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1.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1196, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168101

RESUMO

Several occurrences of the word 'schizophrenia' have been re-worded as 'liability to schizophrenia' or 'schizophrenia risk', including in the title, which should have been "GWAS of lifetime cannabis use reveals new risk loci, genetic overlap with psychiatric traits, and a causal effect of schizophrenia liability," as well as in Supplementary Figures 1-10 and Supplementary Tables 7-10, to more accurately reflect the findings of the work.

2.
J Neurosci ; 39(13): 2562-2572, 2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718321

RESUMO

Impulsive personality traits are complex heritable traits that are governed by frontal-subcortical circuits and are associated with numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly drug abuse and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In collaboration with the genetics company 23andMe, we performed 10 genome-wide association studies on measures of impulsive personality traits [the short version of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11)] and drug experimentation (the number of drug classes an individual had tried in their lifetime) in up to 22,861 male and female adult human research participants of European ancestry. Impulsive personality traits and drug experimentation showed single nucleotide polymorphism heritabilities that ranged from 5 to 11%. Genetic variants in the CADM2 locus were significantly associated with UPPS-P Sensation Seeking (p = 8.3 × 10-9, rs139528938) and showed a suggestive association with Drug Experimentation (p = 3.0 × 10-7, rs2163971; r 2 = 0.68 with rs139528938). Furthermore, genetic variants in the CACNA1I locus were significantly associated with UPPS-P Negative Urgency (p = 3.8 × 10-8; rs199694726). The role of these genes was supported by single variant, gene- and transcriptome-based analyses. Multiple subscales from both UPPS-P and BIS showed strong genetic correlations (>0.5) with Drug Experimentation and other substance use traits measured in independent cohorts, including smoking initiation, and lifetime cannabis use. Several UPPS-P and BIS subscales were genetically correlated with ADHD (r g = 0.30-0.51), supporting their validity as endophenotypes. Our findings demonstrate a role for common genetic contributions to individual differences in impulsivity. Furthermore, our study is the first to provide a genetic dissection of the relationship between different types of impulsive personality traits and various psychiatric disorders.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Impulsive personality traits (IPTs) are heritable traits that are governed by frontal-subcortical circuits and are associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly substance use disorders. We have performed genome-wide association studies of IPTs to identify regions and genes that account for this heritable variation. IPTs and drug experimentation were modestly heritable (5-11%). We identified an association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in CADM2 and both sensation seeking and drug experimentation; and between variants in CACNA1I and negative urgency. The role of these genes was supported by single variant, gene- and transcriptome-based analyses. This study provides evidence that impulsivity can be genetically separated into distinct components. We showed that IPT are genetically associated with substance use and ADHD, suggesting impulsivity is an endophenotype contributing to these psychiatric conditions.

3.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(3): 503, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622366

RESUMO

The author list was in the wrong order in the HTML version of the original article and in the HTML version of the original correction notice. This has been corrected to show the 23andMe Research Team as the fourth author and Abraham A. Palmer as the last author in both places.

4.
Am J Psychiatry ; : appiajp201818040369, 2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336701

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE:: Alcohol use disorders are common conditions that have enormous social and economic consequences. Genome-wide association analyses were performed to identify genetic variants associated with a proxy measure of alcohol consumption and alcohol misuse and to explore the shared genetic basis between these measures and other substance use, psychiatric, and behavioral traits. METHOD:: This study used quantitative measures from the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) from two population-based cohorts of European ancestry (UK Biobank [N=121,604] and 23andMe [N=20,328]) and performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis. Two additional GWAS analyses were performed, a GWAS for AUDIT scores on items 1-3, which focus on consumption (AUDIT-C), and for scores on items 4-10, which focus on the problematic consequences of drinking (AUDIT-P). RESULTS:: The GWAS meta-analysis of AUDIT total score identified 10 associated risk loci. Novel associations localized to genes including JCAD and SLC39A13; this study also replicated previously identified signals in the genes ADH1B, ADH1C, KLB, and GCKR. The dimensions of AUDIT showed positive genetic correlations with alcohol consumption (rg=0.76-0.92) and DSM-IV alcohol dependence (rg=0.33-0.63). AUDIT-P and AUDIT-C scores showed significantly different patterns of association across a number of traits, including psychiatric disorders. AUDIT-P score was significantly positively genetically correlated with schizophrenia (rg=0.22), major depressive disorder (rg=0.26), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (rg=0.23), whereas AUDIT-C score was significantly negatively genetically correlated with major depressive disorder (rg=-0.24) and ADHD (rg=-0.10). This study also used the AUDIT data in the UK Biobank to identify thresholds for dichotomizing AUDIT total score that optimize genetic correlations with DSM-IV alcohol dependence. Coding individuals with AUDIT total scores ≤4 as control subjects and those with scores ≥12 as case subjects produced a significant high genetic correlation with DSM-IV alcohol dependence (rg=0.82) while retaining most subjects. CONCLUSIONS:: AUDIT scores ascertained in population-based cohorts can be used to explore the genetic basis of both alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders.

5.
Nat Neurosci ; 21(9): 1161-1170, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30150663

RESUMO

Cannabis use is a heritable trait that has been associated with adverse mental health outcomes. In the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) for lifetime cannabis use to date (N = 184,765), we identified eight genome-wide significant independent single nucleotide polymorphisms in six regions. All measured genetic variants combined explained 11% of the variance. Gene-based tests revealed 35 significant genes in 16 regions, and S-PrediXcan analyses showed that 21 genes had different expression levels for cannabis users versus nonusers. The strongest finding across the different analyses was CADM2, which has been associated with substance use and risk-taking. Significant genetic correlations were found with 14 of 25 tested substance use and mental health-related traits, including smoking, alcohol use, schizophrenia and risk-taking. Mendelian randomization analysis showed evidence for a causal positive influence of schizophrenia risk on cannabis use. Overall, our study provides new insights into the etiology of cannabis use and its relation with mental health.

6.
Nat Neurosci ; 21(7): 1018, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29752479

RESUMO

In the version of this article initially published, the consortium authorship was not presented correctly. The 23andMe Research Team was listed as the last author, rather than the fourth, and a line directing readers to the Supplementary Note for a list of members did appear but was not directly associated with the consortium name. Also, the Supplementary Note description stated that both member names and affiliations were included; in fact, only names are given. Finally, the URL for S-PrediXcan was given in the Methods as https://github.com/hakyimlab/S-PrediXcan; the correct URL is https://github.com/hakyimlab/MetaXcan. The errors have been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.

7.
Nat Neurosci ; 21(1): 16-18, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29230059

RESUMO

Delay discounting (DD), the tendency to discount the value of delayed versus current rewards, is elevated in a constellation of diseases and behavioral conditions. We performed a genome-wide association study of DD using 23,127 research participants of European ancestry. The most significantly associated single-nucleotide polymorphism was rs6528024 (P = 2.40 × 10-8), which is located in an intron of the gene GPM6B. We also showed that 12% of the variance in DD was accounted for by genotype and that the genetic signature of DD overlapped with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, major depression, smoking, personality, cognition and body weight.

8.
Addict Biol ; 2017 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29058377

RESUMO

Genetic factors contribute to the risk for developing alcohol use disorder (AUD). In collaboration with the genetics company 23andMe, Inc., we performed a genome-wide association study of the alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT), an instrument designed to screen for alcohol misuse over the past year. Our final sample consisted of 20 328 research participants of European ancestry (55.3% females; mean age = 53.8, SD = 16.1) who reported ever using alcohol. Our results showed that the 'chip-heritability' of AUDIT score, when treated as a continuous phenotype, was 12%. No loci reached genome-wide significance. The gene ADH1C, which has been previously implicated in AUD, was among our most significant associations (4.4 × 10-7 ; rs141973904). We also detected a suggestive association on chromosome 1 (2.1 × 10-7 ; rs182344113) near the gene KCNJ9, which has been implicated in mouse models of high ethanol drinking. Using linkage disequilibrium score regression, we identified positive genetic correlations between AUDIT score, high alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. We also observed an unexpected positive genetic correlation between AUDIT and educational attainment and additional unexpected negative correlations with body mass index/obesity and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We conclude that conducting a genetic study using responses to an online questionnaire in a population not ascertained for AUD may represent a cost-effective strategy for elucidating aspects of the etiology of AUD.

9.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 208(4): 933-939, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28199152

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that radiologists' estimated percentage likelihood assessments for the presence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive cancer may predict histologic outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred fifty cases categorized as BI-RADS category 4 or 5 at four University of California Medical Centers were retrospectively reviewed by 10 academic radiologists with a range of 1-39 years in practice. Readers assigned BI-RADS category (1, 2, 3, 4a, 4b, 4c, or 5), estimated percentage likelihood of DCIS or invasive cancer (0-100%), and confidence rating (1 = low, 5 = high) after reviewing screening and diagnostic mammograms and ultrasound images. ROC curves were generated. RESULTS: Sixty-two percent (156/250) of lesions were benign and 38% (94/250) were malignant. There were 26 (10%) DCIS, 20 (8%) invasive cancers, and 48 (19%) cases of DCIS and invasive cancer. AUC values were 0.830-0.907 for invasive cancer and 0.731-0.837 for DCIS alone. Sensitivity of 82% (56/68), specificity of 84% (153/182), positive predictive value (PPV) of 66% (56/85), negative predictive value (NPV) of 93% (153/165), and accuracy of 84% ([56 + 153]/250) were calculated using an estimated percentage likelihood of 20% or higher as the prediction threshold for invasive cancer for the radiologist with the highest AUC (0.907; 95% CI, 0.864-0.951). Every 20% increase in the estimated percentage likelihood of invasive cancer increased the odds of invasive cancer by approximately two times (odds ratio, 2.4). For DCIS, using a threshold of 40% or higher, sensitivity of 81% (21/26), specificity of 79% (178/224), PPV of 31% (21/67), NPV of 97% (178/183), and accuracy of 80% ([21 + 178]/250) were calculated. Similarly, these values were calculated at thresholds of 2% or higher (BI-RADS category 4) and 95% or higher (BI-RADS category 5) to predict the presence of malignancy. CONCLUSION: Using likelihood estimates, radiologists may predict the presence of invasive cancer with fairly high accuracy. Radiologist-assigned estimated percentage likelihood can predict the presence of DCIS, albeit with lower accuracy than that for invasive cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Radiologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Acad Radiol ; 24(1): 60-66, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27793579

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to determine the inter-observer agreement among academic breast radiologists when using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lesion descriptors for suspicious findings on diagnostic mammography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten experienced academic breast radiologists across five medical centers independently reviewed 250 de-identified diagnostic mammographic cases that were previously assessed as BI-RADS 4 or 5 with subsequent pathologic diagnosis by percutaneous or surgical biopsy. Each radiologist assessed the presence of the following suspicious mammographic findings: mass, asymmetry (one view), focal asymmetry (two views), architectural distortion, and calcifications. For any identified calcifications, the radiologist also described the morphology and distribution. Inter-observer agreement was determined with Fleiss kappa statistic. Agreement was also calculated by years of experience. RESULTS: Of the 250 lesions, 156 (62%) were benign and 94 (38%) were malignant. Agreement among the 10 readers was strongest for recognizing the presence of calcifications (k = 0.82). There was substantial agreement among the readers for the identification of a mass (k = 0.67), whereas agreement was fair for the presence of a focal asymmetry (k = 0.21) or architectural distortion (k = 0.28). Agreement for asymmetries (one view) was slight (k = 0.09). Among the categories of calcification morphology and distribution, reader agreement was moderate (k = 0.51 and k = 0.60, respectively). Readers with more experience (10 or more years in clinical practice) did not demonstrate higher levels of agreement compared to those with less experience. CONCLUSIONS: Strength of agreement varies widely for different types of mammographic findings, even among dedicated academic breast radiologists. More subtle findings such as asymmetries and architectural distortion demonstrated the weakest agreement. Studies that seek to evaluate the predictive value of certain mammographic features for malignancy should take into consideration the inherent interpretive variability for these findings.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Mama/patologia , Calcinose/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Mamografia/normas , Radiologistas/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Competência Clínica/normas , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 140(2): 417-25, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23887672

RESUMO

The term breast cancer covers many different conditions, whose clinical course ranges from indolent to aggressive. However, current practice in breast cancer prevention and care, and in breast cancer epidemiology, does not take into account the heterogeneity of the disease. A comprehensive understanding of the etiology and progression of different breast cancer subtypes would enable a more patient-centered approach to breast health care: assessing an individual's risk of getting specific subtypes of the disease, providing risk-based screening and prevention recommendations, and, for those diagnosed with the disease, tailored treatment options based on risk and timing of progression and mortality. The Athena Breast Health Network is an initiative of the five University of California medical and cancer centers to prototype this approach and to enable the development of a rapid learning system-connecting risk and outcome information from a heterogeneous patient population in real time and using new knowledge from research to continuously improve the quality of care. The Network is based on integrating clinical and research processes to create a comprehensive approach to accelerating patient-centered breast health care. Since its inception in 2009, the Network has developed a multi-site, transdisciplinary collaboration that enables the learning system. The five-campus collaboration has implemented a shared informatics platform, standardized electronic patient intake questionnaires, and common biospecimen protocols, as well as new clinical programs and multi-center research projects. The Athena Breast Health Network can serve as a model of a rapid learning system that integrates epidemiologic, behavioral, and clinical research with clinical care improvements.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Serviços de Informação , Aprendizagem , Feminino , Humanos
12.
Genes Dev ; 24(13): 1403-17, 2010 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20595232

RESUMO

The sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcription factor family is a critical regulator of lipid and sterol homeostasis in eukaryotes. In mammals, SREBPs are highly active in the fed state to promote the expression of lipogenic and cholesterogenic genes and facilitate fat storage. During fasting, SREBP-dependent lipid/cholesterol synthesis is rapidly diminished in the mouse liver; however, the mechanism has remained incompletely understood. Moreover, the evolutionary conservation of fasting regulation of SREBP-dependent programs of gene expression and control of lipid homeostasis has been unclear. We demonstrate here a conserved role for orthologs of the NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 in metazoans in down-regulation of SREBP orthologs during fasting, resulting in inhibition of lipid synthesis and fat storage. Our data reveal that SIRT1 can directly deacetylate SREBP, and modulation of SIRT1 activity results in changes in SREBP ubiquitination, protein stability, and target gene expression. In addition, chemical activators of SIRT1 inhibit SREBP target gene expression in vitro and in vivo, correlating with decreased hepatic lipid and cholesterol levels and attenuated liver steatosis in diet-induced and genetically obese mice. We conclude that SIRT1 orthologs play a critical role in controlling SREBP-dependent gene regulation governing lipid/cholesterol homeostasis in metazoans in response to fasting cues. These findings may have important biomedical implications for the treatment of metabolic disorders associated with aberrant lipid/cholesterol homeostasis, including metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Regulação para Baixo , Jejum/fisiologia , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/metabolismo , Acetilação , Animais , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Caenorhabditis elegans , Linhagem Celular , Colesterol/biossíntese , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HeLa , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/farmacologia , Humanos , Lipídeos/biossíntese , Camundongos , Naftóis/farmacologia , Niacinamida/farmacologia , Estabilidade Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirtuínas/antagonistas & inibidores
13.
PLoS Genet ; 5(9): e1000664, 2009 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19779551

RESUMO

Localization of specific mRNAs is an important mechanism through which cells achieve polarity and direct asymmetric growth. Based on a framework established in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we describe a She3-dependent RNA transport system in Candida albicans, a fungal pathogen of humans that grows as both budding (yeast) and filamentous (hyphal and pseudohyphal) forms. We identify a set of 40 mRNAs that are selectively transported to the buds of yeast-form cells and to the tips of hyphae, and we show that many of the genes encoded by these mRNAs contribute to hyphal development, as does the transport system itself. Although the basic system of mRNA transport is conserved between S. cerevisiae and C. albicans, we find that the cargo mRNAs have diverged considerably, implying that specific mRNAs can easily move in and out of transport control over evolutionary timescales. The differences in mRNA cargos likely reflect the distinct selective pressures acting on the two species.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/metabolismo , Hifas/citologia , Hifas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transporte de RNA , RNA Fúngico/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Candida albicans/citologia , Candida albicans/genética , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Genes Fúngicos , Humanos , Hifas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
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