercoagulability, venous stasis, and endothelial injury) which are key pathogenic contributors to venous thrombosis in surgical patients. However, whether neuraxial anesthesia reduces the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) remain unclear. We therefore tested the primary hypothesis that neuraxial anesthesia reduces the incidence of 30-day VTE in adults recovering from orthopedic surgery. Secondarily, we tested the hypotheses that neuraxial anesthesia reduces 30-day readmission, 30-day mortality, and the duration of postoperative hospitalization. METHODS: Inpatient orthopedic surgeries from American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database (2011-2015) in adults lasting more than 1 hour with either neuraxial or general anesthesia were included. Groups were matched 1:1 by propensity score matching for appropriate confounders. Logistic regression model was used to assess the effect of neuraxial anesthesia on 30-day VTE, 30-day mortality, and readmission, while Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to assess its effect on length of stay. RESULTS: Neuraxial anesthesia decreased odds of 30-day VTE (odds ratio 0.85, 95% confidence interval, 0.78-0.95; P = .002) corresponding to number-needed-to-treat of 500. Although there was no difference in 30-day mortality, neuraxial anesthesia reduced 30-day readmission (odds ratio 0.90, 98.3% confidence interval, 0.85-0.95; P < .001) corresponding to number-needed-to-treat of 250 and had a shortened hospitalization (2.87 vs 3.11; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Neuraxial anesthesia appears to provide only weak VTE prophylaxis, but can be offered as an adjuvant to current thromboprophylaxis in high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Anestesia Epidural/tendências , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/tendências , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Melhoria de Qualidade/tendências , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Idoso , Anestesia Epidural/efeitos adversos , Bases de Dados Factuais/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sociedades Médicas/tendências , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade
19.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(4): eAO4905, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1019804

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective To compare analgesia and opioid consumption for patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty with preoperative posterior quadratus lumborum block with patients who did not receive quadratus lumborum block. Methods The medical records of patients undergoing unilateral total hip arthroplasty between January 1st, 2017 and March 31, 2018 were reviewed, and 238 patients were included in the study. The primary outcome was postoperative opioid consumption in the first 24 postoperative hours. Secondary outcomes were intraoperative, post anesthesia care unit, and 48-hour opioid consumption, postoperative pain Visual Analog Scale scores, and post-anesthesia care unit length of stay. Primary and secondary endpoint data were compared between patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty with preoperative posterior quadratus lumborum block with patients who did not receive quadratus lumborum block. Results For the patients who received quadratus lumborum block, the 24-hour total oral morphine equivalent (milligram) requirements were lower (53.82mg±37.41), compared to the patients who did not receive quadratus lumborum block (77.59mL±58.42), with p=0.0011. Opioid requirements were consistently lower for the patients who received quadratus lumborum block at each additional assessment time point up to 48 hours. Pain Visual Analog Scale scores were lower up to 12 hours after surgery for the patients who received a posterior quadratus lumborum block, and the post-anesthesia care unit length of stay was shorter for the patients who received quadratus lumborum block. Conclusion Preoperative posterior quadratus lumborum block for primary total hip arthroplasty is associated with decreased opioid requirements up to 48 hours, decreased Visual Analog Scale pain scores up to 12 hours, and shorter post-anesthesia care unit length of stay. Level of evidence: III


RESUMO Objetivo Comparar a analgesia e o uso de opioides em pacientes submetidos à artroplastia total do quadril primária com bloqueio pré-operatório do quadrado lombar posterior e pacientes que não receberam o bloqueio do quadrado lombar. Métodos Revisamos os prontuários de pacientes submetidos à artroplastia total do quadril unilateral entre 1º de janeiro de 2017 e 31 de março de 2018, e 238 pacientes foram incluídos no estudo. O desfecho primário foi o consumo de opioides no pós-operatório nas primeiras 24 horas. Os desfechos secundários foram consumo de opioide no intraoperatório, na sala de recuperação pós-anestésica e nas primeiras 48 horas, escores de Escala Visual Analógica de dor pós-operatória, e tempo de permanência na recuperação pós-anestésica. Os desfechos primário e secundários foram comparados entre os pacientes submetidos à artroplastia total do quadril primária com bloqueio pré-operatório do quadrado lombar posterior e aqueles que não receberam o bloqueio do quadrado lombar. Resultados Para o grupo que recebeu o bloqueio, as doses totais de morfina por via oral em 24 horas foram menores (53,82mg±37,41) em comparação ao grupo sem bloqueio (77,59mg±58,42), com p=0,0011. A utilização de opioides foi consistentemente menor para o grupo que recebeu o bloqueio em cada tempo adicional de avaliação até 48 horas. Os escores da Escala Visual Analógica até 12 horas após a cirurgia para os pacientes que receberam o bloqueio do quadrado lombar posterior e o tempo de permanência na sala de recuperação pós-anestésica foram menores para o grupo que recebeu o bloqueio. Conclusão O bloqueio anestésico do quadrado lombar posterior para artroplastia total do quadril primária está associado à diminuição do uso de opioides nas primeiras 48 horas, diminuição do escore de dor da Escala Visual Analógica em até 12 horas, e menor tempo de permanência na sala de recuperação pós-anestésica. Nível de evidência: III

20.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 43(7): 745-751, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fascial plane blocks are rapidly emerging to provide safe, feasible alternatives to epidural analgesia for thoracic and abdominal pain. We define a new option for chest wall and upper abdominal analgesia, termed the rhomboid intercostal and subserratus plane (RISS) block. The RISS tissue plane extends deep to the erector spinae muscle medially and deep to the serratus anterior muscle laterally. We describe a 2-part proof-of-concept study to validate the RISS block, including a cadaveric study to evaluate injectate spread and a retrospective case series to assess dermatomal coverage and analgesic efficacy. METHODS: For the cadaveric portion of the study, bilateral ultrasound-guided RISS blocks were performed on 6 fresh cadavers with 30 mL of 0.5% methylcellulose with india ink. For the retrospective case series, we present 15 patients who underwent RISS block or RISS catheter insertion for heterogeneous indications including abdominal surgery, rib fractures, chest tube-associated pain, or postoperative incisional chest wall pain. RESULTS: In the cadaveric specimens, we identified staining of the lateral branches of the intercostal nerves from T3 to T9 reaching the posterior primary rami deep to the erector spinae muscle medially. In the clinical case series, dermatomal coverage was observed in the anterior hemithorax with visual analog pain scores less than 5 in patients who underwent both single-shot and continuous catheter infusions. CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary cadaveric and clinical data suggest that RISS block anesthetizes the lateral cutaneous branches of the thoracic intercostal nerves and can be used in multiple clinical settings for chest wall and upper abdominal analgesia.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Nervoso Autônomo/métodos , Músculos Intercostais/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculos Superficiais do Dorso/diagnóstico por imagem , Parede Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cadáver , Carbono/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Músculos Intercostais/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos Intercostais/inervação , Nervos Intercostais/diagnóstico por imagem , Nervos Intercostais/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Metilcelulose/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Músculos Superficiais do Dorso/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos Superficiais do Dorso/inervação , Parede Torácica/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Torácica/inervação
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