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1.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 24, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing medicines availability and affordability is a key goal of Brazilian health policies. "Farmácia Popular" (FP) Program is one of the government's key strategies to achieve this goal. Under FP, antihypertension (HTN) and antiglycemic (DM) medicines have been provided at subsidized prices in private retail settings since 2006, and free of charge since 2011. We aim to assess the impact of sequential changes in FP benefits on patient affordability and government expenditures for HTN and DM treatment under the FP, and examine their implications for public financing mechanisms and program sustainability. METHODS: Longitudinal, retrospective study using interrupted time series to analyze: HTN and DM treatment coverage; total and per capita expenditure; percentage paid by MoH; and patient cost sharing. Analyzes were conducted in the dispensing database of the FP program (from 2006 to 2012). RESULTS: FP has increased its coverage over time; by December 2012 FP covered on average 13% of DM and 11.5% of HTN utilization, a growth of over 600 and 1500%, respectively. The overall cost per treatment to the MoH declined from R$36.43 (R$ = reais, the Brazilian currency) to 18.74 for HTN and from R$33.07to R$15.05 for DM over the period analyzed, representing a reduction in per capita cost greater than 50%. The amount paid by patients for the medicines covered increased over time until 2011, but then declined to zero. We estimate that to treat all patients in need for HTN and DM in 2012 under FP, the Government would need to expend 97% of the total medicines budget. CONCLUSIONS: FP rapidly increased its coverage in terms of both program reach and proportion of cost subsidized during the period analyzed. Costs of individual HTN and DM treatments in FP were reduced after 2011 for both patients (free) and government (better negotiated prices). However, overall FP expenditures by MoH increased due to markedly increased utilization. The FP is sustainable as a complementary policy but cannot feasibly substitute for the distribution of medicines by the SUS.

2.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 94, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644724

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends in the use of generic and non-generic medicines to treat hypertension and diabetes under the Farmácia Popular Program (FP) and its impact on generic medicines sales volume and market share in the Brazilian pharmaceutical market. METHODS: This longitudinal, retrospective study used interrupted time series design to analyze changes in monthly sales volume and proportion of medicines sales (market share) for oral antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines for generic versus non-generic products. Analyses were conducted in a combined dataset that aggregate monthly sales volumes from the Farmácia Popular program and from the QuintilesIMS™ (IQVIA) national market sales data from January 2007 to December 2012. The Farmácia Popular program phases analyzed included: a) 2009 reductions in medicines reference prices (AFP-II) and b) 2011 implementation of free medicines program for hypertension and diabetes, the Saúde não tem preço (SNTP - Health has no price). RESULTS: Patterns of use for FP-covered antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines were similar to their use in the market in general. After one year of the decreases in government subsidies in April 2010, market share of antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines experienced relative declines of -54.5% and -59.9%, respectively. However, when FP-covered medicines were made free to patients, overall market volume for antidiabetic and antihypertensive generics increased dramatically, with 242.6% and 277.0% relative increases by February 2012, as well as non-generics with relative increase of 209.7% and 279% for antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Ministry of Health policies on the amount of patient cost sharing and on the choice of medicines on coverage lists have substantial impacts on overall generic sales volume in retail pharmacies.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Comércio/tendências , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/tendências , Medicamentos Genéricos/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/tendências , Brasil , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Estudos Longitudinais , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmácias/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmácias/tendências , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
3.
J Pharm Policy Pract ; 12: 18, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417682

RESUMO

Objectives: To describe changes in the private market for selected originators, branded generics ('similares'), and generic products during the 10 years following passage of the Brazilian Generics Law. Methods: We analyzed longitudinal data collected by IQVIA® on quarterly sales by wholesalers to retail pharmacies in Brazil from 1998 through 2010, grouped by originators, branded generics, and generic products in three therapeutic classes (antibiotics, antidiabetics, and antihypertensives). Outcomes included market share (proportion of the total private market volume), sales volume per capita, prices and number of manufacturers by group. Results: In the private market share, generics became dominant in each therapeutic class but the speed of uptake varied. Originators consistently lost most market share while branded generics varied over time. By the end of the study period, generics were the most sold product type in all classes, followed by branded generics. The number of generic manufacturers increased in all classes, while branded generics increased just after the policy but then decreased slowly through the end of 2010. For approximately 50% of the antibiotics analyzed, branded generics and generics had lower prices than originators. For antidiabetics, branded generic and generic prices were quite similar during the period analyzed. Price trends for the various subclasses of antihypertensive exhibited very different patterns over time. Conclusion: Sales of branded generics and originators decreased substantially in the three therapeutic classes analysed following the introduction of the generics policy in Brazil, but the time to market dominance of generics varied by class.

4.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 53: 94, jan. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1043318

RESUMO

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate trends in the use of generic and non-generic medicines to treat hypertension and diabetes under the Farmácia Popular Program (FP) and its impact on generic medicines sales volume and market share in the Brazilian pharmaceutical market. METHODS This longitudinal, retrospective study used interrupted time series design to analyze changes in monthly sales volume and proportion of medicines sales (market share) for oral antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines for generic versus non-generic products. Analyses were conducted in a combined dataset that aggregate monthly sales volumes from the Farmácia Popular program and from the QuintilesIMS™ (IQVIA) national market sales data from January 2007 to December 2012. The Farmácia Popular program phases analyzed included: a) 2009 reductions in medicines reference prices (AFP-II) and b) 2011 implementation of free medicines program for hypertension and diabetes, the Saúde não tem preço (SNTP - Health has no price). RESULTS Patterns of use for FP-covered antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines were similar to their use in the market in general. After one year of the decreases in government subsidies in April 2010, market share of antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines experienced relative declines of -54.5% and -59.9%, respectively. However, when FP-covered medicines were made free to patients, overall market volume for antidiabetic and antihypertensive generics increased dramatically, with 242.6% and 277.0% relative increases by February 2012, as well as non-generics with relative increase of 209.7% and 279% for antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Ministry of Health policies on the amount of patient cost sharing and on the choice of medicines on coverage lists have substantial impacts on overall generic sales volume in retail pharmacies.

5.
Cad Saude Publica ; 34(3): e00073817, 2018 03 26.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29590242

RESUMO

The article aimed to identify the sources of medicines for users of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) that reported chronic non-communicable diseases, characterizing the group according to demographic, socioeconomic, and health variables in the different regions of Brazil. Data were analyzed from the National Survey on Access, Use, and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines in Brazil (PNAUM), a cross-sectional population-based study. The dependent variable was "source of medicines", and the associations were analyzed with demographic, socioeconomic, and health status variables. Users that obtained care and medicines solely in the SUS were designated here as SUS-exclusive. Some 39% of persons obtained their medicines from SUS pharmacies and 28.5% from other sources. The study found 42.9%, 41.8%, 40.2%, and 31% of exclusive SUS users in the Southeast, South, North, and Northeast regions of Brazil, respectively. SUS users have the SUS as their primary source of medicines, but there is also a relevant share from other sources, suggesting problems with access in the SUS. In the South and Southeast regions, the population relies less on private pharmacies than in the Northeast and North.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribução , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Farmacêutica/provisão & distribução , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 34(3): e00073817, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-889891

RESUMO

Resumo: Este artigo teve como objetivo identificar as fontes de obtenção de medicamentos utilizadas por usuários do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) com relato de doenças crônicas, caracterizando tal população quanto a variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas e de saúde nas diferentes regiões do Brasil. Foram analisados dados da Pesquisa Nacional sobre o Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos no Brasil (PNAUM), um estudo transversal de base populacional. A variável dependente foi a "fonte de obtenção de medicamentos" e foram analisadas associações com variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas e com o estado de saúde. Os usuários que obtiveram cuidado e medicamentos unicamente no SUS foram aqui designados como SUS-exclusivos. Cerca de 39% das pessoas obtiveram seus medicamentos exclusivamente em farmácias do SUS e 28,5% recorreram a outras fontes. Foram encontrados 42,9%, 41,8%, 40,2%, 31%, usuários SUS-exclusivos, respectivamente, no Sudeste, Sul, Norte, e Nordeste. Os usuários do SUS têm como fonte primária de medicamentos o próprio SUS, entretanto há uma participação relevante de outras fontes de obtenção, indicando problemas no acesso dentro do SUS. No Sul e Sudeste, a população busca menos a farmácia privada do que no Nordeste e Norte do país.


Abstract: The article aimed to identify the sources of medicines for users of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) that reported chronic non-communicable diseases, characterizing the group according to demographic, socioeconomic, and health variables in the different regions of Brazil. Data were analyzed from the National Survey on Access, Use, and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines in Brazil (PNAUM), a cross-sectional population-based study. The dependent variable was "source of medicines", and the associations were analyzed with demographic, socioeconomic, and health status variables. Users that obtained care and medicines solely in the SUS were designated here as SUS-exclusive. Some 39% of persons obtained their medicines from SUS pharmacies and 28.5% from other sources. The study found 42.9%, 41.8%, 40.2%, and 31% of exclusive SUS users in the Southeast, South, North, and Northeast regions of Brazil, respectively. SUS users have the SUS as their primary source of medicines, but there is also a relevant share from other sources, suggesting problems with access in the SUS. In the South and Southeast regions, the population relies less on private pharmacies than in the Northeast and North.


Resumen: El objetivo de este artículo fue identificar las fuentes de obtención de medicamentos, utilizados por usuarios del Sistema Único de Salud brasileño (SUS), con antecedentes de enfermedades crónicas, caracterizando tanto a la población, como las variables demográficas, socioeconómicas y de salud, en las diferentes regiones del país. Se analizaron los datos de la Encuesta Nacional sobre el Acceso, Utilización y Promoción del Uso Racional de Medicamentos en Brasil (PNAUM), un estudio transversal de base poblacional. La variable dependiente fue la 'fuente de obtención de medicamentos' y se analizaron asociaciones con variables demográficas, socioeconómicas y con el estado de salud. Los usuarios que recibieron cuidados y medicamentos únicamente en el SUS fueron designados aquí como SUS exclusivos. Cerca de un 39% de las personas obtuvieron sus medicamentos exclusivamente en farmacias del SUS y un 28,5% recurrieron a otras fuentes. Se encontraron un 42,9%, 41,8%, 40,2%, 31%, usuarios SUS exclusivos, respectivamente, en el Sudeste, Sur, Norte, y Nordeste. Los usuarios del SUS tienen como fuente primaria de medicamentos el propio SUS, no obstante, existe una participación relevante de otras fuentes de obtención, indicando problemas en el acceso dentro del SUS. En el Sur y Sudeste, la población busca menos la farmacia privada que en el Nordeste y Norte del país.

7.
BMJ Open ; 7(11): e017308, 2017 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29101135

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: 'Farmácia Popular' (FP) programme was launched in 2004, expanded in 2006 and changed the cost sharing for oral hypoglycaemic (OH) and antihypertensive (AH) medicines in 2009 and in 2011. This paper describes patterns of usage and continuity of coverage for OH and AH medicines following changes in patient cost sharing in the FP. STUDY DESIGN: Interrupted time series study using retrospective administrative data. METHODS: Monthly programme participation (PP) and proportion of days covered (PDC) were the two outcome measures. The open cohort included all patients with two or more dispensings for a given study medicine in 2008-2012. The interventions were an increase in patient cost sharing in 2009 and zero patient cost sharing for key medicines in 2011. RESULTS: A total of 3.6 and 9.5 million patients receiving treatment for diabetes and hypertension, respectively, qualified for the study. Before the interventions, PP was growing by 7.3% per month; median PDC varied by medicine from 50% to 75%. After patient cost sharing increased in 2009, PP reduced by 56.5% and PDC decreased for most medicines (median 60.3%). After the 2011 free medicine programme, PP surged by 121 000 new dispensings per month and PDC increased for all covered medicines (80.7%). CONCLUSION: Cost sharing was found to be a barrier to continuity of treatment in Brazil's private sector FP programme. Making essential medicines free to patients appear to increase participation and continuity of treatment to clinically beneficial levels (PDC >80%).


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/economia , Custo Compartilhado de Seguro , Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipoglicemiantes/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos Essenciais/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Cien Saude Colet ; 22(8): 2501-2512, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28793067

RESUMO

This paper aims to analyse changes in the retail pharmaceutical market following policy changes in the Farmácia Popular Program (FP), a medicines subsidy program in Brazil. The retrospective longitudinal analyses focus on therapeutic class of agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system. Data obtained from QuintilesIMS (formerly IMS Health) included private retail pharmacy sales volume (pharmaceutical units) and sales values from 2002 to 2013. Analyses evaluated changes in market share following key FP policy changes. The therapeutic class was selected due to its relevance to hypertension treatment. Market share was analysed by therapeutic sub-classes and by individual company. Losartan as a single product accounted for the highest market share among angiotensin II antagonists. National companies had higher sales volume during the study period, while multinational companies had higher sales value. Changes in pharmaceutical market share coincided with the inclusion of specific products in the list of medicines covered by FP and with increases in or exemption from patient copayment.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria Farmacêutica/economia , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/economia , Anti-Hipertensivos/economia , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Brasil , Custo Compartilhado de Seguro/economia , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Estudos Longitudinais , Losartan/economia , Losartan/uso terapêutico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 22(8): 2501-2512, Ago. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-890425

RESUMO

Abstract This paper aims to analyse changes in the retail pharmaceutical market following policy changes in the Farmácia Popular Program (FP), a medicines subsidy program in Brazil. The retrospective longitudinal analyses focus on therapeutic class of agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system. Data obtained from QuintilesIMS (formerly IMS Health) included private retail pharmacy sales volume (pharmaceutical units) and sales values from 2002 to 2013. Analyses evaluated changes in market share following key FP policy changes. The therapeutic class was selected due to its relevance to hypertension treatment. Market share was analysed by therapeutic sub-classes and by individual company. Losartan as a single product accounted for the highest market share among angiotensin II antagonists. National companies had higher sales volume during the study period, while multinational companies had higher sales value. Changes in pharmaceutical market share coincided with the inclusion of specific products in the list of medicines covered by FP and with increases in or exemption from patient copayment.


Resumo Este artigo visa analisar as mudanças no mercado de varejo farmacêutico, seguindo as alterações de diretiva no Programa Farmácia Popular (FP), que realiza subvenção de medicamentos no Brasil, em parceria pública privada. Foi realizada análise longitudinal retrospectiva dos medicamentos da classe terapêutica dos agentes que atuam sobre o sistema renina-angiotensina. Os dados obtidos do QuintilesIMS incluíram o varejo farmacêutico em termos do volume e valores de vendas de 2002 a 2013. Análises realizadas consideraram intervenções e reformas ocorridas no FP e seu impacto no mercado farmacêutico da classe terapêutica selecionada, devido a sua relevância para o tratamento da hipertensão. Também se examinou o comportamento do mercado tomando por base as empresas farmacêuticas produtoras. Losartan monodroga representou a maior fatia de mercado entre os antagonistas de angiotensina II. Empresas nacionais obtiveram maior volume de vendas durante o período de estudo, enquanto as empresas multinacionais exibiram maior valor de vendas. Mudanças no mercado farmacêutico coincidiram com a inclusão de produtos específicos na lista de medicamentos abrangidos pelo FP e com aumentos ou isenção de copagamento pelos pacientes.

10.
Int J Equity Health ; 14: 115, 2015 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26521237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Access to medicines is one of the major challenges in health policy. The high out-of-pocket expenditures on medicines in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region represents important barrier to affordable access to care for NCDs. This paper aim to identify key barriers in access to medicines for household members with a diagnosed chronic condition in three Central America countries. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analytic study, based on data from three household surveys using a common methodology. We examined associated factors to: (1) seeking care for chronic illness from a trained clinician in the formal health system, and (2) obtaining all medicines sought for the chronic conditions reported. RESULTS: A chronic condition was reported in 29.8 % (827) of 2761 households - 47.0, 30.7 and 11.8 % in Nicaragua, Honduras and Guatemala, respectively. The three main chronic conditions reported were hypertension, arthritis, and diabetes. Seeking care in the formal health system ranged from 73.4 % in Nicaragua to 83.1 % in Honduras, while full access to medicines varied from 71.6 % in Guatemala to 88.0 % in Honduras. The main associated factors of seeking care in the formal health system were geographic location, household head gender, Spanish literacy, patient age, perceived health status, perceived quality of public sector care, household economic level, and having health insurance. Seeking care in the formal health system was the main bivariate associated factor of obtaining full access to medicines (OR: 4.3 95 % CI 2.6 - 7.0). The odds of full access to medicines were significantly higher when the household head was older than 65 years, medicines were obtained for free, households had higher socioeconomic status, and health care was sought in the private sector. CONCLUSIONS: The nature of the health system plays an important role in access to medicines. Access is better when public facilities are available and function effectively, or when private sector care is affordable. Thus, understanding how people seek care in a given setting and strengthening key health system components will be important strategies to improve access to medicines, especially for populations at high risk of poor access.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Política de Saúde/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Seguro Saúde/economia , Adesão à Medicação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica/economia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Guatemala , Honduras , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nicarágua
11.
J Pharm Policy Pract ; 8(1): 10, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25926990

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Brazilian constitution guarantees the right to health, including access to medicines. In May 2004, Brazil's government announced the "Farmácia Popular" Program (FPP) as a new mechanism to improve the Brazilian population's access to medicines. Under FPP, a selected list of medicines is subsidized by the government and provided in public and private pharmacies. The aim of this study is to describe the historical stages of the FPP and to identify associated changes in the geographical accessibility of medicines through the FPP over time. METHODS: It was performed documentary review and an ecological study assessing program coverage in terms of number of facilities and a FPP Pharmacy Facilities Density (PFD) index at national and regional levels from 2004 to 2013, using the FPP database. We used geographic information system mapping to depict a pharmaceutical facilities density (PFD) index at the municipality level on thematic maps. RESULTS: A growth of the PFD index coincident with the phases of the FPP was noticed. In the public sector, the program started in 2004; by 2006, there was a sharp increase in the numbers of participating pharmacies, stabilizing in 2009. In the private sector, the program started in 2006; by 2009 the PFD ratio had increased substantially and it continued to grow through 2011. There was an increase in FPP coverage in most regions between 2006, when the private pharmacy component started, and 2013, but participating pharmacies remain unequally distributed across geographical regions. Specifically, the wealthy areas in the South and Southeast have higher coverage, with lower coverage mostly in the North and Northeast, relatively poorer areas with greater need for access to medicines, health care, and other basic services such as potable water and sanitization. CONCLUSIONS: There has been a substantial increase in the number of pharmacies participating in the FPP over time. This has led to greater program coverage and has potentially improved access to FPP medicines in the country. Nevertheless, disparities in pharmacy coverage remain among the regions.

12.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 12: 31, 2014 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24965383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to rank policy concerns and policy-related research issues in order to identify policy and research gaps on access to medicines (ATM) in low- and middle-income countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), as perceived by policy makers, researchers, NGO and international organization representatives, as part of a global prioritization exercise. METHODS: Data collection, conducted between January and May 2011, involved face-to-face interviews in El Salvador, Colombia, Dominican Republic, and Suriname, and an e-mail survey with key-stakeholders. Respondents were asked to choose the five most relevant criteria for research prioritization and to score policy/research items according to the degree to which they represented current policies, desired policies, current research topics, and/or desired research topics. Mean scores and summary rankings were obtained. Linear regressions were performed to contrast rankings concerning current and desired policies (policy gaps), and current and desired research (research gaps). RESULTS: Relevance, feasibility, and research utilization were the top ranked criteria for prioritizing research. Technical capacity, research and development for new drugs, and responsiveness, were the main policy gaps. Quality assurance, staff technical capacity, price regulation, out-of-pocket payments, and cost containment policies, were the main research gaps. There was high level of coherence between current and desired policies: coefficients of determination (R2) varied from 0.46 (Health system structure; r = 0.68, P <0.01) to 0.86 (Sustainable financing; r = 0.93, P <0.01). There was also high coherence between current and desired research on Rational selection and use of medicines (r = 0.71, P <0.05, R2 = 0.51), Pricing/affordability (r = 0.82, P <0.01, R2 = 0.67), and Sustainable financing (r = 0.76, P <0.01, R2 = 0.58). Coherence was less for Health system structure (r = 0.61, P <0.01, R2 = 0.38). CONCLUSIONS: This study combines metrics approaches, contributing to priority setting methodology development, with country and regional level stakeholder participation. Stakeholders received feedback with the results, and we hope to have contributed to the discussion and implementation of ATM research and policy priorities in LAC.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribução , Pesquisa , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Colômbia , República Dominicana , El Salvador , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Suriname , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Hum Resour Health ; 12: 34, 2014 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24927816

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Distance learning methods have been widely used because of their advantages to continuing professional development processes. The Primary Health Care (PHC) is a strategy which has been implemented in order to improve the efficiency of health systems. Due to the need for access to medicines and technologies regardless of the strengthening of health systems, a new approach that better integrates both pharmaceutical services and health systems has been implemented. CASE DESCRIPTION: This is a case study which consists of describing the process of restructuring, developing and implementing the second version of the Virtual Course on Primary Health Care-based Pharmaceutical Services for managers (CVSERVFAPS-12). The main objective is to strengthen the capacity of managers in pharmaceutical services, based on PHC at different levels of the health system, in order to support the restructuring and empowering of these services and, consequently, the health systems in the American region. DISCUSSION AND EVALUATION: Many evaluation tools were applied to identify the achievement/improvement of planned competencies. The intervention proposals were collectively built and intended to be more than an academic exercise, looking forward to being implemented as a strategic intervention to promote changes in the pharmaceutical services of the American region. The main strengths identified for the second version of the course were related to the quality of the didactic material and content. Additionally, the tutors' support was commented upon as a positive aspect. The main challenges faced in this rebuilding process related to the due dates of the activities and lectures as well as the time to capture and assimilate the content. CONCLUSIONS: The CVSERVFAPS-Pilot was reformulated and CVSERVFAPS-12 is consistent with the issues raised in the pilot course's evaluation in 2011, which were successfully implemented. The use of the distance learning strategy, through a virtual environment, for the application of the Virtual Course on PHC- based pharmaceutical services for managers, is appropriate and confirmed its role in public policy promotion through effective retention and distribution of health workers.


Assuntos
Fortalecimento Institucional , Assistência à Saúde , Educação Continuada , Educação a Distância , Pessoal de Saúde , Assistência Farmacêutica , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Américas , Humanos , Competência Profissional
14.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 23(2): 215-226, jun. 2014. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-716871

RESUMO

Objetivo: descrever estimativas corrigidas para o número de casos de meningite no Brasil, unidades da federação (UF) e macrorregiões em 2008-2009. Métodos: a proposta de correção pautou-se na letalidade, considerando-se os casos no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Sinan) e os óbitos no Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM), em três etapas – (1) seleção dos casos Sinan; (2) compatibilização dos códigos no Sinan-SIM, com obtenção do número de óbitos do SIM; e (3) avaliação do sub-registro e aplicação de proposta de correção do Sinan. Resultados: originalmente, obteve-se 9.229 casos de meningites no Sinan; após correção de 32,9 por cento, estimou-se 12.261 casos para o Brasil em 2008-2009; encontrou-se grande variabilidade nas UF e por grupo de gravidade. Conclusão: verificou-se subnotificação de casos de meningite no Sinan, em relação ao SIM; ressalta-se a importância de estratégias para o fortalecimento dos sistemas de informação, como a capacitação dos profissionais de saúde.


Objective: to describe adjusted estimates of meningitis case numbers for Brazil, the Brazilian states and regions, 2008-2009. Methods: the estimates were adjusted based on the meningitis fatality rate taking cases reported on the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) and deaths reported on the Mortality Information System (SIM). The method involved three stages: 1) Selection of SINAN cases; 2) SINAN and SIM code matching and obtaining the number of deaths from the SIM system; 3) SINAN underreporting assessment and adjustment. Results: 9,229 meningitis cases were initially found on SINAN. After adjustment, 12,261 cases were estimated in Brazil, 2008-2009. Considerable variability was found between states and between groups of meningitis severity. Conclusion: meningitis cases were underreported on SINAN, compared to SIM. The importance of strategies for strengthening information systems is highlighted, such as health professional training.


Assuntos
Humanos , Meningite , Estatística como Assunto , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde
15.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 35(2): 128-35, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24781094

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Examine the social determinants that affect population behavior with regard to the search for and acquisition of medicines, and their relationship to exclusion from health services based on aggregate data from three Central American countries: Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. METHODS: A descriptive, observational cross-sectional study was conducted by administration of a household survey. The study sample was selected in accordance with the conglomerate method. Data was analyzed with the SPSS® V.17 program using descriptive statistics, bivariate, multivariate, and principal components analysis (PCA). RESULTS: Although the majority of the persons could access health care, health exclusion (odds ratio [OR] 4.10; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]) was the main determinant of lack of access to medicines. The characteristics of housing (OR 0.747, 95% CI), formal employment of head of the household (OR 0.707, 95% CI), and socioeconomic status of the household (OR 0.462, 95% CI) were also important determinants of lack of access to medicines. CONCLUSIONS: The phenomena of lack of access to health services and medicines are not independent from one another. It was corroborated that the health system, as an intermediate social determinant of health, is an important factor for improvement of access to medicines. Public policies that aim to achieve universal coverage should consider this relationship in order to be effective.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Guatemala , Honduras , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nicarágua , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 35(2): 128-135, feb. 2014. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-710565

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Examinar los determinantes sociales que afectan la conducta de la población en relación con la búsqueda y obtención de medicamentos, y su relación con la exclusión de los servicios de salud para datos agregados de tres países de América Central: Guatemala, Honduras y Nicaragua. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal, mediante la aplicación de una encuesta de hogares. La muestra del estudio se seleccionó de acuerdo al método de conglomerados. Los datos fueron analizados con el programa SPSS® V.17, utilizando estadística descriptiva y análisis bivariado, multivariado y por componentes principales (ACP). RESULTADOS: Aunque la mayoría de las personas pudo acceder a la atención en salud, la exclusión en salud (razón de probabilidades [RP] 4,10; intervalo de confianza de 95% [IC95%]) fue el principal determinante de la falta de acceso a los medicamentos. Las características de la vivienda (RP 0,747, IC95%), la formalidad del empleo del jefe(a) de hogar (RP 0,707, IC95%) y las condiciones socioeconómicas del hogar (RP 0,462, IC95%) fueron también importantes determinantes de la falta de acceso a los medicamentos. CONCLUSIONES: Los fenómenos de la falta de acceso a servicios de salud y a medicamentos no son independientes entre sí. Se corroboró que el sistema de salud, como determinante social intermediario de la salud, es un factor importante para la mejora del acceso a medicamentos. Las políticas públicas orientadas a alcanzar la cobertura universal deben contemplar esta relación para ser eficaces.


OBJECTIVE: Examine the social determinants that affect population behavior with regard to the search for and acquisition of medicines, and their relationship to exclusion from health services based on aggregate data from three Central American countries: Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. METHODS: A descriptive, observational cross-sectional study was conducted by administration of a household survey. The study sample was selected in accordance with the conglomerate method. Data was analyzed with the SPSS® V.17 program using descriptive statistics, bivariate, multivariate, and principal components analysis (PCA). RESULTS: Although the majority of the persons could access health care, health exclusion (odds ratio [OR] 4.10; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]) was the main determinant of lack of access to medicines. The characteristics of housing (OR 0.747, 95% CI), formal employment of head of the household (OR 0.707, 95% CI), and socioeconomic status of the household (OR 0.462, 95% CI) were also important determinants of lack of access to medicines. CONCLUSIONS: The phenomena of lack of access to health services and medicines are not independent from one another. It was corroborated that the health system, as an intermediate social determinant of health, is an important factor for improvement of access to medicines. Public policies that aim to achieve universal coverage should consider this relationship in order to be effective.


Assuntos
Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Guatemala , Honduras , Nicarágua , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
In. Santos, Elizabeth Moreira dos; Cruz, Marly Marques da. Avaliação em saúde: dos modelos teóricos à prática da avaliação de programas de controle de processos endêmicos. Rio de Janeiro, FIOCRUZ, 2014. p.129-160, tab, graf.
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-762410
19.
Rev. saúde pública ; 47(6): 1069-1079, dez. 2013. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-702732

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE : To analyze the main predictors of access to medicines for persons who experienced acute health conditions. METHODS : This was a cross-sectional analytic study, based on data from household surveys. We examined the predictors of: (1) seeking care for acute illness in the formal health care system and (2) obtaining all medicines sought for the acute condition. RESULTS : The significant predictors of seeking health care for acute illnesses were urban geographic location, head of household with secondary school education or above, age under 15, severity of illness perceived by the respondent, and having health insurance. The most important predictor of obtaining full access to medicines was seeking care in the formal health care system. People who sought care in the formal system were three times more likely to receive all the medicines sought (OR 3.0, 95%CI 2.3;4.0). For those who sought care in the formal health system, the strongest predictors of full access to medicines were seeking care in the private sector, having secondary school education or above, and positive perceptions of quality of health care and medicines in public sector health facilities. For patients who did not seek care in the formal health system, full access to medicines was more likely in Honduras or Nicaragua than in Guatemala. Urban geographic location, higher economic status, and male gender were also significant predictors. CONCLUSIONS : A substantial part of the population in these three countries sought and obtained medicines outside of the formal health care system, which may compromise quality of care and pose a risk to patients. Determinants of full access to medicines inside and outside the formal health care system differ, and thus may require different strategies to improve access to medicines.  .


OBJETIVO : Analisar os principais preditores de acesso a medicamentos em condições agudas de saúde. MÉTODOS : Estudo transversal analítico, baseado em inquérito domiciliar realizado em Nicarágua, Honduras e Guatemala. Foram identificados os preditores de: procurar cuidados para a condição aguda no sistema formal de saúde e obter todos os medicamentos procurados para a condição aguda. Os dados foram analisados com SPSS ® v.17, usando estatísticas descritivas e regressão logística multivariada. RESULTADOS : Houve autorrelato de doença aguda em 48,3% dos 2.761 domicílios pesquisados, sendo 59,0% em Nicarágua, 56,2% em Honduras e 30,9% na Guatemala. Indivíduos com doença aguda e pior percepção da gravidade da doença ou menores de 15 anos com seguro saúde tiveram maior chance de procurar cuidado. O acesso a medicamentos está fortemente correlacionado com a busca de cuidado, e a obtenção de todos os medicamentos necessários foi três vezes maior para aqueles que buscaram o sistema formal de saúde (OR 3,0; IC95% 2,3;4,0). Procurar o setor privado, ter alto nível educacional e percepção positiva sobre a qualidade do cuidado e dos medicamentos aumentam a chance de acesso pleno a medicamentos dentro do sistema de saúde. Para os pacientes que não procuraram o setor formal, o acesso pleno aos medicamentos foi mais provável em Honduras ou Nicarágua. Outros importantes preditores incluem localização urbana, maior status econômico e ser do sexo masculino. CONCLUSÕES : Parte da população nos três países obteve medicamentos fora do sistema formal de saúde, o que pode representar risco aos pacientes. Determinantes do acesso pleno a medicamentos, dentro e fora do sistema formal de saúde, foram distintos e assim ...


OBJETIVO : Analizar los principales predictores de acceso a medicamentos en condiciones agudas de salud. MÉTODOS : Estudio transversal analítico, basado en pesquisa domiciliar realizada en Nicaragua, Honduras y Guatemala. Se identificaron los predictores de: buscar cuidados para la condición aguda en el sistema formal de salud y obtener todos los medicamentos buscados para la condición aguda. Los datos fueron analizados con SPSS ® v.17 usando estadísticas descriptivas y regresión logística multivariada. RESULTADOS : Hubo auto relato de enfermedad aguda en 48,3% de los 2.761 domicilios investigados, siendo 59,0% en Nicaragua, 56,2% en Honduras y 30,9% en Guatemala. Individuos con enfermedad aguda y peor percepción de la gravedad de la enfermedad o menores de 15 años con seguro salud tuvieron mayor chance de buscar cuidado. El acceso a medicamentos está fuertemente correlacionado con la búsqueda de cuidado, y la obtención de todos los medicamentos necesarios fue tres veces mayor en aquellos que buscaron el sistema formal de salud (OR 3,0; IC95% 2,3;4,0). Procurar el sector privado, tener alto nivel educativo y percepción positiva sobre la cualidad de cuidado y de los medicamentos aumentan el chance de acceso pleno a medicamentos dentro del sistema de salud. Para los pacientes que no buscaron el sector formal, el acceso pleno a los medicamentos fue más probable en Honduras o Nicaragua. Otros importantes predictores incluyen localización urbana, mayor estatus económico, y ser del sexo masculino. CONCLUSIONES : parte de la población en los tres países obtuvo medicamentos fuera del sistema formal de salud, lo que puede representar riesgo para los pacientes. Determinantes del acceso pleno a los medicamentos, dentro y fuera del sistema formal de salud, fueron distintos y así podrán exigir diferentes estrategias para mejorar el acceso ...


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Aguda , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribução , Doença Aguda/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Guatemala/etnologia , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Honduras/epidemiologia , Honduras/etnologia , Renda , Nicarágua/epidemiologia , Nicarágua/etnologia , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
BMJ Open ; 3(5)2013 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23645920

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess scientific publication and map research gaps on access to medicines (ATM) in Latin American and the Caribbean low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC). DESIGN: Scoping review. Two independent reviewers assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data from each study. INFORMATION SOURCES: Search strategies were developed and the following databases were searched: MEDLINE, ISI, SCOPUS and Lilacs, from 2000 to 2010. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Research articles and reviews published in English, Spanish and Portuguese were included. Studies including only high-income countries were excluded, as well as those carried out in very limited settings and discussion papers. RESULTS: The 77 articles retained were categorised through consensus among the research team according to the level of the health system addressed, ATM domain and research issues covered. Publications on ATM have increased over time during the study period (r 0.93, p=0.00; R(2) 0.85). The top five countries covered were Brazil (68.8%), Mexico (15.6%), Colombia (11.7%), Argentina (10.4%) and Peru (10.4%). 'Health services delivery' and 'patients, household and communities' were the health system levels most frequently covered. The ATM domains 'leadership and governance', 'sustainable financing, affordability and price of medicines', 'medicines selection and use' and 'availability of medicines' were the top four explored. There are research gaps in important areas such as 'human resources for health', 'global policies and human rights', 'production of medicines' and 'traditional medicine'. CONCLUSIONS: The upward trend on scientific publication reflects a growing research capacity in the region, which is concentrated on research teams in selected countries. The gaps on research capacity could be overcome through research collaboration among countries. It is important to strengthen these collaborations, assuring that interests and needs from the LMIC are addressed and local capacity building is promoted.

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