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1.
Breed Sci ; 66(2): 181-90, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27162490

RESUMO

Under the changing climate, early flowering is advantageous to escape terminal heat and drought. Previously during evaluation of 14 chromosome introgression lines (ILs), we found three ILs that flowered a month earlier than their wheat background Chinese Spring (CS). This paper describes the cause of the early flowering in the ILs and provides insight into the evolution of spring wheat from the winter wheat. We used specific molecular markers for Vrn genes to determine its allelic composition. Phenotypic evaluations carried out under field conditions and in a growth chamber. Unlike the winter vrn-A1 allele of CS, the spring Vrn-A1 allele of the ILs had insertions of 222 and 131-bp miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE) in the promoter region. Sequence analysis indicated that the 222-bp insertion is similar to an insertion in the spring genotype, Triple Dirk D. Our results ruled out any possibility of outcrossing or contamination. Without vernalization, Vrn-A1 is highly expressed in the ILs compared to CS. We attribute the early flowering of the ILs to the insertion of the MITE in the promoter of Vrn-A1. The alien chromosome might mediate this insertion.

2.
Chromosome Res ; 23(4): 709-18, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26134441

RESUMO

Chromosome elimination occurs frequently in interspecific hybrids between distantly related species in Poaceae. However, chromosomes from both parents behave stably in a hybrid of female oat (Avena sativa L.) pollinated by pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.). To analyze the chromosome behavior in this hybrid, we cloned the centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3) genes of oat and pearl millet and produced a pearl millet-specific anti-CENH3 antibody. Application of this antibody together with a grass species common anti-CENH3 antibody revealed the dynamic CENH3 composition of the hybrid cells before and after fertilization. Despite co-expression of CENH3 genes encoded by oat and pearl millet, only an oat-type CENH3 was incorporated into the centromeres of both species in the hybrid embryo. Oat CENH3 enables a functional centromere in pearl millet chromosomes in an oat genetic background. Comparison of CENH3 genes among Poaceae species that show chromosome elimination in interspecific hybrids revealed that the loop 1 regions of oat and pearl millet CENH3 exhibit exceptionally high similarity.


Assuntos
Avena/genética , Centrômero/genética , Histonas/genética , Hibridização Genética , Pennisetum/genética , Sementes , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Avena/metabolismo , Centrômero/metabolismo , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Expressão Gênica , Histonas/química , Histonas/metabolismo , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Pennisetum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência
3.
Breed Sci ; 63(5): 450-60, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24757384

RESUMO

Adaptation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to high temperatures could be improved by introducing alien genes from wild relatives. We evaluated the responses of wheat-Leymus racemosus chromosome introgression lines to high temperature to determine their potentiality for developing improved wheat cultivars. Introgression lines and their parent Chinese Spring were evaluated in a growth chamber at the seedling stage and in the field at the reproductive stage in two heat-stressed environments in Sudan. Optimum and late planting were used to ensure exposure of the plants to heat stress at the reproductive stage. The results revealed the impact of several Leymus chromosomes in improving wheat adaptation and tolerance to heat. Three lines possessed enhanced adaptation, whereas two showed high heat tolerance. Two addition lines showed a large number of kernels per spike, while one possessed high yield potential. Grain yield was correlated negatively with the heat susceptibility index, days to heading and maturity and positively with kernel number per spike and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride assay under late planting. The findings suggest that these genetic stocks could be used as a bridge to introduce the valuable Leymus traits into a superior wheat genetic background, thus helping maximize wheat yield in heat-stressed environments.

4.
Breed Sci ; 63(1): 68-76, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23641183

RESUMO

Leymus mollis (Triticeae; Poaceae) is a useful genetic resource for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding via wide hybridization to introduce its chromosomes and integrate its useful traits into wheat. Leymus mollis is highly tolerant to abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity and resistant to various diseases, but the genetic mechanisms controlling its physiological tolerance remain largely unexplored. We identified and cloned an allene oxide cyclase (AOC) gene from L. mollis that was strongly expressed under salt stress. AOC is involved in biosynthesis of jasmonic acid, an important signaling compound that mediates a wide range of adaptive responses. LmAOC cDNA consisted of 717 bp, coding for a protein with 238 amino acids that was highly similar to AOCs from barley (Hordeum vulgare) and other monocots. Subcellular localization using Nicotiana benthamiana confirmed it as a chloroplast-localized protein. LmAOC was found to be a multiple-copy gene, and that some copies were conserved and efficiently expressed in wheat-Leymus chromosome addition lines. LmAOC expression was upregulated under drought, heat, cold and wounding stresses, and by jasmonic acid and abscisic acid. Our results suggest that LmAOC plays an important role in L. mollis adaptation to abiotic stresses and it could be useful for wheat improvement.

5.
Breed Sci ; 63(4): 407-16, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24399913

RESUMO

Aluminum (Al) toxicity is the key factor limiting wheat production in acid soils. Soil liming has been used widely to increase the soil pH, but due to its high cost, breeding tolerant cultivars is more cost-effective mean to mitigate the problem. Tolerant cultivars could be developed by traditional breeding, genetic transformation or introgression of genes from wild relatives. We used 30 wheat alien chromosome addition lines to identify new genetic resources to improve wheat tolerance to Al and to identify the chromosomes harboring the tolerance genes. We evaluated these lines and their wheat background Chinese Spring for Al tolerance in hydroponic culture at various Al concentrations. We also investigated Al uptake, oxidative stress and cell membrane integrity. The L. racemosus chromosomes A and E significantly enhanced the Al tolerance of the wheat in term of relative root growth. At the highest Al concentration tested (200 µM), line E had the greatest tolerance. The introgressed chromosomes did not affect Al uptake of the tolerant lines. We attribute the improved tolerance conferred by chromosome E to improved cell membrane integrity. Chromosome engineering with these two lines could produce Al-tolerant wheat cultivars.

6.
Breed Sci ; 62(1): 38-45, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23136512

RESUMO

Aegilops tauschii Coss. is the D-genome donor to hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and is the most promising wild species as a genetic resource for wheat breeding. To study the population structure and diversity of 81 Ae. tauschii accessions collected from various regions of its geographical distribution, the genomic representation of these lines were used to develop a diversity array technology (DArT) marker array. This Ae. tauschii array and a previously developed DArT wheat array were used to scan the genomes of the 81 accessions. Out of 7500 markers (5500 wheat and 2000 Ae. tauschii), 4449 were polymorphic (3776 wheat and 673 Ae. tauschii). Phylogenetic and population structure studies revealed that the accessions could be divided into three groups. The two Ae. tauschii subspecies could also be separately clustered, suggesting that the current taxonomy might be valid. DArT markers are effective to detect very small polymorphisms. The information obtained about Ae. tauschii in the current study could be useful for wheat breeding. In addition, the new DArT array from this Ae. tauschii population is expected to be an effective tool for hexaploid wheat studies.

7.
Breed Sci ; 62(1): 78-86, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23136517

RESUMO

The tolerance of the dune grass Leymus mollis (Triticeae; Poaceae) to various biotic and abiotic stresses makes it a very useful genetic resource for wheat breeding. Wide hybridization between L. mollis and wheat allows the introduction of Leymus chromosomes into the wheat genetic background and facilitates the integration of useful traits into wheat. However, the genetic basis controlling the physiological tolerance of L. mollis to multiple environmental stresses remains largely unexplored. Using suppression subtractive hybridization, we identified 112 osmotic-stress-responsive genes from L. mollis and confirmed their differential expression under osmotic stress. These genes were categorized into 13 functional categories, including cell defense and stress response, transcriptional regulation, signal transduction, biosynthesis of compatible solutes and cell wall metabolism. Representative genes were validated by northern blot and RT-PCR analyses of expression patterns in response to osmotic stress and abscisic acid treatment. The genes identified here represent a useful source of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for the analysis and identification of Leymus chromosomes introduced into wheat. Furthermore, being highly conserved, genetically associated with osmotic stress tolerance and transferable to wheat, these ESTs provide significant tools for the development of EST-derived molecular markers for introgression of osmotic stress tolerance genes into wheat.

8.
Breed Sci ; 61(4): 347-57, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23136471

RESUMO

Few genes are available to develop drought-tolerant bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. One way to enhance bread wheat's genetic diversity would be to take advantage of the diversity of wild species by creating synthetic hexaploid wheat (SW) with the genomic constitution of bread wheat. In this study, we compared the expression of traits encoded at different ploidy levels and evaluated the applicability of Aegilops tauschii drought-related traits using 33 Ae. tauschii accessions along with their corresponding SW lines under well-watered and drought conditions. We found wide variation in Ae. tauschii, and even wider variation in the SW lines. Some SW lines were more drought-tolerant than the standard cultivar Cham 6. Aegilops tauschii from some regions gave better performing SW lines. The traits of Ae. tauschii were not significantly correlated with their corresponding SW lines, indicating that the traits expressed in wild diploid relatives of wheat may not predict the traits that will be expressed in SW lines derived from them. We suggest that, regardless of the adaptability and performance of the Ae. tauschii under drought, production of SW could probably result in genotypes with enhanced trait expression due to gene interactions, and that the traits of the synthetic should be evaluated in hexaploid level.

9.
Planta ; 231(3): 609-21, 2010 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19960204

RESUMO

Aluminum (Al) inhibits plant growth partly by causing oxidative damage that is promoted by reactive oxygen species and can be prevented by improving antioxidant capacity. Ascorbic acid (AsA), the most abundant antioxidant in plants, is regenerated by the action of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR). We investigated the role of MDAR and DHAR in AsA regeneration during Al stress using transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants overexpressing Arabidopsis cytosolic MDAR (MDAR-OX) or DHAR (DHAR-OX). DHAR-OX plants showed better root growth than wild-type (SR-1) plants after exposure to Al for 2 weeks, but MDAR-OX plants did not. There was no difference in Al distribution and accumulation in the root tips among SR-1, DHAR-OX, and MDAR-OX plants after Al treatment for 24 h. However, DHAR-OX plants showed lower hydrogen peroxide content, less lipid peroxidation and lower level of oxidative DNA damage than SR-1 plants, whereas MDAR-OX plants showed the same extent of damage as SR-1 plants. Compared with SR-1 plants, DHAR-OX plants consistently maintained a higher AsA level both with and without Al exposure, while MDAR-OX plants maintained a higher AsA level only without Al exposure. Also, DHAR-OX plants maintained higher APX activity under Al stress. The higher AsA level and APX activity in DHAR-OX plants contributed to their higher antioxidant capacity and higher tolerance to Al stress. These findings show that the overexpression of DHAR, but not of MDAR, confers Al tolerance, and that maintenance of a high AsA level is important to Al tolerance.


Assuntos
Alumínio/toxicidade , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/genética , Estresse Oxidativo , Oxirredutases/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Tabaco/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/metabolismo , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/fisiologia , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/enzimologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tabaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Tabaco/enzimologia
10.
Planta ; 225(5): 1255-64, 2007 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17043889

RESUMO

Ascorbate (AsA) is a major antioxidant and free-radical scavenger in plants. Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR; EC 1.6.5.4) is crucial for AsA regeneration and essential for maintaining a reduced pool of AsA. To examine whether an overexpressed level of MDAR could minimize the deleterious effects of environmental stresses, we developed transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana MDAR gene (AtMDAR1) in the cytosol. Incorporation of the transgene in the genome of tobacco plants was confirmed by PCR and Southern-blot analysis and its expression was confirmed by Northern- and Western-blot analyses. These transgenic plants exhibited up to 2.1-fold higher MDAR activity and 2.2-fold higher level of reduced AsA compared to non-transformed control plants. The transgenic plants showed enhanced stress tolerance in term of significantly higher net photosynthesis rates under ozone, salt and polyethylene glycol (PEG) stresses and greater PSII effective quantum yield under ozone and salt stresses. Furthermore, these transgenic plants exhibited significantly lower hydrogen peroxide level when tested under salt stress. These results demonstrate that an overexpressed level of MDAR properly confers enhanced tolerance against ozone, salt and PEG stress.


Assuntos
NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/genética , Ozônio/farmacologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Tabaco/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Tabaco/efeitos dos fármacos
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