*Opt Express ; 25(25): 31462-31470, 2017 Dec 11.*

##### RESUMO

Leggett-Garg inequalities are tests of macroscopic realism that can be violated by quantum mechanics. In this letter, we realise photonic Leggett-Garg tests on a three-level system and implement measurements that admit three distinct measurement outcomes, rather than the usual two. In this way we obtain violations of three- and four-time Leggett-Garg inequalities that are significantly in excess of those obtainable in standard Leggett-Garg tests. We also report violations the quantum-witness equality up to the maximum permitted for a three-outcome measurement. Our results highlight differences between spatial and temporal correlations in quantum mechanics.

*Appl Phys B ; 123(1): 12, 2017.*

##### RESUMO

Elitzur and Vaidman have proposed a measurement scheme that, based on the quantum superposition principle, allows one to detect the presence of an object-in a dramatic scenario, a bomb-without interacting with it. It was pointed out by Ghirardi that this interaction-free measurement scheme can be put in direct relation with falsification tests of the macro-realistic worldview. Here we have implemented the "bomb test" with a single atom trapped in a spin-dependent optical lattice to show explicitly a violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality-a quantitative criterion fulfilled by macro-realistic physical theories. To perform interaction-free measurements, we have implemented a novel measurement method that correlates spin and position of the atom. This method, which quantum mechanically entangles spin and position, finds general application for spin measurements, thereby avoiding the shortcomings inherent in the widely used push-out technique. Allowing decoherence to dominate the evolution of our system causes a transition from quantum to classical behavior in fulfillment of the Leggett-Garg inequality.

*Phys Rev E ; 93: 042103, 2016 04.*

##### RESUMO

Feedback loops are known as a versatile tool for controlling transport in small systems, which usually have large intrinsic fluctuations. Here we investigate the control of a temporal correlation function, the waiting-time distribution, under active and passive feedback conditions. We develop a general formalism and then specify to the simple unidirectional transport model, where we compare costs of open-loop and feedback control and use methods from optimal control theory to optimize waiting-time distributions.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 113(5): 050401, 2014 Aug 01.*

##### RESUMO

We show that the quantum bound for temporal correlations in a Leggett-Garg test, analogous to the Tsirelson bound for spatial correlations in a Bell test, strongly depends on the number of levels N that can be accessed by the measurement apparatus via projective measurements. We provide exact bounds for small N that exceed the known bound for the Leggett-Garg inequality, and we show that in the limit Nâ∞ the Leggett-Garg inequality can be violated up to its algebraic maximum.

*Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 90(6): 062115, 2014 Dec.*

##### RESUMO

The waiting time distribution (WTD) is a common tool for analyzing discrete stochastic processes in classical and quantum systems. However, there are many physical examples where the dynamics is continuous and only approximately discrete, or where it is favourable to discuss the dynamics on a discretized and a continuous level in parallel. An example is the hindered motion of particles through potential landscapes with barriers. In the present paper we propose a consistent generalization of the WTD from the discrete case to situations where the particles perform continuous barrier crossing characterized by a finite duration. To this end, we introduce a recipe to calculate the WTD from the Fokker-Planck (Smoluchowski) equation. In contrast to the closely related first passage time distribution (FPTD), which is frequently used to describe continuous processes, the WTD contains information about the direction of motion. As an application, we consider the paradigmatic example of an overdamped particle diffusing through a washboard potential. To verify the approach and to elucidate its numerical implications, we compare the WTD defined via the Smoluchowski equation with data from direct simulation of the underlying Langevin equation and find full consistency provided that the jumps in the Langevin approach are defined properly. Moreover, for sufficiently large energy barriers, the WTD defined via the Smoluchowski equation becomes consistent with that resulting from the analytical solution of a (two-state) master equation model for the short-time dynamics developed previously by us [Phys. Rev. E 86, 061135 (2012)]. Thus, our approach "interpolates" between these two types of stochastic motion. We illustrate our approach for both symmetric systems and systems under constant force.

*Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 371(1999): 20120468, 2013 Sep 28.*

##### RESUMO

Feedback control in quantum transport has been predicted to give rise to several interesting effects, among them quantum state stabilization and the realization of a mesoscopic Maxwell's daemon. These results were derived under the assumption that control operations on the system are affected instantaneously after the measurement of electronic jumps through it. In this contribution, I describe how to include a delay between detection and control operation in the master equation theory of feedback-controlled quantum transport. I investigate the consequences of delay for the state stabilization and Maxwell's daemon schemes. Furthermore, I describe how delay can be used as a tool to probe coherent oscillations of electrons within a transport system and how this formalism can be used to model finite detector bandwidth.

*Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 88(6): 062148, 2013 Dec.*

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We study the full-counting statistics of current of large open systems through the application of random-matrix theory to transition-rate matrices. We develop a method for calculating the ensemble-averaged current-cumulant generating functions based on an expansion in terms of the inverse system size. We investigate how different symmetry properties and different counting schemes affect the results.

*Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 86(6 Pt 1): 061135, 2012 Dec.*

##### RESUMO

We investigate the dynamics of a single, overdamped colloidal particle, which is driven by a constant force through a one-dimensional periodic potential. We focus on systems with large barrier heights where the lowest-order cumulants of the density field, that is, average position and the mean-squared displacement, show nontrivial (nondiffusive) short-time behavior characterized by the appearance of plateaus. We demonstrate that this "cage-like" dynamics can be well described by a discretized master equation model involving two states (related to two positions) within each potential valley. Nontrivial predictions of our approach include analytic expressions for the plateau heights and an estimate of the "de-caging time" obtained from the study of deviations from Gaussian behavior. The simplicity of our approach means that it offers a minimal model to describe the short-time behavior of systems with hindered dynamics.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 107(5): 050501, 2011 Jul 29.*

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We propose the manipulation of an isolated qubit by a simple instantaneous closed-loop feedback scheme in which a time-dependent electronic detector current is directly back-coupled into qubit parameters. As a specific detector model, we employ a capacitively coupled single-electron transistor. We demonstrate the stabilization of pure delocalized qubit states above a critical detector-qubit coupling. This electronic purification is independent of the initial qubit state and is accomplished after few electron jumps through the detector. Our simple scheme can be used for the efficient and robust initialization of solid-state qubits in quantum computational algorithms at arbitrary temperatures.

*J Phys Condens Matter ; 23(2): 025304, 2011 Jan 19.*

##### RESUMO

We develop a self-consistent version of perturbation theory in Liouville space which seeks to combine the advantages of master equation approaches in quantum transport with the nonperturbative features that a self-consistent treatment brings. We describe how counting fields may be included in a self-consistent manner in this formalism such that the full counting statistics can be calculated. Non-Markovian effects are also incorporated. Several different self-consistent approximations are introduced and we discuss their relative strengths with a simple example.

##### Assuntos

Elétrons , Modelos Estatísticos , Teoria Quântica , Simulação por Computador*Phys Rev Lett ; 105(17): 176801, 2010 Oct 22.*

##### RESUMO

We consider the question of how to distinguish quantum from classical transport through nanostructures. To address this issue we have derived two inequalities for temporal correlations in nonequilibrium transport in nanostructures weakly coupled to leads. The first inequality concerns local charge measurements and is of general validity; the second concerns the current flow through the device and is relevant for double quantum dots. Violation of either of these inequalities indicates that physics beyond that of a classical Markovian model is occurring in the nanostructure.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 94(22): 226803, 2005 Jun 10.*

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We propose an experiment to observe coherent oscillations in a single quantum dot with the oscillations driven by spin-orbit interaction. This is achieved without spin-polarized leads, and relies on changing the strength of the spin-orbit coupling via an applied gate pulse. We derive an effective model of this system which is formally equivalent to the Jaynes-Cummings model of quantum optics. For parameters relevant to an InGaAs dot, we calculate a Rabi frequency of 2 GHz.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 92(7): 073602, 2004 Feb 20.*

##### RESUMO

We consider the entanglement properties of the quantum phase transition in the single-mode superradiance model, involving the interaction of a boson mode and an ensemble of atoms. For an infinite size system, the atom-field entanglement diverges logarithmically with the correlation length exponent. Using a continuous variable representation, we compare this to the divergence of the entropy in conformal field theories and derive an exact expression for the scaled concurrence and the cusplike nonanalyticity of the momentum squeezing.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 90(4): 044101, 2003 Jan 31.*

##### RESUMO

We consider the Dicke Hamiltonian, a simple quantum-optical model which exhibits a zero-temperature quantum phase transition. We present numerical results demonstrating that at this transition the system changes from being quasi-integrable to quantum chaotic. By deriving an exact solution in the thermodynamic limit we relate this phenomenon to a localization-delocalization transition in which a macroscopic superposition is generated. We also describe the classical analogs of this behavior.

*Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys ; 67(6 Pt 2): 066203, 2003 Jun.*

##### RESUMO

We investigate the quantum-chaotic properties of the Dicke Hamiltonian; a quantum-optical model that describes a single-mode bosonic field interacting with an ensemble of N two-level atoms. This model exhibits a zero-temperature quantum phase transition in the N --> infinity limit, which we describe exactly in an effective Hamiltonian approach. We then numerically investigate the system at finite N, and by analyzing the level statistics, we demonstrate that the system undergoes a transition from quasi-integrability to quantum chaotic, and that this transition is caused by the precursors of the quantum phase transition. Our considerations of the wave function indicate that this is connected with a delocalization of the system and the emergence of macroscopic coherence. We also derive a semiclassical Dicke model that exhibits analogues of all the important features of the quantum model, such as the phase transition and the concurrent onset of chaos.