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1.
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther ; 51(10): 478-491, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592831

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the most suitable existing generic and condition-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for active youth with and without a musculoskeletal injury, based on measurement properties, interpretability, and feasibility. DESIGN: Systematic review of clinimetrics. LITERATURE SEARCH: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, and Scopus from inception to April 30, 2020. STUDY SELECTION CRITERIA: Records with original data describing the evaluation of a PROM or PROM subscale in active youth (15-24 years old) with or without a musculoskeletal injury were included. Non-English studies and those including individuals with a cognitive, developmental, or systemic condition were excluded. DATA SYNTHESIS: This review was conducted according to the COSMIN user manual for systematic reviews of PROMs and the PRISMA guidelines. The COSMIN user manual guided our measurement property evaluation and interpretability and feasibility description. RESULTS: Of 6931 potential records, 21 studies were included. Eleven generic and 7 condition-specific PROMs were identified. No PROM received a final COSMIN recommendation of "A" because all lacked sufficient content validity. The 8-item Disablement in the Physically Active scale-mental summary component Short Form (DPA-MSC SF-8), Quality of Life Survey, and Functional Arm Scale for Throwers (FAST) were the most suitable existing PROMs, given their high-quality evidence for sufficient structural validity and internal consistency. CONCLUSION: No definitively robust PROM for measuring generic or condition-specific HRQoL of active youth was identified. Until one exists, we recommend the DPA-MSC SF-8, the Quality of Life Survey, or the FAST and applying mixed methods to best characterize the HRQoL of active youth. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2021;51(10):478-491. doi:10.2519/jospt.2021.10412.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574403

RESUMO

This study aimed at evaluating the burden and risk factors of patellar and Achilles tendinopathy among youth basketball players. Patellar and Achilles tendinopathy were prospectively monitored in 515 eligible male and female youth basketball players (11-18 years) through a competitive season. Overall, the season prevalence of patellar tendinopathy was 19.0% (95% CI: 15.7-22.7%), 23.2% (95% CI: 18.6-28.2%) in males and 12.5% (95% CI: 8.3-17.9%) in females. The season prevalence of Achilles tendinopathy was 4.3% (95% CI: 2.7-6.4%), 4.1% (95% CI: 2.2-7.0%) in males and 4.5% (95% CI: 2.1-8.4%) in females. Median proportion of symptoms duration was 83% of average total weeks of basketball exposure for patellar tendinopathy and 75% for Achilles tendinopathy. Median time to patellar tendinopathy onset was 8 weeks for male players and 6 weeks for female players. Higher odds of patellar tendinopathy risk were seen in males (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.10-4.69) and players with previous anterior knee pain had significantly elevated odds (OR: 8.5, 95% CI: 4.58-16.89). The burden and risk of patellar tendinopathy is high among competitive youth basketball players. Risk factors include sex and previous anterior knee pain. These findings provide directions for practice and future research.

4.
J Safety Res ; 78: 314-321, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399928

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study is to examine sport and recreational (S&R) activity participation and injury rates (IR) in high school students (ages 14-19). METHODS: High school students (N = 24 schools, n = 2,029; 958 male, 1,048 female, 23 identified 'other' or missing; ages 14-19) in Alberta completed a web-based survey during class (October 2018-March 2019). Students identified their top three sports for participation in the past year. Primary outcome measures included IR for (a) any S&R-related injury, (b) most serious S&R-related injury resulting in medical attention, and (c) most serious injury resulting in restriction from S&R for at least one day. RESULTS: In total, 1763/2029 (86.89%) respondents [861/958 (89.87%) male, 886/1048 (84.54%) female, 16/23 (69.57%) identifying as 'other' or missing] participated in an S&R activity in the past year. Top sports for male participation were basketball (33.08%; 95% CI 27.67-39.00), ice hockey (20.46%; 95% CI 14.87-27.47), and soccer (19.42%; 95% CI 15.67-23.80). Top sports for female participation were dance (22.52%; 95% CI 17.98-27.82), basketball (18.32%; 95% CI 14.32-23.14), and badminton (17.84%; 95% CI 13.35-23.43). Of the 1,971 students completing the S&R injury question, 889 reported at least one injury during the past year [(IR = 45.10 injuries/100 students/year (95% CI 39.72-50.61)]. The medical attention IR was 29.09 injuries/100 students/year (95% CI 24.49-34.17) and time loss IR was 36.00 injuries/100 students/year (95% CI 30.47-41.93). CONCLUSIONS: High school student S&R IRs are high with 29% of adolescents reporting at least one medical attention injury within the past year. Injury prevention strategies targeting youth are necessary. Practical Application: Participation in S&R activities has multiple physical, psychological, and health benefits for adolescents, but some S&R activities also have greater risks of injury. This study informs the next sports to target for implementation of optimal prospective surveillance and injury prevention strategies among high school aged students.

5.
Foot Ankle Int ; : 10711007211033543, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined the association between youth sport-related ankle sprain injury and health-related outcomes, 3-15 years postinjury. METHODS: A historical cohort study in which uninjured controls were cluster-matched with injured cases. The primary outcome was self-reported Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS). Secondary outcomes included measures of adiposity, validated questionnaires for physical activity, athletic identity, fear of pain, and tests of strength, balance, and function. RESULTS: We recruited 86 participants (median age of 23 years; 77% female); 50 with a time-loss ankle sprain, median of 8 years postinjury, and 36 uninjured controls cluster-matched by sex and sport. Based on mixed effects multivariable regression models, previously injured participants demonstrated poorer outcomes than controls on all 5 FAOS subscales regardless of sex and time since injury, with the largest differences observed in symptoms (-20.9, 99% CI: -29.5 to -12.3) and ankle-related quality of life (-25.3, 99% CI: -34.7 to -15.9) subscales. Injured participants also had poorer unipedal dynamic balance (-1.9, 99% CI: 3.5 to -0.2) and greater fear of pain (7.2, 99% CI: 0.9-13.4) compared with controls. No statistically significant differences were found for other secondary outcomes. CONCLUSION: At 3-15 years following time-loss ankle sprain injury in youth sport, previously injured participants had more pain and symptoms, poorer self-reported function, ankle-related quality of life, reduced sport participation, balance, and greater fear of pain than controls. This underlines the need to promote the primary prevention of ankle sprains and secondary prevention of potential health consequences, including posttraumatic osteoarthritis. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, historical cohort study.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206869

RESUMO

Knee trauma can lead to poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and osteoarthritis. We aimed to assess HRQoL 3-12 years following youth sport-related knee injury considering HRQoL and osteoarthritis determinants. Generic (EQ-5D-5L index, EQ-VAS) and condition-specific (Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score quality of life subscale, KOOS QOL) HRQoL were assessed in 124 individuals 3-12 years following youth sport-related knee injury and 129 uninjured controls of similar age, sex, and sport. Linear regression examined differences in HRQoL outcomes by injury group. Multivariable linear regression explored the influence of sex, time-since-injury, injury type, body mass index, knee muscle strength, Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain (ICOAP) score, and Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) moderate-to-strenuous physical activity. Participant median (range) age was 23 years (14-29) and 55% were female. Injury history was associated with poorer KOOS QOL (-8.41; 95%CI -10.76, -6.06) but not EQ-5D-5L (-0.0074; -0.0238, 0.0089) or EQ-VAS (-3.82; -8.77, 1.14). Injury history (-5.14; -6.90, -3.38), worse ICOAP score (-0.40; -0.45, -0.36), and anterior cruciate ligament tear (-1.41; -2.77, -0.06) contributed to poorer KOOS QOL. Worse ICOAP score contributed to poorer EQ-5D-5L (-0.0024; -0.0034, -0.0015) and higher GLTEQ moderate-to-strenuous physical activity to better EQ-VAS (0.10; 0.03, 0.17). Knee trauma is associated with poorer condition-specific but not generic HRQoL 3-12 years post-injury.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Traumatismos do Joelho , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Esportes Juvenis , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207977

RESUMO

Sport-related injuries are the leading cause of injury in youth and are costly to the healthcare system. When body checking is disallowed in non-elite levels of Bantam (ages 13-14 years) ice hockey, the injury rate is reduced, but the impact on costs is unknown. This study compared rates of game injuries and costs among non-elite Bantam ice hockey leagues that disallow body checking to those that did not. Methods: An economic evaluation was conducted alongside a prospective cohort study comparing 608 players from leagues where body checking was allowed in games (Calgary/Edmonton 2014-2015, Edmonton 2015-2016) with 396 players from leagues where it was not allowed in games (Vancouver, Kelowna 2014-2015, Calgary in 2015-2016). The effectiveness measure was rate of game injuries per 1000 player-hours. Costs were estimated based on associated healthcare use within the publicly funded healthcare system as well as privately paid healthcare costs. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted using bootstrapping. Results: Disallowing body checking reduced the rate of injuries by 4.32 per 1000 player-hours (95% CI -6.92, -1.56) and reduced public and total healthcare system costs by $1556 (95% CI -$2478, -$559) and $1577 (95% CI -$2629, -$500) per 1000 player-hours, respectively. These finding were robust in over 99% of iterations in sensitivity analyses in the public healthcare and the total healthcare system perspectives. There was no statistically significant difference in privately paid healthcare costs (-$65 per 1000 player-hours (95% CI -$220, $99)). Interpretation: Disallowing body checking in non-elite 13-14-year-old ice hockey nationally would prevent injuries and reduce public healthcare costs.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Concussão Encefálica , Hóquei , Adolescente , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Incidência , Políticas , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Rheumatol Int ; 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132889

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Secondary consequences of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) may impact long-term health outcomes. This study examined differences in physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, adiposity, and functional performance in children and adolescents with JIA compared to their typically developing (TD) peers. METHODS: Participants with JIA (n = 32; 10-20 years old) and their TD peers (n = 35) volunteered for assessments of: daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, body-worn accelerometer); peak oxygen consumption (VO2 Peak, incremental bike test); fat mass index (FMI, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry); and triple-single-leg-hop (TSLH) distance. Statistical analyses were performed in R using four linear mixed-effect models with Bonferroni adjustment (⍺ = 0.0125). Fixed effects were group, sex, and age. Participant clusters based on sex and age (within 1.5 years) were considered as random effects. RESULTS: Participants with JIA displayed lower mean daily MVPA than their TD peers [p = 0.006; ß (98.75% CI); -21.2 (-40.4 to -2.9) min]. VO2 Peak [p = 0.019; -1.4 (-2.5 to -0.2) ml/kg/min] decreased with age. Females tended to have lower VO2 Peak [p = 0.045; -6.4 (-13.0 to 0.4) ml/kg/min] and greater adiposity [p = 0.071; 1.4 (-0.1 to 3.0) kg/m2] than males. CONCLUSION: The findings support the need for strategies to promote MVPA participation in children and adolescents with JIA. Sex and age should be considered in research on the consequences of JIA.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145153

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study assesses the intrarater reliability and utility of a prism paradigm to identify sensorimotor impairment following sports-related concussion in youth, (recent and history of concussion) compared with youth with no concussion. SETTING: University of Calgary. PARTICIPANTS: Three groups of 40 ice hockey players ranging in age from 11 to 17 years were included: (1) no concussion; (2) recent concussion, mean number of days since last concussion 5 (95% CI, 4-6); and (3) history of concussion, mean number of days since last concussion 631 (95% CI, 505-730). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. MAIN MEASURES: The vestibulo-ocular reflex is a fundamental reflex of the central nervous system that stabilizes the position of the eyes during head movement and adapts when sensory input is altered (the bend of the light on the retina by prism glasses). The prism adaptation measure was the number of throws taken to adapt to wearing prism glasses while throwing balls at a central target. RESULTS: The intraclass correlation coefficient (0.73; 95% CI, 0.55-0.84) and the Bland-Altman 95% levels of agreement (lower limit -18.5; 95% CI, -22.4 to -14.6); and upper limit 16.6; 95% CI, 12.7-20.5) reflected good intrarater reliability. Prism adaptation measures were significantly different across groups (F2,119 = 51.9, P < .001, r = 0.52, power of 90%), with the mean number of throws for youth (aged 11-17 years) in each group as follows: 10 (95% CI, 8-12) no concussion history; 25 (95% CI, 23-27) recent concussion (1-11 days); and 17 (95% CI, 15-20) history of concussion (90-1560 days). CONCLUSION: Use of a prism paradigm as a clinical measurement tool has the potential to alter concussion management in youth. The prism paradigm is objective, is readily translatable to the clinical arena, has minimal associated costs, and is easily administered, reliable, and portable.

10.
Ann Rehabil Med ; 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126669

RESUMO

Objective: To quantify differences in fatigue and disordered sleep between adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) and their typically developing peers. A secondary aim was to investigate the association between fatigue and disordered sleep in adolescents with CP. Methods: A convenience sample of 36 youth with CP aged 10-18 years was matched for age and sex with 36 typically developing peers. The Fatigue Impact and Severity Self-Assessment (FISSA), the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) fatigue profile, and the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) were collected. Results: Higher fatigue was reported in participants with CP than in their typically developing peers based on the FISSA total score (mean paired difference=19.06; 99% confidence interval [CI], 6.06-32.1), the FISSA impact subscale (mean paired difference=11.19; 99% CI, 3.96-18.4), and the FISSA Management and Activity Modification subscale (mean paired difference=7.86; 99% CI, 1.1-14.6). There were no differences between groups in the PROMIS fatigue profile (mean paired difference=1.63; 99% CI, -1.57-4.83) or the SDSC total score (mean paired difference=2.71; 99% CI, -2.93-8.35). Conclusion: Youth with CP experienced significantly more fatigue than their peers as assessed by a comprehensive measure that considered both general and diagnosis-specific concerns. Sleep did not differ between youth with CP and their typically developing peers. These findings underscore the need to consider the clinical management of fatigue across the lifespan of individuals with CP to prevent the associated deterioration of functional abilities.

11.
Sports Health ; : 19417381211021551, 2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After a national policy change in 2013 disallowing body checking in Pee Wee ice hockey games, the rate of injury was reduced by 50% in Alberta. However, the effect on associated health care costs has not been examined previously. HYPOTHESIS: A national policy removing body checking in Pee Wee (ages 11-12 years) ice hockey games will reduce injury rates, as well as costs. STUDY DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysis alongside cohort study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted alongside a cohort study comparing rates of game injuries in Pee Wee hockey games in Alberta in a season when body checking was allowed (2011-2012) with a season when it was disallowed after a national policy change (2013-2014). The effectiveness measure was the rate of game injuries per 1000 player-hours. Costs were estimated based on associated health care use from both the publicly funded health care system and privately paid health care cost perspectives. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted using bootstrapping. RESULTS: Disallowing body checking significantly reduced the rate of game injuries (-2.21; 95% CI [-3.12, -1.31] injuries per 1000 player-hours). We found no statistically significant difference in public health care system (-$83; 95% CI [-$386, $220]) or private health care costs (-$70; 95% CI [-$198, $57]) per 1000 player-hours. The probability that the policy of disallowing body checking was dominant (with both fewer injuries and lower costs) from the perspective of the public health care system and privately paid health care was 78% and 92%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Given the significant reduction in injuries, combined with lower public health care system and private costs in the large majority of iterations in the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, our findings support the policy change disallowing body checking in ice hockey in 11- and 12-year-old ice hockey leagues.

12.
Br J Sports Med ; 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016603

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of policy change disallowing body checking in adolescent ice hockey leagues (ages 15-17) on reducing rates of injury and concussion. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study. Players 15-17 years-old were recruited from teams in non-elite divisions of play (lower 40%-70% by division of play depending on year and city of play in leagues where policy permits or prohibit body checking in Alberta and British Columbia, Canada (2015-18). A validated injury surveillance methodology supported baseline, exposure-hours and injury data collection. Any player with a suspected concussion was referred to a study physician. Primary outcomes include game-related injuries, game-related injuries (>7 days time loss), game-related concussions and game-related concussions (>10 days time loss). RESULTS: 44 teams (453 player-seasons) from non-body checking and 52 teams (674 player-seasons) from body checking leagues participated. In body checking leagues there were 213 injuries (69 concussions) and in non-body checking leagues 40 injuries (18 concussions) during games. Based on multiple multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regression analyses, policy prohibiting body checking was associated with a lower rate of injury (incidence rate ratio (IRR): 0.38 (95% CI 0.24 to 0.6)) and concussion (IRR: 0.49; 95% CI 0.26 to 0.89). This translates to an absolute rate reduction of 7.82 injuries/1000 game-hours (95% CI 2.74 to 12.9) and the prevention of 7326 injuries (95% CI 2570 to 12083) in Canada annually. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of injury was 62% lower (concussion 51% lower) in leagues not permitting body checking in non-elite 15-17 years old leagues highlighting the potential public health impact of policy prohibiting body checking in older adolescent ice hockey players.

13.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(2): 188-196, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33948096

RESUMO

Missing data can influence calculations of accumulated athlete workload. The objectives were to identify the best single imputation methods and examine workload trends using multiple imputation. External (jumps per hour) and internal (rating of perceived exertion; RPE) workload were recorded for 93 (45 females, 48 males) high school basketball players throughout a season. Recorded data were simulated as missing and imputed using ten imputation methods based on the context of the individual, team and session. Both single imputation and machine learning methods were used to impute the simulated missing data. The difference between the imputed data and the actual workload values was computed as root mean squared error (RMSE). A generalized estimating equation determined the effect of imputation method on RMSE. Multiple imputation of the original dataset, with all known and actual missing workload data, was used to examine trends in longitudinal workload data. Following multiple imputation, a Pearson correlation evaluated the longitudinal association between jump count and sRPE over the season. A single imputation method based on the specific context of the session for which data are missing (team mean) was only outperformed by methods that combine information about the session and the individual (machine learning models). There was a significant and strong association between jump count and sRPE in the original data and imputed datasets using multiple imputation. The amount and nature of the missing data should be considered when choosing a method for single imputation of workload data in youth basketball. Multiple imputation using several predictor variables in a regression model can be used for analyses where workload is accumulated across an entire season.


Assuntos
Basquetebol/fisiologia , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Carga de Trabalho
14.
Br J Sports Med ; 55(19): 1068-1076, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853834

RESUMO

In 2020, the IOC proposed a universal methodology for the recording and reporting of data for injury and illness in sport. Para sport is played by individuals with impairment, and they have a unique set of considerations not captured by these recommendations. Therefore, the aim of this addendum to IOC consensus statement was to guide the Para sport researcher through the complexities and nuances that should be taken into consideration when collecting, registering, reporting and interpreting data regarding Para athlete health. To develop this translation, experts in the field of Para sports medicine and epidemiology conducted a formal consensus development process, which began in March 2020 with the formation of a consensus group that worked over eight phases, incorporating three virtual consensus meetings to finalise the translation. This translation is consistent with the IOC consensus statement, yet provides more detailed Para athlete specific definitions and recommendations on study population, specifically, diagnostic and eligible impairment categorisation and recording of adaptive equipment, and defining and classifying health problems in the context of Para sport. Additionally, recommendations and Para athlete specific examples are described with regards to injury mechanism, mode of onset, injury and illness classification, duration, capturing and reporting exposure and risk. Finally, methods and considerations are provided to cater to the varied needs of athletes with impairment with respect to data collection tools. This harmonisation will allow the science to develop and facilitate a more accurate understanding of injury and illness patterns for tailoring evidence-informed prevention programmes and enabling better planning of medical services for Para sport events.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805249

RESUMO

COVID-19 restrictions led to reduced levels of physical activity, increased screen usage, and declines in mental health in youth; however, in-depth understandings of the experiences of high school student-athletes have yet to be explored. To describe the experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic on student-athletes' physical activity, social connection, and mental health, 20 high school student-athletes living in Calgary, Alberta participated in semi-structured interviews, designed using phenomenography. Participants reported variations in physical activity, social connections, and mental health which were influenced by stay-at-home restrictions and weather. Access to resources, changes to routines, online classes, and social support all influenced engagement in physical activity. School and sports provided opportunities for in-person social connections, impacted by the onset of the pandemic. Participants reported their mental health was influenced by social connections, online classes, and physical activity. Findings from this study will inform the development of resources for high school student-athletes amidst COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Alberta/epidemiologia , Atletas , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
16.
Clin J Sport Med ; 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797475

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether high or low adiposity is associated with youth sport-related injury. DATA SOURCES: Ten electronic databases were searched to identify prospective studies examining the association between adiposity [body mass index (BMI) or body fat] and a future time-loss or medical attention sport-related musculoskeletal injury or concussion in youth aged 20 years and younger. Two independent raters assessed the quality (Downs and Black criteria) and risk of bias (Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Tool). Random-effects meta-analyses were used to calculate pooled odds ratio [95% confidence interval (CI)] of injury. MAIN RESULTS: Of 11 424 potentially relevant records, 38 articles were included with 17 eligible for meta-analyses. In qualitative synthesis, no clear association was identified between adiposity and any sport injury; however, 16/22 studies identified high adiposity as a significant risk factor for lower-extremity injury. Meta-analyses revealed higher BMI in youth with any sport-related injury and lower BMI in youth who developed a bone stress injury (BSI) compared with noninjured controls. The pooled OR (95% CI) examining the association of BMI and injury risk (excluding bone injury) was 1.18 (95% CI: 1.03-1.34). A major source of bias in included articles was inconsistent adjustment for age, sex, and physical activity participation. CONCLUSIONS: Level 2b evidence suggests that high BMI is associated with greater risk of youth sport injury, particularly lower-extremity injury and excluding BSI or fracture. Although pooled mean differences were low, anthropometric risk of injury seems to be dependent on type and site of injury in youth sport.

17.
Am J Sports Med ; 49(6): 1460-1469, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Return to sports (RTS) is frequently considered an indicator of successful recovery after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). However, despite the well-recognized health benefits of physical activity (PA), little is known about objectively measured PA in the 1 to 2 years after ACLR. Given that young female athletes have a high prevalence of ACLR and lower RTS rates as compared with their male counterparts, an in-depth examination of PA in this subgroup is warranted. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that female youth and young adults who have had ACLR in the previous 1 to 2 years would have less moderate or vigorous PA (MVPA) compared with healthy matched controls. We also hypothesized that the ACLR group would report lower levels of sports participation, patient-reported health outcomes, and physical function. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: Participants included 51 female athletes with primary unilateral ACLR for a sports-related injury in the previous 1 to 2 years and 51 age- and sports-matched controls. Outcomes included objectively measured PA (GT3X accelerometers), previous and current sports participation and RTS, body mass index, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), triple single-leg hop, and one-leg rise. Mean within-pair differences with 95% CIs were used to assess differences between groups across all outcomes. Multivariable linear regression (clustered by pair) was used to examine whether the ACLR group had less MVPA than did the age- and sports-matched control group, adjusting for total wear time, age, time since injury, and body mass index. RESULTS: Median age was 17.8 years (range, 14.6-22.6 years). There was no significant difference between groups in MVPA. However, the injury group had fewer mean minutes per day of vigorous PA (-1.22; 95% CI, -2.40 to -0.04), poorer KOOS values on all subscales, and shorter triple single-leg hop distance. In the injury group, 28 (55%) returned to sports, including 14 (27.5%) who returned at preinjury performance level. Across both groups, over one-third changed their most important sport, shifting toward an individual-based sport. CONCLUSION: At 1 to 2 years after ACLR, female athletes demonstrated no differences in combined MVPA and only a very small reduction in vigorous PA, yet they had higher levels of self-reported knee pain and symptoms, reduced knee function in sports, lower quality of life, and poorer objective knee function compared with matched controls.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Adolescente , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Atletas , Estudos de Coortes , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Participação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Volta ao Esporte , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Athl Train ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481016

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Current recovery guidelines following sport-related concussion (SRC) include 24-48 hours of rest followed by gradual return-to-activity with heart rate (HR) maintained below symptom threshold. Additionally, the monitoring of physical activity (PA) post-SRC using ActiGraph accelerometers can provide further objective insight on amounts of activity associated with recovery trajectories. Cut-point algorithms for these devices allow minute-by-minute PA to be classified into intensity domains; however, studies have shown different algorithms employed on the same healthy participant dataset can produce varying classifications. OBJECTIVE: To identify the most physiologically appropriate cut-point algorithm (Evenson or Romanzini) to analyze ActiGraph data in concussed youth with comparisons to HR response on the Buffalo Concussion Treadmill Test (BCTT). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Sport-concussion clinic within a university setting. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Eleven high-school students (5 male, 6 female; median [range] age =16 years [15-17], height = 177.8 cm [157.5-198.1], weight = 67 kg [52-98], body mass index = 22 kg/m2 [17-31]) involved in high-risk sport who sustained a physician diagnosed SRC. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Evenson and Romanzini algorithm PA intensity domains via ActiGraph data and HR during the BCTT. RESULTS: There were differences in moderate (P = .001) and vigorous (P = .002) intensities between algorithms, but no difference in light (P = .548). Evenson classified most of the time as moderate intensity (57.03% [0.00-94.12%]), whereas Romanzini classified virtually all PA as vigorous (88.25% [2.94-97.06%]). PA based on HR (stages 1-7: 20-39% HR reserve (HRR), stages 8-13: 40-59% HRR, stages 14 and above: 60-85% HRR) indicated the BCTT primarily involves light-to-moderate intensity, and therefore is better represented by the Evenson algorithm. CONCLUSIONS: The Evenson algorithm better characterizes the HR response during a standardized exercise test in concussed individuals and therefore should be used to analyze ActiGraph PA data in a concussed paediatric population.

20.
J Sci Med Sport ; 24(1): 2-6, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624441

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify the symptoms responsible for cessation of exercise testing and evaluate changes in post-concussion symptom scores on the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) from the Sport-Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT5) immediately, 1-4h, and 6-12h following completion of the Buffalo Concussion Treadmill Test (BCTT) in youth and adults who have sustained a sport-related concussion. DESIGN: Prospective case-series. METHODS: Individuals who were diagnosed with a sport-related concussion and self-reported difficulties with exertion were referred to perform an exertional treadmill test. Individuals were recruited from a university sports medicine clinic. Change in PCSS symptom severity scores were operationally defined as a change ≥4 points. RESULTS: Forty-five individuals aged 13-57 years consented to participate. A total of 14/24 (58.3%) female and 13/21 (61.9%) male participants reported an increase in symptom severity scores immediately following the BCTT. At 1-4h, 5/10 (50.0%) males and 5/14 (35.7%) females who completed the PCSS had elevated symptom severity scores compared to pre-exertion. Only 24.2% (3/17 males and 5/16 females) of participants completing the PCSS at 6-12h reported increased symptom severity scores. CONCLUSION: Exertional testing is an important component of a multifaceted assessment following concussion; however, previous research evaluating symptom responses to exertion is limited. This study provides evidence to suggest individuals who experience an exacerbation of concussion-associated symptoms after exertion are likely to return to pre-exertion levels within the same day. Future research monitoring symptoms following exertion and throughout recovery should be performed in tandem with physiological measures to better understand the source of symptoms.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/fisiopatologia , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Traumatismos em Atletas/complicações , Tontura/etiologia , Feminino , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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