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1.
Metab Brain Dis ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394288

RESUMO

Microglia are immune cells that are resident in central nervous system. Activation of microglial cells are detrimental to the survival of neurons. Thus, prevention of microglia activation and/or protection against microglia activation could be potential therapeutic strategy towards the management of inflammation-mediated neurodegenerative diseases. Moringa oleifera is widely consumed as food and used in folklore medicine for treating several diseases. This study was convened to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera on cell viability, cholinergic and purinergic enzymes in BV-2 microglial cultured cell. Aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera was prepared, lyophilized and reconstituted in 0.5% dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO). Cells were treated with Moringa oleifera extracts (0.1-100 µg/mL) and assessed for cell viability and nitric oxide production. Furthermore, the effect of Moringa oleifera on enzymes of cholinergic (acetylcholinesterase) and purinergic (nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase; NTPDase, 5' nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase; ADA) systems in BV-2 microglial cells were determined. Incubation of BV-2 microglia cell with M. oleifera extract maintained cell viability, modulated cholinergic and purinergic enzymes activity. The phenolic compounds found in M. oleifera extracts, include chlorogenic acid, rutin; quercetin pentoside, kaempferol derivative and quercetin derivative. Thus, this study suggest that the potential therapeutic effect of the phenolic compounds found in M. oleifera may have been responsible for the maintenance of cell viability in BV-2 microglia cells and modulation of cholinergic as well as purinergic enzymes activity.

2.
Toxicol Lett ; 339: 23-31, 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359558

RESUMO

Interesterified fat (IF) currently substitutes the hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF) in processed foods. However, the IF consumption impact on the central nervous system (CNS) has been poorly studied. The current study investigated connections between IF chronic consumption and locomotor impairments in early life period and adulthood of rats and access brain molecular targets related to behavior changes in adulthood offspring. During pregnancy and lactation, female rats received soybean oil (SO) or IF and their male pups received the same maternal supplementation from weaning until adulthood. Pups' motor ability and locomotor activity in adulthood were evaluated. In the adult offspring striatum, dopaminergic targets, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDFN) and lipid profile were quantified. Pups from IF supplementation group presented impaired learning concerning complex motor skill and sensorimotor behavior. The same animals showed decreased locomotion in adulthood. Moreover, IF group showed decreased immunoreactivity of all dopaminergic targets evaluated and GDNF, along with important changes in FA composition in striatum. This study shows that the brain modifications induce by IF consumption resulted in impaired motor control in pups and decreased locomotion in adult animals. Other studies about health damages induced by IF consumption may have a contribution from our current outcomes.

3.
Food Res Int ; 138(Pt A): 109718, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292963

RESUMO

Blueberry is a polyphenol-rich fruit bearing great bioactive potential. Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) emerged as putatively biocompatible solvents that could substitute for toxic organic solvents in the extraction of fruit phenolic compounds for developing nutraceuticals or functional foods. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the gastroprotective effects and the biocompatibility of a blueberry crude extract (CE) obtained using NADES and of the extract fractions (anthocyanin-rich fraction - ARF; non-anthocyanin phenolic fraction - NAPF) in a model of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. CE was the NADES-containing, ready-to-use extract that was obtained using choline chloride:glycerol:citric acid NADES (0.5:2:0.5 M ratio). ARF and NAPF were the NADES-free fractions obtained by solid phase purification of CE and were investigated to identify the bioactive fraction responsible for the effects of CE. Animals were treated for 14 days with water, NADES vehicle, CE, ARF, NAPF or lansoprazole (intragastric) and then received ethanol to induce gastric ulcer. CE decreased ulcer index and preserved the integrity of gastric mucosa. The pretreatment with CE or ARF reduced glutathione depletion and the inflammatory response. All treatments, including NADES vehicle reduced protein oxidation and nitric oxide overproduction in ethanol-treated rats. Additionally, ARF increased short-chain fatty acids in feces. These findings suggest that NADES can be used to obtain biocompatible extracts of blueberry that exhibit gastroprotective effects with no need of solvent removal. The gastroprotective effects were mainly associated to ARF but NAPF and even NADES vehicle also contributed to some protective effects.

4.
Food Chem ; : 128689, 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277120

RESUMO

The effect of micronization of granulometrically fractionated olive pomace (OP) on the bioaccessibility of polyphenols and the antioxidant capacity was investigated during sequential in vitro static digestion. Crude OP was fractionated in a 2-mm sieve (F1: > 2 mm; F2: < 2 mm) and then micronized (300 r min-1, 5 h) generating F1AG (17.8 µm) and F2AG (15.6 µm). Micronization increased the release of hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, caffeic acid, and decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycone (3,4-DHPEA-EDA) in the salivary and gastric phase, beyond luteolin in the gastric phase. Micronization also increased the intestinal bioaccessibility of hydroxytyrosol, 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, oleuropein, luteolin, and apigenin; it was more effective for F2AG than F1AG. Micronized samples increased antioxidant capacity in the gastric phase. F2AG exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity in the insoluble intestinal fraction. Thus, micronization can be further exploited to improve the nutraceutical properties of OP by increasing the bioaccessibility and antioxidant capacity of phenolic compounds.

5.
Food Res Int ; 137: 109615, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233205

RESUMO

Eugenia involucrata DC. (Myrtaceae) is a native tree species from Brazil that has been scarcely studied. We investigated the phenolic composition, the antioxidant capacity and the antitumoral activity of ethanolic extracts from fruits (FE) and seeds (SE) of E. involucrata. Six anthocyanins were identified by UPLC-PDA/MS/MS in FE, being four derived from cyanidin, and the other ones derived from delphinidin and pelargonidin. Using HPLC-PDA, FE presented a larger number of phenolic compounds (epicatechin, catechin, rutin, ellagic acid, myricetin and quercetin) than SE, which did not show myricetin and quercetin. However, SE showed higher total phenolic content and generally stronger in vitro antioxidant capacity than FE, except that only FE exhibited superoxide radical scavenging activity, which may be attributed to the anthocyanins present in fruits. Additionally, only SE exhibited antitumoral activity in a pancreatic cancer cell line (PANC-1). The antitumoral mechanisms involved imbalance of antioxidant status, alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytoskeleton disassembly and induction of cell death by apoptosis and necrosis. Compared to the standard antitumoral drug gemcitabine, SE exhibited higher antitumoral efficacy and selectivity index. The highest concentration of total phenolics and of specific phenolic compounds bearing antitumoral properties may be related to the antitumoral activity of SE. Our results corroborate previous data of E. involucrata as an important source of bioactive compounds and provide, for the first time, evidences of in vitro antitumoral potential of its seeds on pancreatic cancer cell line.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805194

RESUMO

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin found in grape products and oxidative stress has been reported as an important mechanism involved in its toxicity, classified as possible carcinogenic to humans. Conversely, phenolics are known bioactive compounds in grapes and display great antioxidant properties. However, the biological effects of the concomitant presence of phenolic compounds and OTA remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the effect of OTA presence in Cabernet Sauvignon wine on antioxidant activity in vitro and on oxidative stress markers in vivo. In addition, the phenolic composition of wine was evaluated by LC-DAD-MS/MS. In vitro assays were based on spectrophotometric methods, while in vivo assays were performed evaluating oxidative stress markers in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, an alternative model to animal testing. A total of 23 phenolic compounds were identified in the Cabernet sauvignon red wine, including the anthocyanins delphinidin-3-O-glicoside and malvidin-3-O-glicoside, the flavonol quercetin-3-O-glucuronide and the phenolic acids caffeic, verbascoside and caftaric. Trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were the only stilbenes found in the samples. OTA presence in the red wine was accompanied by reduction in GSH content and increase in hydroxyl radical generation in vitro. The presence of OTA in wine also increased lipoperoxidation and induced overexpression of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase in vivo. This study demonstrates that OTA presence in red wine can reduce its antioxidant potential in vitro and induces oxidative stress in vivo, without affecting the phenolic compounds levels in the samples. Thus, this work provides insights into the negative effects of the presence of OTA in wine, not only by its known toxicity, but also by prejudicing the antioxidant potential of wine. It is important to be aware of these effects when developing a complete description of OTA toxicity in humans.

7.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752213

RESUMO

Extra-virgin olive oil is regarded as functional food since epidemiological studies and multidisciplinary research have reported convincing evidence that its intake affects beneficially one or more target functions in the body, improves health, and reduces the risk of disease. Its health properties have been related to the major and minor fractions of extra-virgin olive oil. Among olive oil chemical composition, the phenolic fraction has received considerable attention due to its bioactivity in different chronic diseases. The bioactivity of the phenolic compounds could be related to different properties such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, although the molecular mechanism of these compounds in relation to many diseases could have different cellular targets. The aim of this review is focused on the extra-virgin olive oil phenolic fraction with particular emphasis on (a) biosynthesis, chemical structure, and influence factors on the final extra-virgin olive oil phenolic composition; (b) structure-antioxidant activity relationships and other molecular mechanisms in relation to many diseases; (c) bioavailability and controlled delivery strategies; (d) alternative sources of olive biophenols. To achieve this goal, a comprehensive review was developed, with particular emphasis on in vitro and in vivo assays as well as clinical trials. This report provides an overview of extra-virgin olive oil phenolic compounds as a tool for functional food, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical applications.

8.
Neuroscience ; 443: 164-175, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738432

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the addition of saturated fat and hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF) to the diet on depressive and anxiety-like behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster. Flies were exposed to experimental diets: regular diet (RD), or HVF in the concentrations of the substitute (SHVF), HVF 10% and HVF 20%, or Lard (L) in the concentrations of the substitute (SL), L 10% and L 20%, during seven days. Our results showed that flies fed with the HVF diet presented similar behaviors to depression, anxiety, and a higher number of aggressive events. Flies exposed to L showed only depressive-like behavior. Regarding serotonin levels (5HT), there was a significant reduction in the flies exposed to SHVF, HVF 10%, HVF 20%, and L 20%. Regarding the levels of octopamine (OA), there was a significant reduction in the flies exposed to both HVF and L rich diets when compared with the RD group. Also, there was a significant negative correlation between 5HT or OA levels and behaviors of aggressiveness, negative geotaxis, immobility time, light/dark, and grooming in the flies. This study shows that D. melanogaster can serve as a valuable model for understanding psychiatric disorders and that the type of fatty acid (FA) offered in the diet can influence these disorders. This demonstrates the importance of the composition of the FAs in the neural pathways, being able to influence the signaling of neurotransmitters, such as 5HT and OA, and thus, cause behavioral changes.

9.
Food Res Int ; 135: 109305, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527490

RESUMO

Aromatization of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) with aromatic plants is commonly used to enrich the oil with aromatic and antioxidant compounds. Ultrasound can be an alternative to accelerate this process. The objective of this work was to determine if ultrasound is able to accelerate EVOO aromatization with rosemary and basil and how it affects the migration of volatile and other compounds, the oxidative stability and the antioxidant capacity of the aromatized products. Ultrasound parameters (amplitude, time, and temperature of extraction) were optimized for each herb with central composite designs. Free fatty acid, peroxide value, K232, K270, ΔK, fatty acid profile, total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, polar compounds, oxidative stability and volatile compounds profile were evaluated in all samples. Physical effects of ultrasound on the herbs were observed by scanning electron microscopy. In the optimization, variables related to the oxidative processes were minimized and compounds migration and oxidative stability were maximized. Results were 70.09% amplitude, 36.6 min and 35 °C for rosemary and 95.98% amplitude, 9.9 min and 30 °C for basil. These conditions were compared to 7 and 15 days of conventional maceration (CM). Aromatization of EVOO with rosemary, both by ultrasound assisted maceration (UAM) or CM, improved total phenolics, terpenes, esters, ketones, stability and induction times, as well as decreased the values for the quality parameters. The use of UAM accelerated the process to 37 min. However, aromatization with basil by CM increased the values for the quality parameters and reduced the total phenolics, the antioxidant capacity and the induction and stability times. UAM with basil reached better results than those observed for CM, in only 10 min. In conclusion, rosemary is more appropriate than basil for EVOO aromatization, and UAM was the best choice to accelerate the processes when compared to CM.

10.
Drug Chem Toxicol ; : 1-12, 2020 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538198

RESUMO

Natural products are often used by the population to treat and/or prevent several disorders. Tucumã is an Amazonian fruit widely consumed by local population and no in vivo toxicity studies regarding its safety are available in the literature to date. Therefore, the phytochemical characterization, acute and repeated dose 28-day oral toxicities of crude extract of tucumã's pulp (CETP) in Wistar rats were evaluated. For the CETP preparation, tucumã pulp was crushed and placed into sealed amber glass jars containing absolute ethanol solution for extraction. CETP phytochemical analyses evidenced the presence of carotenoids, flavonoids, unsaturated and satured fatty acids, and triterpenes. In the acute toxicity, female rats from the test group were treated with CETP at single dose of 2000 mg/kg. For the repeated dose toxicity, CETP was administered to male and female rats at doses of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg, for 28 days. Body weight was recorded during the experiment and blood, liver and kidney were collected for further analysis. No mortality or toxicity signs were observed during the studies. CETP was classified as safe (category 5, OECD guide), in acute toxicity. In repeated dose study was observed alterations in some biochemical parameters, as well as in oxidative damage and enzymatic activity. Histopathological findings showed renal damage in male rats at higher dose. The data obtained suggest that CETP did not induced toxicity after exposure to a single or repeated doses in female rats. However, in males may be considered safe when given repeatedly in low doses.

11.
Nutr Res ; 76: 52-70, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155506

RESUMO

Most phenolic compounds and dietary fiber reach intact to the colon. We hypothesized that grape peel powder (GPP), a rich source of these bioactive compounds, modulates inflammatory and oxidative pathways collaborating to attenuate colonic damage in experimental colitis. To determine which bioactive fraction would be responsible for this effect, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with whole GPP or the isolated bioactive-rich fractions from GPP (extractable polyphenols [EP], dietary fiber and fiber-bound polyphenols [NEP-F], and dietary fiber) in rats with experimental colitis. Colitis was induced by intrarectal injection of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) after 15 days of dietary supplementation. EP diet did not reverse the decrease in feed intake and indeed worsened colon shortening and increased spleen weight; however, these effects were not observed for the GPP group, which had polyphenols associated to the matrix besides the extractable ones. Colitis impaired the activity of colonic antioxidant enzymes and increased lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, nitric oxide (NO) levels, and proinflammatory cytokines in serum and in the colon tissue. GPP restored the activity of antioxidant enzymes and decreased colon oxidation and NO levels. All grape peel fractions reduced the protein expression of the inhibitor of kappa kinase beta and NO levels in colon tissue, but only NEP-F reduced the expression of phosphorylated nuclear factor kappa B and myeloperoxidase activity. Results demonstrated that GPP attenuates inflammatory and oxidative response in TNBS-induced colitis by downregulating the nuclear factor kappa B pathway and upregulating antioxidant enzymes, with NEP-F being the fraction most likely associated to these protective effects.

12.
Nutr Res ; 76: 71-81, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217378

RESUMO

Erythrocytes exhibit high susceptibility to hemolysis in several pathologies due to the oxidation of cellular components. We hypothesized that annatto carotenoids improve the redox status of erythrocyte plasma membranes and promote a consequent increase in human erythrocyte resistance to hemolysis. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether food-grade annatto carotenoids can increase human erythrocyte resistance to hemolysis in vitro and ex vivo. For the in vitro experiment, erythrocytes from healthy volunteers were isolated and coincubated with bixin (BIX) or norbixin (NBIX) and 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), glucose, or sodium nitrite (NaNO2) as hemolysis inducers. In the ex vivo study, healthy volunteers consumed a capsule containing BIX or NBIX (0.05 mg/kg body weight per day) or placebo for 7 days before blood sample collection. Their erythrocytes were isolated and incubated with AAPH, glucose, or NaNO2. In both the ex vivo and in vitro studies, erythrocytes were subjected to osmotic fragility tests. The activity of antioxidant enzymes, and reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation levels in erythrocytes were also evaluated ex vivo. In vitro BIX and NBIX not only reduced erythrocyte membrane fragility induced by AAPH, glucose, or NaNO2 but also improved basal osmotic resistance in the micromole-per-liter range (P < .05). BIX and NBIX supplementation increased erythrocyte membrane resistance (P < .05), with BIX being more effective. Also, BIX and NBIX protected erythrocytes from lipid peroxidation and improved the cellular redox environment (P < .05). These results support the hypothesis that annatto carotenoids supplementation exerts antihemolytic properties by preventing the oxidative damage of human erythrocytes.

13.
Inflammopharmacology ; 28(3): 773-786, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802387

RESUMO

The treatment of cutaneous inflammation with topical corticosteroids may cause adverse effects reinforcing the need for therapeutic alternatives to treat inflammatory skin disorders. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of oleic acid (OA), a fatty acid of the omega-9 (ω-9) family, and we point out it as an alternative to treat inflammatory skin disorders. OA was incorporated into Lanette®- or Pemulen® TR2-based semisolid preparations and the pH, spreadability, rheological behavior and in vivo anti-inflammatory performance in a UVB radiation-induced skin inflammation model in mice were assessed. The anti-inflammatory activity was verified after single or repeated treatment of the mouse ear following the UVB. The OA action on glucocorticoid receptors was investigated. Both semisolids presented pH values compatible with the deeper skin layers, appropriate spreadability factors, and non-Newtonian pseudoplastic rheological behavior. Pemulen® 3% OA inhibited ear edema with superior efficacy than Lanette® 3% OA and dexamethasone after a single treatment. Pemulen® 3% OA and dexamethasone also reduced inflammatory cell infiltration. After repeated treatments, all formulations decreased the ear edema at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after UVB. OA in semisolids, especially Pemulen® TR2-based ones, presented suitable characteristics for cutaneous administration and its anti-inflammatory activity seems to occur via glucocorticoid receptors. OA was also capable to reduce croton oil-induced skin inflammation. Besides, the ex vivo skin permeation study indicated that OA reaches the receptor medium, which correlates with a systemic absorption in vivo. The natural compound OA could represent a promising alternative to those available to treat inflammatory skin disorders.

14.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 50(3): e20190341, 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089558

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to extract isoflavones from soybean molasses with different solvents, furthermore, the selected extract, which showed overall desirable characteristics was selected to evaluate the potentials of different encapsulating agents. The encapsulating agents employed for the study included 18% Maltodextrin DE20 (T1), 18% Hi-maize (T2), and a mixture of equal proportions of 9% Maltodextrin DE20 and 9% of Hi-maize (T3). Solvents such as 80% ethanol and methanol, and grain alcohol in varying different concentrations of 50 and 80% were used for the studies. The best solvent for the extraction of phenolics and total isoflavones was 50% cereal alcohol, this extract also presented higher antioxidant activity. Evaluation of the encapsulating agents revealed that 18% Hi-maize with inlet air of 130 °C was best suited for the encapsulation of isoflavones. The ORAC method showed that microcapsules with the 18% Hi-maize encapsulating agent also had higher antioxidant activity.


RESUMO: Este estudo teve como objetivo extrair isoflavonas do melaço de soja com diferentes solventes, além disso, o extrato selecionado com as características desejáveis ​​em geral foi selecionado para avaliar os potenciais de diferentes agentes encapsulantes. Os agentes encapsulantes foram: 18% de maltodextrina DE20 (T1), 18% Hi-maize (T2) e uma mistura em proporções iguais de 9 % de maltodextrina DE20 e 9% de Hi-maize (T3). Foram testados os solventes, etanol e metanol a 80% e álcool de cereais a 50 e 80%. O melhor solvente para a extração de fenólicos e isoflavonas totais foi o álcool de cereais a 50%, sendo que este extrato também apresentou maior atividade antioxidante. Entre os agentes encapsulantes testados, 18% Hi-maize com ar de entrada de 130 °C mostrou ser o melhor para encapsular as isoflavonas. O método ORAC mostrou que as microcápsulas com o agente encapsulante Hi-maize a 18% também apresentaram maior atividade antioxidante.

15.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 199: 111606, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522112

RESUMO

This study aimed to develop Eudragit® RL 100 nanocapsules loaded with desonide (DES) using açai oil (AO) or medium chain triglycerides (MCT) as oil core. Pre-formulation study showed that AO and MCT are suitable for nanocapsules preparation. The nanocapsules prepared with AO and MCT presented mean particle size around 165 and 131 nm, respectively; polydispersity index values <0.20, positive zeta potential values, drug content close to the theoretical value (0.25 mg mL-1), and DES encapsulation efficiency around 81%, regardless of the oil core (AO or MCT). Considering the photoinstability reported to DES, photodegradation studies were performed. The UV-A (365 nm) and UV-C (254 nm) photodegradation studies revealed less DES degradation when associated to the nanocapsules containing AO in comparison to those with MCT. The in vitro release study showed a biphasic release profile for both nanocapsule suspensions: an initial burst effect followed by a prolonged DES release. In addition, the formulations were considered non-phototoxic at 0.5 mg mL-1 when tested on 3 T3 murine fibroblasts and HaCaT human keratinocytes using the MTT and NRU viability assays. The irritant potential of the prepared nanocapsules and DES in free form were evaluated by HET-CAM method. All formulations were classified as slightly irritant, including the non-associate DES. In conclusion, the nanocapsule formulations developed in this study may be promising for therapeutic applications.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Desonida/química , Euterpe/química , Nanocápsulas/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Desonida/farmacologia , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos , Luz , Camundongos , Tamanho da Partícula , Fotólise , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Suspensões/química , Triglicerídeos/química
16.
Food Res Int ; 123: 425-439, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284994

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel diseases are characterized by impaired intestinal barrier function. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of grape peel powder (GPP) and its bioactive rich-fractions on the barrier function and colonic injury in a model of colitis induced by 2,4,6 trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Wistar rats received diets supplemented with either GPP (8%), extractable polyphenols (EP), non-extractable polyphenols-rich fraction (NEP-F), or polyphenols-poor, fiber-rich fraction (F) from grapes at amounts equivalent to the GPP group during 15 days before and for 7 days after colitis induction. NEP-F has decreased the extension of colonic lesion but the other grape peel bioactive fractions did not protect against macroscopic or microscopic colonic damage, EP diet increased macroscopic colonic damage. GPP, EP, and NEP-F reduced claudin-2 mRNA expression, whereas GPP and F fraction increased occludin and ZO-1 mRNA expression. All experimental diets reduced the colitis-triggered increase of MMP-9 mRNA expression. Colitis reduced by 30% the production of cecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). GPP and NEP-F completely protected against this effect, whereas F fraction was ineffective. Only GPP and NEP-F were able to decrease the upregulation of GRP94 mRNA triggered by colitis. Dietary fiber seems to reestablish the intestinal barrier function, whereas fiber-bound phenolics were able to restore cecal metabolism to produce beneficial metabolites like SCFA and to reduce the activation of the unfolded protein response.

17.
J Nutr Metab ; 2019: 9407069, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944740

RESUMO

Lycopene-based medications and supplements have been developed to prevent atherosclerosis, primarily because of their ability to decrease low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. Bixin and norbixin are carotenoids found in the seeds of annatto (Bixa orellana) and are colorants widely used by the food industry. Some studies have already demonstrated that these compounds have antioxidant and antiatherogenic potential in vitro and in animal models, but there is no evidence supporting the effects of their long-term or short-term consumption by humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-term intake of annatto carotenoids on biochemical and oxidative stress biomarkers as well as on the susceptibility of LDL oxidation in healthy individuals, using lycopene as a positive control. The effect of daily supplementation (0.05 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.)) with bixin, norbixin, lycopene, or placebo for 7 days was evaluated in a randomized, controlled crossover study in 16 healthy volunteers (8 men and 8 women). The susceptibility of LDL to Cu2+-induced oxidation ex vivo, biochemical parameters, and oxidative stress biomarkers were evaluated. No treatment affected biochemical parameters or most oxidative stress biomarkers. However, bixin reduced the oxidation rate of the LDL lipid moiety (-275%, p < 0.1) and nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) (-460%, p < 0.1), compared to the placebo group. Moreover, we observed that the changes in these parameters were positively associated, supporting the hypothesis that bixin decreases the susceptibility of LDL to Cu2+-induced oxidation by decreasing NOx levels, probably by downregulating the inducible nitric oxide synthase.

18.
Drug Chem Toxicol ; : 1-9, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938198

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) causes health effects, especially cancer. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) can contain high As concentrations. Using ICP-MS, we quantified the total As (tAs) levels in the main brands of rice (n = 103) and infant cereals (n = 27) consumed by Brazilians. The levels were compared to the maximum limits prescribed by regulatory agencies. We estimated the daily intake (EDI) of As by Brazilians by combining the mean As concentration determined in the white rice samples with per capita daily consumption divided by the average body weight as reported by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics in 2010. The possible health risk for consumers was assessed by calculating the margin of exposure (MOE) as prescribed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). Moreover, tAs was determined in 11 pesticides used by Brazilian farmers. The tAs levels in the rice ranged from 0.003 to 1.3 mg kg-1. Approximately 27% of the white rice contained tAs levels above the limit set by Mercosul (0.3 mg kg-1) and 45% were above the limit set by the European Commission (0.2 mg kg-1). In the infant cereals, tAs levels ranged from 0.003 to 0.243 mg kg-1. In the pesticides, tAs levels ranged from 0.005 to 0.315 mg L-1. The EDI showed that, on average, Brazilians consume 4.13 µg As kg-1 BW weekly. In addition, a low MOE was observed, demonstrating that high use of rice presents a risk of high inorganic (iAs) exposure, which represents a public health concern.

19.
J Nutr Biochem ; 67: 182-189, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951972

RESUMO

Amphetamine (AMPH) abuse is a serious public health problem due to the high addictive potential of this drug, whose use is related to severe brain neurotoxicity and memory impairments. So far, therapies for psychostimulant addiction have had limited efficacy. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) have shown beneficial influences on the prevention and treatment of several diseases that affect the central nervous system. Here, we assessed the influence of fish oil (FO), which is rich in n-3 PUFA, on withdrawal and relapse symptoms following re-exposure to AMPH. Male Wistar rats received d,l-AMPH or vehicle in the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm for 14 days. Then, half of each experimental group was treated with FO (3 g/kg, p.o.) for 14 days. Subsequently, animals were re-exposed to AMPH-CPP for three additional days, in order to assess relapse behavior. Our findings have evidenced that FO prevented relapse induced by AMPH reconditioning. While FO prevented AMPH-induced oxidative damages in the prefrontal cortex, molecular assays allowed us to observe that it was also able to modulate dopaminergic cascade markers (DAT, TH, VMAT-2, D1R and D2R) in the same brain area, thus preventing AMPH-induced molecular changes. To the most of our knowledge, this is the first study to show a natural alternative tool which is able to prevent psychostimulant relapse following drug withdrawal. This non-invasive and healthy nutraceutical may be considered as an adjuvant treatment in detoxification clinics.

20.
Toxicol Lett ; 308: 7-16, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898663

RESUMO

Opioids are addictive drugs, whose misuse evoke withdrawal and relapse. Mediterranean-based diet (MBD) is rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), while Western based diets (WBDs) contain saturated fatty acids including interesterified fat (IF) and palm oil (PO), influencing neural functions. We compared MBD and WBDs on morphine-induced addiction parameters. Rats fed with MBD (chow plus 20% soybean- and fish-oil- n-6/n-3 PUFA 1:1) or WBD (WBD- PO or WBD-IF: chow plus 20% of palm oil or interesterified fat, respectively; high n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio) were exposed to morphine in conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Anxiety-like behavior, locomotion and thermal sensitivity were evaluated during withdrawal. After morphine-CPP extinction, animals were challenged to morphine-reinstatement to induce relapse. All groups showed morphine-CPP, WBDs favored anxiety-like behaviors per se, locomotor sensitization and thermal hipersensitivity during withdrawal, resulting in increased morphine-reinstatement in comparison to MBD, which did not show relapse. WBDs increased glucocorticoid receptor immunoreactivity in the pre-frontal cortex, increasing corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) per se and after morphine-reinstatement. In the nucleus accumbens, WBDs increased dopamine transporter (DAT) and dopamine receptor-2 (D2R) immunoreactivity and decreased dopamine receptor-1 (D1R). These findings indicate that WBDs facilitate morphine-reinstatement, unlike MBD, preserving the DA system mesolimbic neuroplasticity.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Dependência de Morfina/dietoterapia , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Animais , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Ansiedade/psicologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Dieta Ocidental/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipersensibilidade/prevenção & controle , Hipersensibilidade/psicologia , Masculino , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Dependência de Morfina/psicologia , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Recidiva
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