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1.
Chest ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Destombes-Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare multisystemic histiocytosis. Pulmonary involvement during RDD is poorly described. Here, we aimed to examine the clinical features, radiological features, and outcomes of 15 patients with RDD with lung involvement. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The cases of RDD with lung involvement were extracted from the French National Histiocytosis registry. Efficacy of the MEK inhibitor cobimetinib in treating lung disease was evaluated with an 18fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission topography (18FDG PET) scanner and chest computed tomography (CT) scans. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (6 women; median age of 40 years at RDD diagnosis) were included. All patients had evidence of systemic disease with extra-pulmonary localizations of the disease (lymphadenopathy (n=12), skin (n=9), bones (n=6), retroperitoneal involvement (n=3), sinuses (n=3), parotid (n=2), sub mandibular gland (n=1) and breast (n=1)). Presenting symptoms were dominated by dyspnea and dry cough in 7 patients. Restrictive physiology was observed in 2 out of 5 patients. Bronchoalveolar lavage demonstrated lymphocytosis in 1 out 5 cases. Eight patients received corticosteroids, all but one with variable immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory therapies. Two patients received cobimetinib for severe lung disease with dramatic pulmonary metabolic and tumoral responses. Two patients died during follow-up: one due to hemoptysis and the other from an unrelated cerebral tumor. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary involvement in RDD is rare, proteiform, and sometimes severe. The MEK inhibitor cobimetinib can lead to dramatic responses.

2.
Clin Neuropathol ; 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661070

RESUMO

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare condition affecting children more frequently than adults. LCH can involve any organ in the body and has a wide spectrum of clinical presentation from a single self-healing bone lesion to a multisystemic life-threatening disease. The diagnosis of LCH requires histology with compatible clinical and radiological findings. Positive immunochemistry for both CD1a and CD207 is required for a definitive diagnosis of LCH. The majority of LCH shares oncogenic BRAFV600E mutation. We report the case of a 55-year-old adult who presented with a single lytic self-healing lesion of the skull, invading adjacent soft tissues. The histology and cytology were also typical of LCH, and tumor cells contained the BRAFV600E mutation. However, histiocytes were negative for CD1a and CD207. We suggest that this case might be considered as LCH, despite its abnormal phenotype.
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3.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(31): 2857-2865, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513482

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Off-label use of vemurafenib (VMF) to treat BRAFV600E mutation-positive, refractory, childhood Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) was evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-four patients from 12 countries took VMF 20 mg/kg/d. They were classified according to risk organ involvement: liver, spleen, and/or blood cytopenia. The main evaluation criteria were adverse events (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [version 4.3]) and therapeutic responses according to Disease Activity Score. RESULTS: LCH extent was distributed as follows: 44 with positive and 10 with negative risk organ involvement. Median age at diagnosis was 0.9 years (range, 0.1 to 6.5 years). Median age at VMF initiation was 1.8 years (range, 0.18 to 14 years), with a median follow-up of 22 months (range, 4.3 to 57 months), whereas median treatment duration was 13.9 months (for 855 patient-months). At 8 weeks, 38 complete responses and 16 partial responses had been achieved, with the median Disease Activity Score decreasing from 7 at diagnosis to 0 (P < .001). Skin rash, the most frequent adverse event, affected 74% of patients. No secondary skin cancer was observed. Therapeutic plasma VMF concentrations (range, 10 to 20 mg/L) seemed to be safe and effective. VMF discontinuation for 30 patients led to 24 LCH reactivations. The blood BRAFV600E allele load, assessed as circulating cell-free DNA, decreased after starting VMF but remained positive (median, 3.6% at diagnosis, and 1.6% during VMF treatment; P < .001) and was associated with a higher risk of reactivation at VMF discontinuation. None of the various empirical therapies (hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, cladribine and cytarabine, anti-MEK agent, vinblastine, etc) used for maintenance could eradicate the BRAFV600E clone. CONCLUSION: VMF seemed safe and effective in children with refractory BRAFV600E-positive LCH. Additional studies are needed to find effective maintenance therapy approaches.

4.
Dig Liver Dis ; 51(9): 1223-1231, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This document is a summary of the French Intergroup guidelines regarding the management of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) updated in December 2018. DESIGN: This collaborative work summarizes clinical practice recommendations (guidelines) on the management of GISTs. It is based on recent literature review, ESMO recommendations and expert opinions. RESULTS: The diagnosis of GIST is based on histological examination and immunohistochemistry with markers KIT and DOG-1. Each case must be discussed within a multidisciplinary team. Complete surgical resection tumour, avoiding peroperative perforation, is the potentially curative treatment of localized GISTs. The estimation of the recurrence risk is essential, or adjuvant treatment,and follow-up adaptation. Genotyping (KIT and PDGFRA) of all but very low-risk GISTs is recommended. The nature of mutation has a prognostic value and predictive influence on drug efficacy. Imatinib, a tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, is the standard adjuvant treatment after R0 resection of a GIST with a high risk of recurrence, and the first line therapy for advanced GISTs. Suninitib and regorafenib are respectively the second- and third-line standard treatments for advanced GISTs. CONCLUSION: Guidelines for management of GISTs are continuously evolving and need to be regularly updated. This constant progress is made possible through clinical and translational research.

6.
EBioMedicine ; 46: 94-104, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comprehensive transcriptomic analyses have shown that colorectal cancer (CRC) is heterogeneous and have led to the definition of molecular subtypes among which the stem-cell, mesenchymal-like group is associated with poor prognosis. The molecular pathways orchestrating the emergence of this subtype are incompletely understood. In line with the contribution of the cellular prion protein PrPC to stemness, we hypothesize that deregulation of this protein could lead to a stem-cell, mesenchymal-like phenotype in CRC. METHODS: We assessed the distribution of the PrPC-encoding PRNP mRNA in two large CRC cohorts according to molecular classification and its association with patient survival. We developed cell-based assays to explore the impact of gain and loss of PrPC function on markers of the mesenchymal subtype and to delineate the signalling pathways recruited by PrPC. We measured soluble PrPC in the plasmas of 325 patients with metastatic CRC and probed associations with disease outcome. FINDINGS: We found that PRNP gene expression is enriched in tumours of the mesenchymal subtype and is associated with poor survival. Our in vitro analyses revealed that PrPC controls the expression of genes that specify the mesenchymal subtype through the recruitment of the Hippo pathway effectors YAP and TAZ and the TGFß pathway. We showed that plasma levels of PrPC are elevated in metastatic CRC and are associated with poor disease control. INTERPRETATION: Our findings define PrPC as a candidate driver of the poor-prognosis mesenchymal subtype of CRC. They suggest that PrPC may serve as a potential biomarker for patient stratification in CRC. FUNDING: Grant support was provided by the following: Cancéropôle Ile de France (grant number 2016-1-EMERG-36-UP 5-1), Association pour la Recherche sur le Cancer (grant number PJA 20171206220), SATT Ile de France Innov (grant number 415) as well as INSERM.

7.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219080, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260495

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are most of the time treated with a first-line cytotoxic chemotherapy. Tobacco use is responsible for 90% of lung cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of smoking continuation during first-line chemotherapy on tumor response in advanced-stage NSCLC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients with an advanced-stage NSCLC (IIIb or IV), treated with first-line platinum-based chemotherapy in our Department between June 2013 and July 2017 were included. Smoking status was assessed at inclusion by self-report, then at the tumor assessment consultation after 2 months of treatment, by both self-report and plasmatic cotinine measurement. Chemotherapy response, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and stage 3-4 toxicity were registered. RESULTS: Ninety-seven patients were included: 8 (8%) declared to be non-smokers, 56 (58%) current smokers and 33 (34%) former smokers at diagnosis. At the first tumor evaluation, 24 (25%) self-reported as active smokers and 73 (75%) as non-smokers; overall response rate (ORR) was respectively 38% and 48% (p = 0.373). Fifty-four patients had a plasmatic cotinine evaluation at the first tumor evaluation. Seventeen patients (32%) had a positive cotinine rate (median 108ng/mL, IQR 31-236). Six patients (35%) had positive cotinine rate whereas declaring to be non-smokers at the first tumor evaluation. ORR was 18% in case of positive cotinine rate, and 57% when negative (p = 0.007). Regardless of the method for smoking status evaluation, PFS, OS and grade 3-4 toxicities were similar between smoker and non-smoker patients at the first tumor evaluation. CONCLUSION: Smoking continuation during platinum-based chemotherapy, reflected by positive plasma cotinine rate, was associated with a poor ORR.

8.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 176, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent data suggested a role of gut microbiota and antibiotic use on immune checkpoint inhibitors efficacy. We aimed to evaluate the impact of early use of antibiotic (EUA), blood microbiome and plasmatic citrulline (marker of the intestinal barrier) on nivolumab efficacy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: We included all consecutive patients with advanced NSCLC treated with nivolumab in our Department between 2014 and 2017. Blood microbiome was analyzed at month (M) M0 and M2. Citrulline rates were evaluated at M0, M2, M4 and M6. RESULTS: Seventy-two patients were included (EUA in 42%). Overall survival (OS) was longer without EUA (median 13.4 months) than with EUA (5.1 months, p = 0.03). Thirty-five patients (49%) had plasma samples available. High citrulline rate (≥20 µM) at M0 was associated with tumor response (p = 0.084) and clinical benefit (nivolumab > 6 months) (p = 0.002). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 7.9 months (high citrulline) vs 1.6 months (low citrulline) (p < 0.0001), and median OS were respectively non reached vs 2.2 months (p < 0.0001). Patients with EUA had lower median citrulline rates at M0: 21 µM (IQR 15.0-30.8) vs 32 µM (IQR 24.0-42.0) without EUA (p = 0.044). The presence of specific bacterial DNA in blood at M0 was associated with response and clinical benefit (Peptostreptococcae, Paludibaculum, Lewinella) or with tumor progression (Gemmatimonadaceae). Multivariate analyses on PFS and OS confirmed the prognostic role of citrulline and blood microbiome. CONCLUSIONS: EUA is associated with shorter OS with nivolumab and lower citrulline rates. Plasma citrulline and blood microbiome appear to be promising predictive factors of nivolumab efficacy.

10.
J Exp Med ; 216(8): 1777-1790, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213488

RESUMO

Fulminant viral hepatitis (FVH) is a devastating and unexplained condition that strikes otherwise healthy individuals during primary infection with common liver-tropic viruses. We report a child who died of FVH upon infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) at age 11 yr and who was homozygous for a private 40-nucleotide deletion in IL18BP, which encodes the IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP). This mutation is loss-of-function, unlike the variants found in a homozygous state in public databases. We show that human IL-18 and IL-18BP are both secreted mostly by hepatocytes and macrophages in the liver. Moreover, in the absence of IL-18BP, excessive NK cell activation by IL-18 results in uncontrolled killing of human hepatocytes in vitro. Inherited human IL-18BP deficiency thus underlies fulminant HAV hepatitis by unleashing IL-18. These findings provide proof-of-principle that FVH can be caused by single-gene inborn errors that selectively disrupt liver-specific immunity. They also show that human IL-18 is toxic to the liver and that IL-18BP is its antidote.

11.
Hum Pathol ; 89: 51-61, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054893

RESUMO

Childhood pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a rare disease. Its pulmonary histopathology, according to comprehensive clinical-radiological findings and BRAFV600E mutation status, has not yet been thoroughly documented. From the 167 childhood PLCH cases entered in the French National Histiocytosis Registry (1983-2016), we retrieved lung biopsies from a consecutive retrospective series of 17 patients, diagnosed when they were 2 weeks to 16 years old (median, 9.4 years), and report the clinical and histopathological findings herein. Histological analyses of biopsies (16 surgical and 1 postmortem) found the following features, alone or associated: Langerhans cell (LC) nodules with cavitation (9/17), cysts (14/17), fibrotic scars (2/17), peribronchiolar topographic distribution of the lesions (10/17), and accessory changes, like stretch emphysema (7/17). Those characteristics closely resemble those describing adult PLCH. However, unusual findings observed were 2 large nodules and a diffuse interstitial LC infiltrate. BRAFV600E mutation was detected in 4 of 12 samples tested, notably in the 3 with unusual features. In conclusion, childhood PLCH mostly shares the common histology features already described in adult PLCH, regardless of age. Because smoking is considered the major trigger in PLCH pathogenesis, the findings based on this series suggest other inducers of bronchiolar LC recruitment, especially in very young patients.

13.
Eur J Cancer ; 115: 97-106, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) pathways, which promote tumour growth and proliferation, are often deregulated in advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas. We assessed whether adding panitumumab (an EGFR inhibitor) or rilotumumab (a HGF inhibitor) to first-line fluoropyrimidine-based and platinum-based chemotherapy (modified oxaliplatin, leucovorin and fluorouracil [mFOLFOX6]) benefits to patients with advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This phase II, open-label, randomised, three-arm study enrolled patients ≥18 years, with advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1 and no known HER2 overexpression. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) mFOLFOX6 (oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2, leucovorin 400 mg/m2, 5-fluorouracil 400 mg/m2 bolus then 2400 mg/m2 over 46 h) alone or combined with panitumumab (6 mg/kg) or rilotumumab (10 mg/kg) every 2 weeks until limiting toxicity, patient's refusal or disease progression. The primary end-point was the 4-month progression-free survival (PFS) rate. Secondary end-points included overall survival (OS) and tolerance. RESULTS: The study enrolled 162 patients in 29 French centres. The median follow-up was 23.6 months (interquartile range = 16.4-29.0). The 4-month PFS rate was 71% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 57-82) with chemotherapy alone, 57% (95% CI = 42-71) combined with panitumumab and 61% (95% CI = 47-74) combined with rilotumumab. Median OS was 13.1 months (95% CI = 8.7-16.9) with chemotherapy alone, 8.3 months (95% CI = 6.2-13.2) combined with panitumumab and 11.5 months (95% CI = 7.9-17.1) combined with rilotumumab. Adverse events grade ≥III occurred less frequently with chemotherapy alone (62%) than with panitumumab (83%) and rilotumumab (89%). CONCLUSIONS: We found no benefit in adding panitumumab or rilotumumab to mFOLFOX6 first-line chemotherapy to treat advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: European Clinical Trials Database, number 2009-012797-12.

14.
Curr Oncol Rep ; 21(7): 62, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115724

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Provide an overview of recent progress in decoding the pathogenesis and treatment of systemic histiocytoses. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in molecular techniques over the last few years, enabling the identification of several MAPK mutations in lesion histiocytes, have revolutionized our understanding of histiocytosis that led to a revised classification and new treatments. Since the 2010 discovery of the BRAFV600E mutation in 57% of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) lesions, several other kinase mutations have been found, mostly in the MAPK pathway, and also in other key signaling pathways, in LCH, Erdheim-Chester Disease (ECD) and, less frequently, Destombes-Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD). Those revolutionary breakthroughs enhanced our understanding of the pathogenesis of histiocytosis and led to trials with targeted therapies that demonstrated notable efficacy.

16.
Br J Cancer ; 120(7): 697-702, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ampullary adenocarcinoma (AA) originates from either intestinal (INT) or pancreaticobiliary (PB) epithelium. Different prognostic factors of recurrence have been identified in previous studies. METHODS: In 91 AA patients of the AGEO retrospective multicentre cohort, we evaluated the centrally reviewed morphological classification, panel markers of Ang et al. including CK7, CK20, MUC1, MUC2 and CDX2, the 50-gene panel mutational analysis, and the clinicopathological AGEO prognostic score. RESULTS: Forty-three (47%) of the 91 tumours were Ang-INT, 29 (32%) were Ang-PB, 18 (20%) were ambiguous (Ang-AMB) and one could not be classified. Among these 90 tumours, 68.7% of INT tumours were Ang-INT and 78.2% of PB tumours were Ang-PB. MUC5AC expression was detected in 32.5% of the 86 evaluable cases. Among 71 tumours, KRAS, TP53, APC and PIK3CA were the most frequently mutated genes. The KRAS mutation was significantly more frequent in the PB subtype. In multivariate analysis, only AGEO prognostic score and tumour subtype were associated with relapse-free survival. Only AGEO prognostic score was associated with overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: Mutational analysis and MUC5AC expression provide no additional value in the prognostic evaluation of AA patients. Ang et al. classification and the AGEO prognostic score were confirmed as a strong prognosticator for disease recurrence.

18.
Sci Immunol ; 3(30)2018 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578351

RESUMO

Hundreds of patients with autosomal recessive, complete IL-12p40 or IL-12Rß1 deficiency have been diagnosed over the last 20 years. They typically suffer from invasive mycobacteriosis and, occasionally, from mucocutaneous candidiasis. Susceptibility to these infections is thought to be due to impairments of IL-12-dependent IFN-γ immunity and IL-23-dependent IL-17A/IL-17F immunity, respectively. We report here patients with autosomal recessive, complete IL-12Rß2 or IL-23R deficiency, lacking responses to IL-12 or IL-23 only, all of whom, unexpectedly, display mycobacteriosis without candidiasis. We show that αß T, γδ T, B, NK, ILC1, and ILC2 cells from healthy donors preferentially produce IFN-γ in response to IL-12, whereas NKT cells and MAIT cells preferentially produce IFN-γ in response to IL-23. We also show that the development of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells, including, in particular, mycobacterium-specific TH1* cells (CD45RA-CCR6+), is dependent on both IL-12 and IL-23. Last, we show that IL12RB1, IL12RB2, and IL23R have similar frequencies of deleterious variants in the general population. The comparative rarity of symptomatic patients with IL-12Rß2 or IL-23R deficiency, relative to IL-12Rß1 deficiency, is, therefore, due to lower clinical penetrance. There are fewer symptomatic IL-23R- and IL-12Rß2-deficient than IL-12Rß1-deficient patients, not because these genetic disorders are rarer, but because the isolated absence of IL-12 or IL-23 is, in part, compensated by the other cytokine for the production of IFN-γ, thereby providing some protection against mycobacteria. These experiments of nature show that human IL-12 and IL-23 are both required for optimal IFN-γ-dependent immunity to mycobacteria, both individually and much more so cooperatively.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-12/imunologia , Interleucina-23/imunologia , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/imunologia , Mycobacterium/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-12/deficiência , Interleucina-12/genética , Interleucina-23/deficiência , Interleucina-23/genética , Linhagem
19.
Br J Haematol ; 183(4): 608-617, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421536

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative (ND) complications in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) are a late-onset but dramatic sequelae for which incidence and risk factors are not well defined. Based on a national prospective registry of paediatric LCH patients, we determined the incidence rate of clinical ND LCH (cND-LCH) and analysed risk factors, taking into account disease extent and molecular characteristics. Among 1897 LCH patients, 36 (1·9%) were diagnosed with a cND-LCH. The 10-year cumulative incidence of cND-LCH was 4·1%. cND-LCH typically affected patients previously treated for a multisystem, risk organ-negative LCH, represented in 69·4% of cND-LCH cases. Pituitary gland, skin and base skull/orbit bone lesions were more frequent (P < 0·001) in cND-LCH patients compared to those without cND-LCH (respectively 86·1% vs. 12·2%, 75·0% vs. 34·2%, and 63·9% vs. 28·4%). The 'cND susceptible patients' (n = 671) i.e., children who had experienced LCH disease with pituitary or skull base or orbit bone involvement, had a 10-year cND risk of 7·8% vs. 0% for patients who did not meet these criteria. Finally, BRAFV 600E status added important information among these cND susceptible patients, with the 10-year cND risk of 33·1% if a BRAFV 600E mutation was present compared to 2·9% if it was absent (P = 0·002).

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to the IDEA trial, 6-month adjuvant chemotherapy should remain the treatment standard in stage III T4 or N2 colon cancer. The relatively poor survival in this high-risk subgroup-a 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate of 65%-and the potential synergistic efficacy of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), oxaliplatin, and irinotecan suggest that FOLFIRINOX may be a regimen of particular interest in this setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This multicenter international phase 3 trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02967289) being conducted in 49 centers in France and Canada plans to randomize (1:1; minimization method) 640 patients aged 18 to 70 years with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≤ 1. Randomization occurs within 42 days (with treatment initiated within 56 days) after curative-intent R0 surgical resection of a pT4N1 or pT1-4N2 colon adenocarcinoma. Patients will be randomized to receive adjuvant modified FOLFIRINOX (oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2, leucovorin 400 mg/m2, irinotecan 180 mg/m2, and 5-FU 2.4 g/m2 over 46 hours) or modified FOLFOX6 (oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2, leucovorin 400 mg/m2, 5-FU bolus 400 mg/m2, then 2.4 g/m2 over 46 hours) every 2 weeks for 24 weeks (12 cycles). Patients will be followed for 5 years after the end of adjuvant chemotherapy. A gain of 9% in 3-year DFS (primary end point) is expected (74% in the experimental arm vs. 65% in the control arm; α, 5% [2-sided log-rank test]; 1-ß, 80%). Secondary end points of this study include 2-year DFS, overall survival, and toxicity.

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