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1.
Dig Liver Dis ; 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359404

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors have failed in treating metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients except those with dMMR/MSI tumors. However, until very recently we had only non-comparative promising data in this population with anti-programmed cell death 1/ programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD1/PD-L1) antibodies alone or combined with anti- cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) antibodies. This comparative phase II trial (NCT03186326), conducted in more than 100 centers in France, will include dMMR/MSI mCRC patients with progression after a first-line treatment with chemotherapy ± targeted therapies, to evaluate efficacy and safety of the anti-PDL1 Avelumab versus a standard second-line treatment. Main inclusion criteria were patients aged 18 to 75 years, ECOG performance status ≤2, dMMR/MSI mCRC and failure of a standard first-line regimen. Patient will be randomised to receive Avelumab 10 mg/kg versus standard second-line doublet chemotherapy plus a targeted agent according to tumor RAS status. Patients will be followed for 4 years. A gain of 5 months in median PFS is expected in favour of the Avelumab arm (12 vs 7 months; HR=0.58). Secondary endpoints include objective response rate, overall survival, quality of life and toxicity. In addition, circulating tumour DNA and microbiota will be explored to test their potential prognostic and predictive values. The study was opened in March 2018.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20047, 2020 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208839

RESUMO

Gastritis constitutes the initial step of the gastric carcinogenesis process. Gastritis diagnosis is based on histological examination of biopsies. Non-invasive real-time methods to detect mucosal inflammation are needed. Tissue optical properties modify reemitted light, i.e. the proportion of light that is emitted by a tissue after stimulation by a light flux. Analysis of light reemitted by gastric tissue could predict the inflammatory state. The aim of our study was to investigate a potential association between reemitted light and gastric tissue inflammation. We used two models and three multispectral analysis methods available on the marketplace. We used a mouse model of Helicobacter pylori infection and included patients undergoing gastric endoscopy. In mice, the reemitted light was measured using a spectrometer and a multispectral camera. We also exposed patient's gastric mucosa to specific wavelengths and analyzed reemitted light. In both mouse model and humans, modifications of reemitted light were observed around 560 nm, 600 nm and 640 nm, associated with the presence of gastritis lesions. These results pave the way for the development of improved endoscopes in order to detect real-time gastritis without the need of biopsies. This would allow a better prevention of gastric cancer alongside with cost efficient endoscopies.

3.
Blood ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067622

RESUMO

Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a clonal hematopoietic disorder characterized by the accumulation of foamy histiocytes within organs, in particular frequent retroperitoneal involvement, and a high frequency of BRAFV600E mutations. Although ECD is not commonly recognized to have overt peripheral blood (PB) or bone marrow (BM) disease, we recently identified that ECD patients have a high frequency of a concomitant myeloid malignancy. Given this finding and the fact that clonal hematopoiesis frequency precedes development of myeloid malignancies, we conducted a systematic clinical and molecular analysis of the BM from 120 ECD patients. Surprisingly, 42.5% (51/120) of ECD patients had clonal hematopoiesis while 15.8% (19/120) of patients developed an overt hematologic malignancy (nearly all of which were a myeloid neoplasm). The most frequently mutated genes in BM were TET2, ASXL1, DNMT3A, and NRAS. ECD patients with clonal hematopoiesis were more likely to be older (p<0.0001), have retroperitoneal involvement (p=0.02), and harbor a BRAFV600E mutation (p=0.049) than those without clonal hematopoiesis. The presence of the TET2 mutation was associated with a BRAFV600E mutation in tissue ECD lesions (p=0.0006) and TET2 mutant ECD patients were more likely to have vascular involvement than TET2 wild-type ECD patients. Clonal hematopoiesis mutations in ECD were detected in cells derived from CD34+CD38- BM progenitors and PB monocytes but less frequently present in PB B- and T-lymphocytes. These data identify a heretofore unrecognized high frequency of clonal hematopoiesis in ECD patients, reaffirm the development of additional high risk of myeloid neoplasms in ECD, and provide evidence of a BM-based precursor cell-of-origin for many patients with ECD.

4.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 241, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung involvement in childhood Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is infrequent and rarely life threatening, but occasionally, severe presentations are observed. METHODS: Among 1482 children (< 15 years) registered in the French LCH registry (1994-2018), 111 (7.4%) had lung involvement. This retrospective study included data for 17 (1.1%) patients that required one or more intensive care unit (ICU) admissions for respiratory failure. RESULTS: The median age was 1.3 years at the first ICU hospitalization. Of the 17 patients, 14 presented with lung involvement at the LCH diagnosis, and 7 patients (41%) had concomitant involvement of risk-organ (hematologic, spleen, or liver). Thirty-five ICU hospitalizations were analysed. Among these, 22 (63%) were secondary to a pneumothorax, 5 (14%) were associated with important cystic lesions without pneumothorax, and 8 (23%) included a diffuse micronodular lung infiltration in the context of multisystem disease. First-line vinblastine-corticosteroid combination therapy was administered to 16 patients; 12 patients required a second-line therapy (cladribine: n = 7; etoposide-aracytine: n = 3; targeted therapy n = 2). A total of 6 children (35%) died (repeated pneumothorax: n = 3; diffuse micronodular lung infiltration in the context of multisystem disease: n = 2; following lung transplantation: n = 1). For survivors, the median follow-up after ICU was 11.2 years. Among these, 9 patients remain asymptomatic despite abnormal chest imaging. CONCLUSIONS: Severe lung involvement is unusual in childhood LCH, but it is associated with high mortality. Treatment guidelines should be improved for this group of patients: viral infection prophylaxis and early administration of a new LCH therapy, such as targeted therapy.

5.
Neurology ; 95(20): e2746-e2754, 2020 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887776

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: CNS involvement in Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) leads to substantial morbidity and mortality. To assess CNS manifestations in a French cohort of 253 patients with ECD, we determined clinical characteristics and outcomes, including those under targeted therapies. METHODS: This was a retrospective longitudinal study. CNS manifestations were determined by clinical examination and brain or spine MRI. Targeted therapy efficacy was assessed using global assessment from a physician and a radiologist. The study was approved by the ethics committee Comité de Protection des Personnes Ile de France III. RESULTS: Ninety-seven of 253 patients (38%) with ECD had CNS involvement. CNS involvement was significantly associated with a younger age at diagnosis (mean 55.5 years) and at symptom onset (mean 50.5 years), as well as with the presence of the BRAF V600E mutation (in 77% of cases), xanthelasma (34%), and diabetes insipidus (36%). Median survival among patients with CNS involvement was significantly lower than that of patients with ECD without CNS involvement (124 months vs 146 months, p = 0.03). Seventy-four CNS MRIs were centrally reviewed, which showed 3 patterns: tumoral in 66%, pseudo-degenerative in 50%, and vascular in 18%. Targeted therapy (BRAF or MEK inhibitors) was associated with improved symptoms in 43% of patients and MRI improvement in 45%. CONCLUSIONS: CNS manifestations are typically associated with poor prognosis in patients with ECD. Three distinct patterns can be recognized: tumoral, pseudodegenerative, and vascular. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that targeted therapy leads to clinical or imaging improvement in almost 50% of patients.


Assuntos
Tronco Encefálico/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Doença de Erdheim-Chester/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Erdheim-Chester/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Medula Espinal/patologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Atrofia/patologia , Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Diabetes Insípido/etiologia , Doença de Erdheim-Chester/complicações , Doença de Erdheim-Chester/genética , Feminino , França , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Br J Haematol ; 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700439

RESUMO

The nucleoside analogue, 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (2CDA), was reported to be an active treatment for childhood Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) without risk organ (RO-) involvement. However, we lack data on long-term effects of 2CDA treatment, including the disease reactivation rate, permanent sequelae and long-term tolerance. This study included 44 children from the French LCH registry, treated for a RO- LCH with 2CDA monotherapy (median number of six courses). The median age at the beginning of 2CDA was 3·6 years (range, 0·3-19·7 years) and the median follow-up after was 5·4 years (range, 0·6-15·1 years). Objective response to 2CDA was observed in 25 patients (56·8%), while six patients (13·6%) had stable disease and 13 patients (29·5%) exhibited progressive disease. Among patients without progression, only two experienced disease reactivation after 2CDA discontinuation. The five-year cumulative incidence of disease progression or reactivation after 2CDA therapy initiation was 34·3%. The lymphopenia reported in all cases [72% below absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) of 0·5 G/l], was addressed with appropriate prophylactic measures. Other toxicities above grade 2 were uncommon, and no second malignant neoplasm or neuropathy was reported. The five-year overall survival was 97·7%. In conclusion, we could confirm that 2CDA monotherapy was a beneficial long-term therapy for treating patients with RO- LCH. Appropriate management of induced immune deficiency is mandatory.

8.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(1)2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite prolonged tumor response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) for a subset of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), a secondary resistance will occur for a majority of these patients. The understanding of late progression mechanisms with ICIs is important to improve future treatment strategies. METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) on circulating tumor DNA and compared molecular profiles between the beginning of ICI treatment and tumor progression in patients with advanced NSCLC treated with ICIs and who had initial and prolonged tumor response with secondary progression, after at least 6 months of treatment. RESULTS: We identified eight patients who experienced initial and durable tumor response, and secondary tumor progression after 6 months of treatment, with available paired blood samples (diagnosis and progression). All had lung adenocarcinoma, three had programmed-death ligand-1 expression ≥50% in immunohistochemistry and all presented low blood tumor mutational burden (bTMB). Seven patients received nivolumab in second-line or more, and one received pembrolizumab as first-line treatment. WES at progression showed clonal selection with molecular alterations of Wnt pathway-related genes, increase of copy number aberrations in cancer-related genes and loss of tumor-suppressor genes (such as PTEN) or of genes associated with immune response (such as B2M). No difference in term of bTMB was observed at progression. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study describing putative molecular mechanisms associated with late progression under ICI in lung cancer. Studies on treatment strategies adapted to these mechanisms are needed.

9.
Dig Liver Dis ; 52(7): 730-733, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adjuvant treatment for stage II colon cancer remains debated. Finding a tool to select patients at risk for disease recurrence may help the clinical decision. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has been reported recently as a potential predictive marker for disease recurrence. We thus aim to test its ability to better select stage II colon cancer patients for adjuvant therapy. METHODS: This national, phase III trial (NCT00002019-000935-15) conducted in more than 100 centers in France, plans to screen around 2640 patients in order to randomize (2:1; minimization method) 198 ctDNA positive patients. Patients aged 18 to 75 years with ECOG performance status ≤1 with R0 surgical resection of a pT3-T4aN0 colon or high rectum adenocarcinoma will be randomized within 63 days after curative-intent surgery, to adjuvant mFOLFOX6 (oxaliplatin 85 mg/m², leucovorin 400 mg/m², and 5-FU bolus 400 mg/m2 then 5FU Continuous infusion 2.4 g/m²) every two weeks for 12 cycles or observation. Patients will be followed for maximum 7 years. A gain of 17.5% in 3-yr disease free survival (DFS) is expected (42.5% in the experimental arm vs. 25% in the control arm; HR:0.62; α, 5% [two-sided log-rank test]; 1-ß, 80%). Secondary endpoints include 2-yr DFS, overall survival, and toxicity. Recruitement began End of January 2020.

11.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(15): 1702-1710, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167864

RESUMO

PATIENTS AND METHODS: A post hoc analysis of all pathologic reports from patients with stage III CC included in the IDEA France phase III study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00958737) investigating the duration of adjuvant fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin or capecitabine and oxaliplatin therapy (3 v 6 months) was performed. The primary objective was to determine the prognostic impact of TD on disease-free survival (DFS). The effect of the addition of TD to LNM count on pN restaging was also evaluated. A multivariable analysis was performed to establish the association between TD and DFS. RESULTS: Of 1,942 patients, 184 (9.5%) had TDs. The pN1a/b and pN1c populations showed similar DFS. TD-positive patients had worse prognosis compared with TD-negative patients, with 3-year DFS rates of 65.6% (95% CI, 58.0% to 72.1%) and 74.7% (95% CI, 72.6% to 76.7%; P = .0079), respectively. On multivariable analysis, TDs were associated with a higher risk of recurrence or death (hazard ratio [HR], 1.36; P = .0201). Other adverse factors included pT4 and/or pN2 disease (HR, 2.21; P < .001), the 3 months of adjuvant treatment (HR, 1.29; P = .0029), tumor obstruction (HR, 1.28; P = .0233), and male sex (HR, 1.24; P = .0151). Patients restaged as having pN2 disease (n = 35, 2.3%) had similar DFS as patients initially classified as pN2. CONCLUSION: The presence of TDs is an independent prognostic factor for DFS in patients with stage III CC. The addition of TD to LNM may help to better define the duration of adjuvant therapy.

12.
N Engl J Med ; 382(5): 437-445, 2020 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) can cause severe disease in children and adults with a variety of inherited or acquired T-cell immunodeficiencies, who are prone to multiple infections. It can also rarely cause disease in otherwise healthy persons. The pathogenesis of idiopathic CMV disease is unknown. Inbred mice that lack the gene encoding nitric oxide synthase 2 (Nos2) are susceptible to the related murine CMV infection. METHODS: We studied a previously healthy 51-year-old man from Iran who after acute CMV infection had an onset of progressive CMV disease that led to his death 29 months later. We hypothesized that the patient may have had a novel type of inborn error of immunity. Thus, we performed whole-exome sequencing and tested candidate mutant alleles experimentally. RESULTS: We found a homozygous frameshift mutation in NOS2 encoding a truncated NOS2 protein that did not produce nitric oxide, which determined that the patient had autosomal recessive NOS2 deficiency. Moreover, all NOS2 variants that we found in homozygosity in public databases encoded functional proteins, as did all other variants with an allele frequency greater than 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that inherited NOS2 deficiency was clinically silent in this patient until lethal infection with CMV. Moreover, NOS2 appeared to be redundant for control of other pathogens in this patient. (Funded by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences and others.).


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/deficiência , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Genótipo , Homozigoto , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Linhagem , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
14.
Clin Neuropathol ; 39(2): 64-69, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661070

RESUMO

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare condition affecting children more frequently than adults. LCH can involve any organ in the body and has a wide spectrum of clinical presentation from a single self-healing bone lesion to a multisystemic life-threatening disease. The diagnosis of LCH requires histology with compatible clinical and radiological findings. Positive immunochemistry for both CD1a and CD207 is required for a definitive diagnosis of LCH. The majority of LCH shares oncogenic BRAFV600E mutation. We report the case of a 55-year-old adult who presented with a single lytic self-healing lesion of the skull, invading adjacent soft tissues. The histology and cytology were also typical of LCH, and tumor cells contained the BRAFV600E mutation. However, histiocytes were negative for CD1a and CD207. We suggest that this case might be considered as LCH, despite its abnormal phenotype.
.

16.
Gut ; 69(4): 681-690, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780575

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diagnostic tests, such as Immunoscore, predict prognosis in patients with colon cancer. However, additional prognostic markers could be detected on pathological slides using artificial intelligence tools. DESIGN: We have developed a software to detect colon tumour, healthy mucosa, stroma and immune cells on CD3 and CD8 stained slides. The lymphocyte density and surface area were quantified automatically in the tumour core (TC) and invasive margin (IM). Using a LASSO algorithm, DGMate (DiGital tuMor pArameTErs), we detected digital parameters within the tumour cells related to patient outcomes. RESULTS: Within the dataset of 1018 patients, we observed that a poorer relapse-free survival (RFS) was associated with high IM stromal area (HR 5.65; 95% CI 2.34 to 13.67; p<0.0001) and high DGMate (HR 2.72; 95% CI 1.92 to 3.85; p<0.001). Higher CD3+ TC, CD3+ IM and CD8+ TC densities were significantly associated with a longer RFS. Analysis of variance showed that CD3+ TC yielded a similar prognostic value to the classical CD3/CD8 Immunoscore (p=0.44). A combination of the IM stromal area, DGMate and CD3, designated 'DGMuneS', outperformed Immunoscore when used in estimating patients' prognosis (C-index=0.601 vs 0.578, p=0.04) and was independently associated with patient outcomes following Cox multivariate analysis. A predictive nomogram based on DGMuneS and clinical variables identified a group of patients with less than 10% relapse risk and another group with a 50% relapse risk. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that artificial intelligence can potentially improve patient care by assisting pathologists in better defining stage III colon cancer patients' prognosis.

18.
Chest ; 157(2): 323-333, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Destombes-Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare multisystemic histiocytosis. Pulmonary involvement during RDD has been poorly described. The goal of this study was to examine the clinical presentations, radiological features, and outcomes of 15 patients with RDD and lung involvement. METHODS: The cases of RDD with lung involvement were extracted from the French National Histiocytosis registry. Efficacy of the MEK inhibitor cobimetinib in treating lung disease was evaluated with an 18fluorodeoxyglucose PET scanner and chest CT scans. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (six women; median age, 40 years at RDD diagnosis) were included. All patients had evidence of systemic disease with extrapulmonary localizations of the disease (lymphadenopathy [n = 12], skin [n = 9], bones [n = 6], retroperitoneal involvement [n = 3], sinuses [n = 3], parotid gland [n = 2], submandibular gland [n = 1], and breast [n = 1]). Presenting symptoms were dominated by dyspnea and dry cough in seven patients. Restrictive physiology was observed in two of five patients. BAL showed lymphocytosis in one of five cases. Eight patients received corticosteroids, all but one with variable immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory therapies. Two patients received cobimetinib for severe lung disease, with dramatic pulmonary metabolic and tumoral responses. Two patients died during follow-up: one of hemoptysis, and the other of an unrelated cerebral tumor. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary involvement in RDD is rare, proteiform, and sometimes severe. The MEK inhibitor cobimetinib can lead to dramatic responses.

19.
Cancer Cell ; 37(1): 123-134.e5, 2020 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883967

RESUMO

Pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNETs) are common, with five main histological subtypes: lactotroph, somatotroph, and thyrotroph (POU1F1/PIT1 lineage); corticotroph (TBX19/TPIT lineage); and gonadotroph (NR5A1/SF1 lineage). We report a comprehensive pangenomic classification of PitNETs. PitNETs from POU1F1/PIT1 lineage showed an epigenetic signature of diffuse DNA hypomethylation, with transposable elements expression and chromosomal instability (except for GNAS-mutated somatotrophs). In TPIT lineage, corticotrophs were divided into three classes: the USP8-mutated with overt secretion, the USP8-wild-type with increased invasiveness and increased epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and the large silent tumors with gonadotroph transdifferentiation. Unexpected expression of gonadotroph markers was also found in GNAS-wild-type somatotrophs (SF1 expression), challenging the current definition of SF1/gonadotroph lineage. This classification improves our understanding and affects the clinical stratification of patients with PitNETs.


Assuntos
Tumores Neuroendócrinos/diagnóstico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/genética , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linhagem da Célula , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Metilação de DNA , Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Complexos Endossomais de Distribuição Requeridos para Transporte/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Epigenoma , Exoma , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Invasividade Neoplásica , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Hipófise/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/patologia , Prognóstico , Transcriptoma , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Curr Rheumatol Rep ; 21(12): 66, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807955

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This report provides an overview of the current knowledge of molecular characterization, clinical description, and treatment of Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD), a multi-systemic adult histiocytosis of the L group. RECENT FINDINGS: The recent identification of several MAPK mutations in histiocytes of ECD lesions. Leading to targeted therapies. The discovery of the BRAFV600E mutation in ECD lesions followed by several other kinase mutations in the MAPK pathway has revolutionized our understanding of the disease pathogenesis and led to trials with targeted therapies that demonstrated robust efficacy.

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