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1.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694738

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α agents in the treatment of refractory uveitic macular oedema (UME). METHODS: Patients with refractory UME treated with TNF-α blockers were retrospectively enrolled. Central macular thickness (CMT) was assessed at optical coherence tomography (OCT) at the start of TNF-α inhibition, after 3 and 12 months, and at the last follow-up visit. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients (56 eyes with UME) were enrolled. The mean follow-up period was 29.9±40.8 (4-184) months. A statistically significant decrease was observed in the frequency of UME (p<0.0001) and in the mean CMT values (p<0.0001) during the study period. Best corrected visual acuity improved in 35 eyes (62.5%), remained stable in 12 eyes (21.4%), reduced in 9 eyes (16.1%). The mean corticosteroid dosage significantly decreased during the study period (p=0.016). CONCLUSIONS: TNF-α inhibitors represent a useful treatment in patients with severe or resistant UME.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5120, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719529

RESUMO

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a rare inflammatory disease of unknown cause. 30% of patients have anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) specific for myeloperoxidase (MPO). Here, we describe a genome-wide association study in 676 EGPA cases and 6809 controls, that identifies 4 EGPA-associated loci through conventional case-control analysis, and 4 additional associations through a conditional false discovery rate approach. Many variants are also associated with asthma and six are associated with eosinophil count in the general population. Through Mendelian randomisation, we show that a primary tendency to eosinophilia contributes to EGPA susceptibility. Stratification by ANCA reveals that EGPA comprises two genetically and clinically distinct syndromes. MPO+ ANCA EGPA is an eosinophilic autoimmune disease sharing certain clinical features and an HLA-DQ association with MPO+ ANCA-associated vasculitis, while ANCA-negative EGPA may instead have a mucosal/barrier dysfunction origin. Four candidate genes are targets of therapies in development, supporting their exploration in EGPA.

4.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319879534, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610707

RESUMO

AIMS: Novel therapies are needed for recurrent pericarditis, particularly when corticosteroid dependent and colchicine resistant. Based on limited data, interleukin-1 blockade with anakinra may be beneficial. The aim of this multicentre registry was to evaluate the broader effectiveness and safety of anakinra in a 'real world' population. METHODS AND RESULTS: This registry enrolled consecutive patients with recurrent pericarditis who were corticosteroid dependent and colchicine resistant and treated with anakinra. The primary outcome was the pericarditis recurrence rate after treatment. Secondary outcomes included emergency department visits, hospitalisations, corticosteroid use and adverse events. Among 224 patients (46 ± 14 years old, 63% women, 75% idiopathic), the median duration of disease was 17 months (interquartile range 9-33). Most patients had elevated C-reactive protein (91%) and pericardial effusion (88%). After a median treatment of 6 months (3-12), pericarditis recurrences were reduced six-fold (2.33-0.39 per patient per year), emergency department admissions were reduced 11-fold (1.08-0.10 per patient per year), hospitalisations were reduced seven-fold (0.99-0.13 per patient per year). Corticosteroid use was decreased by anakinra (respectively from 80% to 27%; P < 0.001). No serious adverse events occurred; adverse events consisted mostly of transient skin reactions (38%) at the injection site. Adverse events led to discontinuation in 3%. A full-dose treatment duration of over 3 months followed by a tapering period of over 3 months were the therapeutic schemes associated with a lower risk of recurrence. CONCLUSION: In patients with recurrent pericarditis, anakinra appears efficacious and safe in reducing recurrences, emergency department admissions and hospitalisations.

5.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 21(1): 204, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, when compared with general population, largely due to enhanced atherosclerotic disease. In this work, we aimed at assessing both occurrence and predictive factors of subclinical and clinical atherosclerosis in RA. METHODS: From January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2015, consecutive participants with RA, admitted to Italian Rheumatology Units, were assessed in the GIRRCS (Gruppo Italiano di Ricerca in Reumatologia Clinica e Sperimentale) cohort. After that, those participants were followed up in a 3-year, prospective, observational study, assessing the occurrence of subclinical and clinical atherosclerosis and possible predictive factors. McNemar test was employed to assess the changes in subclinical and clinical atherosclerosis, and regression analyses exploited the ORs for the occurrence of those comorbidities. RESULTS: We analysed 841 participants, mostly female (82.2%) and with median age of 60 years (range 21-90). The remission was achieved and maintained by 41.8% of participants during the follow-up. We observed an increased rate of subclinical atherosclerosis at the end of follow-up (139 vs 203 participants, p < 0.0001), particularly in participants with a disease duration less than 5 years at baseline (70 participants vs 133 participants, p < 0.0001). Type 2 diabetes (T2D) (OR 4.50, 95%CI 1.74-11.62, p = 0.002), high blood pressure (OR 2.03, 95%CI 1.04-4.14, p = 0.042), ACPA (OR 2.36, 95%CI 1.19-4.69, p = 0.014) and mean values of CRP during the follow-up (OR 1.07, 95%CI 1.03-1.14, p = 0.040) were significantly associated with higher risk of subclinical atherosclerosis. We observed an increased rate of clinical atherosclerosis at the end of follow-up (48 vs 76 participants, p < 0.0001). T2D (OR 6.21, 95%CI 2.19-17.71, p = 0.001) was associated with a significant risk of clinical atherosclerosis. The achievement and the maintenance of remission reduced the risk of subclinical (OR 0.25, 95%CI 0.11-0.56, p = 0.001) and clinical atherosclerosis (OR 0.20, 95%CI 0.09-0.95, p = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS: We reported an increased prevalence and incidence of both subclinical and clinical atherosclerosis in 3-year prospectively followed participants, mainly in the subset with a duration of disease less than 5 years. The achievement and the maintenance of remission are associated with a reduction of the risk of subclinical and clinical atherosclerosis. Among "traditional" cardiovascular risk factors, participants with T2D showed a higher risk of clinical and subclinical atherosclerosis.

7.
Intern Emerg Med ; 14(8): 1193-1197, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388893

RESUMO

The European Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (EGPA) study group first gathered in Firenze in December 2018. The discussion was centred around the clinical and therapeutic needs in EGPA which still remain unmet. Indeed, EGPA is a puzzling and rare disease which shares clinical features with other anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAVs) and hypereosinophilic syndromes (HESs). Some of the recommendations published in 2015 are based on data derived from EGPA-related diseases, rather than from EGPA itself, and therefore need to be updated. Thus, the aim of the meeting was to stimulate ongoing research, to promote collaborative European studies and to define the main issues on which future studies should be focused. Current fields of research on EGPA include potential serological biomarkers of disease activity and of specific organ involvement, possible links between different genetic variants and clinical phenotypes, and new therapeutic perspectives. Herein, we give an overview of the meeting with the goal to stimulate an international collaboration and new points of discussion.

9.
Intern Emerg Med ; 14(7): 1041-1049, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309519

RESUMO

Intravenous immunoglobulins are the cornerstone for the treatment of primary humoral immunodeficiencies and may be used for a great number of other autoimmune, neurological and hematological conditions as well. Given their wide application, the possibility of running across a patient who needs this kind of therapy is becoming increasingly common. Generally, intravenous immunoglobulins are well tolerated. However, numerous adverse reactions ranging from mild to severe have been reported and linked to patient- and product-related factors. For all these reasons, we present herein a comprehensive review of the on- and off-label applications of intravenous immunoglobulins and provide a guide for the internist how to minimize the risk of adverse reactions and manage them.

10.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(10): 1670-1680, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102498

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of rituximab (RTX) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a subject of debate. This study was undertaken to investigate the outcomes of RTX treatment in a European SLE cohort, with an emphasis on the role of RTX as a maintenance agent. METHODS: All patients with SLE who were receiving RTX as induction therapy in 4 centers were included. Patients who received a single course of RTX and those who received RTX maintenance treatment (RMT) were followed up after treatment. Disease flares during the follow-up period were defined as an increase in disease activity and the number or dose of immunosuppressive drugs. RESULTS: Of 147 patients, 27% experienced treatment failure at 6 months. In a multivariate analysis, a low number of previous immunosuppressive therapies (P = 0.034) and low C4 levels (P = 0.008) reduced the risk of treatment failure. Eighty patients received RMT over a median of 24.5 months during which 85 relapses, mainly musculoskeletal, were recorded (1.06 per patient). At the time of the last RTX course, 84% of the patients were in remission. Twenty-eight (35%) of 80 patients never experienced a flare during RMT and had low damage accrual. Active articular disease at the time of the first RTX administration was associated with a risk of flare during RMT (P = 0.011). After RMT, relapse-free survival was similar to that in patients receiving a single RTX course (P = 0.72). CONCLUSION: RMT is a potential treatment option for patients with difficult-to-treat disease. Relapses occur during RMT and are more likely in those with active articular disease at the time of the first RTX administration. Relapse risk after RMT remains high and apparently comparable to that seen after a single RTX course.

11.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1085, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139195

RESUMO

Behçet's syndrome (BS) is a systemic vasculitis, clinically characterized by different organ involvement and often complicated by thrombosis which occurs in vessels of all sizes. Thrombosis is more frequent in male patients with active disease and represents an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Neutrophil involvement in BS has been repeatedly suggested in the last few years. Indeed, neutrophils have been shown to be hyperactivated in BS patients, probably with a HLAB51 related contribution, and represent the main cells infiltrating not only oral and genital ulcers or erythema nodosum, but also other sites. Besides being deputed to host defense against micro-organisms, neutrophils display fundamental roles both in inflammation and tissue damage becoming inappropriately activated by cytokines, chemokines and autoantibodies and subsequently producing large amounts of superoxide anion ( O 2 . ) via NADPH oxidase (NOX2). The strict relationship between inflammation and hemostasis has been already demonstrated. Indeed, inflammation and immune-mediated disorders increase the risk of thrombosis, but the pathways that link these processes have not been completely elucidated. In this regard, we recently demonstrated, in a large population of BS patients, a new neutrophil-dependent pathogenetic mechanism of thrombosis. In particular, it was shown that neutrophils, mainly through NADPH oxidase, produce excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are able to markedly modify the secondary structure of fibrinogen and hence the overall architecture of the fibrin clot that becomes less susceptible to plasmin-induced lysis. These data point out that BS represents "per se" a model of inflammation-induced thrombosis and suggest that neutrophils specifically contribute to thrombo-inflammation in this rare disease. In particular, it is suggested that an alteration in fibrinogen structure and function are associated with enhanced ROS production via neutrophil NADPH oxidase. Altogether, these findings improve our understanding of the intricate pathogenetic mechanisms of thrombo-inflammation and may indicate potential new therapeutic targets.

12.
J Rheumatol ; 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092713

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) expose modified antigens for auto-antibodies in vasculitis (SVV). Little is known on levels and removal pathways of NETs in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), especially in lupus nephritis (LN). We determined circulating levels and defined NETs removal in large subsets of incident SLE patients, a part with newly onset nephritis. METHODS: Serum levels of NETs (ELISA), DNase1/DNase1L3 (ELISAs) and DNase activity (functional assay) were determined in 216 incident SLE patients, 103 had incident LN, in 50 patients with other primary glomerulonephritis and in healthy controls. Ex vivo NETs production by neutrophils purified from a random selection of patients was quantified as elastase/DNA release and by immunofluorescence techniques. RESULTS: Serum NETs were very high in iSLE/iLN compared to all groups of controls and correlated with anti-dsDNA, C3-C4 and proteinuria; incident LN had the highest levels. DNase activity was decreased in iLN compared to SLE (20% had one half DNase activity) despite similar serum levels of DNase1/DNase1L3. In these cases, pre-treatment of serum with Protein A restored DNase efficiency; one patient was homozygous for a c.289_290delAC variant of DNASE1L3. Ex vivo NETs production by neutrophils purified from LN, SLE and normal controls was similar in all cases. CONCLUSION: iLN patients have increased circulating NETs and reduced DNase activity, the later being explained by the presence of inhibitory substances in circulation and/or by rare DNase1L3 mutations. Accumulation of NETs derives from a multi-factorial mechanism, is associated and may contribute to disease severity in SLE, in particular to renal lesions.

13.
Front Immunol ; 10: 693, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31019511

RESUMO

Objective: Chronic periaortitis (CP) is a rare fibro-inflammatory disorder that incorporates idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis, inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms, and perianeurysmal retroperitoneal fibrosis. CP is included in the spectrum of IgG4-related disease. Since CP patients rarely undergo diagnostic biopsies, serum IgG4 levels are often used to classify CP as IgG4-related. However, the clinical and prognostic significance of serum IgG4 in CP is unknown. Methods: We measured serum IgG4 in active CP patients and compared the clinical characteristics, response to therapy and outcome of patients with high and normal levels. We also tested the diagnostic significance of IgG4 by comparing its levels in CP patients, healthy and disease controls (malignancies, Erdheim-Chester disease, large-, and small-vessel vasculitis). Results: We studied 113 consecutive patients with active CP. Twenty-four (21.2%) had high serum IgG4 (>135 mg/dL). The demographic, laboratory, and clinical characteristics of patients with high and normal IgG4 were similar, and so were the rates of ureteral obstruction and the disease characteristics on CT, MRI, and 18F-FDG-PET. Patients with high IgG4 only had a higher frequency of extra-retroperitoneal fibro-inflammatory lesions (p = 0.005). There were no significant differences in response to therapy and relapses between the two groups. Serum IgG4 levels did not discriminate CP from controls. Conclusions: Serum IgG4 levels are high in a minority of CP patients and do not identify specific clinical or prognostic subgroups; only a higher frequency of extra-retroperitoneal lesions is found in high-IgG4 patients. Serum IgG4 levels do not help in the differential diagnosis between CP and its mimics.

14.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37(4): 680-683, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943133

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of golimumab (GOL) and certolizumab pegol (CZP) as additional treatment options for the treatment of uveitis. METHODS: Patients with longstanding uveitis receiving either GOL or CZP were retrospectively evaluated in terms of frequency of ocular flares, drug survival, changes in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and steroid-sparing effect. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients (30 eyes), 17 of whom being female, were enrolled in the study; 16 out of 21 patients had been previously treated with other tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α blockers. A significant reduction in ocular flares (from 128.6 bouts for 100 patients-year to 42.9 events for 100 patients-year) was observed between the 12 months prior to the start of GOL or CZP and the 12 months thereafter (p=0.01). The 36-month drug survival was 54.5% for CZP and 50.0% for GOL with no statistically significant differences between the two biologic agents. No differences were detected concerning BCVA values and the mean corticosteroid intake between baseline and the last follow-up. The safety profile was excellent. CONCLUSIONS: GOL and CZP represent effective and safe treatment choices for patients with uveitis also when unsuccessfully treated with other anti-TNF-α drugs, permitting a significant reduction in the frequency of ocular flares and preserving visual function with a good long-term retention rate.


Assuntos
Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Uveíte/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Certolizumab Pegol/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/uso terapêutico
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(8)2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999610

RESUMO

Autoinflammatory diseases (AIDs) are heterogeneous disorders characterized by dysregulation in the inflammasome, a large intracellular multiprotein platform, leading to overproduction of interleukin-1(IL-1)ß that plays a predominant pathogenic role in such diseases. Appropriate treatment is crucial, also considering that AIDs may persist into adulthood with negative consequences on patients' quality of life. IL-1ß blockade results in a sustained reduction of disease severity in most AIDs. A growing experience with the human IL-1 receptor antagonist, Anakinra (ANA), and the monoclonal anti IL-1ß antibody, Canakinumab (CANA), has also been engendered, highlighting their efficacy upon protean clinical manifestations of AIDs. Safety and tolerability have been confirmed by several clinical trials and observational studies on both large and small cohorts of AID patients. The same treatment has been proposed in refractory Kawasaki disease, an acute inflammatory vasculitis occurring in children before 5 years, which has been postulated to be autoinflammatory for its phenotypical and immunological similarity with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Nevertheless, minor concerns about IL-1 antagonists have been raised regarding their employment in children, and the development of novel pharmacological formulations is aimed at minimizing side effects that may affect adherence to treatment. The present review summarizes current findings on the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of ANA and CANA for treatment of AIDs and Kawasaki vasculitis with a specific focus on the pediatric setting.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Artrite Juvenil/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Periódicas Associadas à Criopirina/tratamento farmacológico , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/tratamento farmacológico , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de Mevalonato Quinase/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Artrite Juvenil/imunologia , Síndromes Periódicas Associadas à Criopirina/imunologia , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/imunologia , Febre/imunologia , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/imunologia , Humanos , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/efeitos adversos , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Deficiência de Mevalonato Quinase/imunologia , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/imunologia , Receptores de Interleucina-1/antagonistas & inibidores
16.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37(5): 762-767, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025925

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Good drug survival of tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) has been shown in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) patients treated in real-life setting. However, few studies have compared drug survival of the first TNF inhibitor between radiographic axSpA (r-axSpA) and non-radiographic axSpA (nr-axSpA) patients in real-world clinical practice. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness by assessing the retention rate of first-line TNFi in r-axSpA and nr-axSpA patients. Baseline predictive factors for TNFi discontinuation were also evaluated. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed axSpA patients, who underwent first line therapy with TNFi. Demographic and clinical data was obtained through structured interview, review of medical records and physical examination. Disease activity indices such as the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score evaluating C Reactive Protein (ASDAS-CRP), Leeds Enthesitis Index (LEI) were assessed at baseline. Moreover Health Assessment QuestionnaireDisability Index (HAQ), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, mm/h), CRP (mg/dl) and HLA-B27 were recorded as well. Data on x-ray and magnetic resonance imaging of the sacroiliac joints were also collected. Drug retention rates were analysed using Kaplan-Meier curves; log-rank test was performed to demonstrate differences in the survival functions. Cox regression models were used to estimate the inference of several disease and clinical characteristics on drug discontinuation. RESULTS: Drug survival of first-line TNFi was significantly lower in patients who had nr-axSpA than in those with r-axSpA (p=0.005). HLA-B27 frequency was higher in patients with x-ray sacroiliitis than in those with nr-axSpA (p=0.01) as well as mean CRP serum level (p=0.0001), whereas both mean BASDAI and LEI score were higher in patients with nr-axSpA than in those with r-axSpA (p=0.018 and p=0.007, respectively). Global retention rate in our cohort was 60.34% with mean survival time (MST) of 58.68 months (95% CI 47.93-69.42). MST for patients diagnosed with r-axSpA was 66.79 months (95% CI 53.54-80.04) and 39.05 months (95% CI 24.12-53.99) for those with nr-axSpA. Moreover, nr-axSpA (HR 1.620), higher BMI (HR 1.093) and BASFI, (HR 1.192) had an impact on drug discontinuation, whereas HLA-B27 presence (HR. 0.523) had protective effect. CONCLUSIONS: Effectiveness of TNFi, seems to be lower in nr-axSpA patients than in those with r-axSpA. In addition obesity and functional disability negatively impact the persistence on first line TNFi in axSpA patients in real life setting.


Assuntos
Antígeno HLA-B27/sangue , Articulação Sacroilíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Espondilartrite , Espondilite Anquilosante , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espondilartrite/diagnóstico por imagem , Espondilartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Espondilite Anquilosante/diagnóstico por imagem , Espondilite Anquilosante/tratamento farmacológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Haematologica ; 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872365

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus is frequently associated with antiphospholipid syndrome. Patients with lupus-antiphospholipid syndrome are characterized by recurrent arterial/venous thrombosis, miscarriages, and persistent presence of autoantibodies against phospholipid-binding proteins, such as ß2-Glycoprotein I. We investigated the cytokine production induced by ß2-Glycoprotein I in activated T cells that infiltrate in vivo atherosclerotic lesions of lupus-antiphospholipid syndrome patients. We examined the helper function of ß2-Glycoprotein I-specific T cells for the tissue factor production, as well as their cytolytic potential and their helper function for antibody production. Lupus-antiphospholipid syndrome patients harbor in vivo activated CD4+ T cells that recognize ß2-Glycoprotein I in atherosclerotic lesions. ß2-Glycoprotein I induces T cell proliferation and expression of both Interleukin-17/Interleukin-21 and Interferon-γ in plaque-derived T cell clones. ß2-Glycoprotein I-specific T cells display strong help for monocyte tissue factor production, and promote antibody production in autologous B cells. Moreover, plaque-derived ß2-Glycoprotein I-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes express both perforin-mediated and Fas/FasLigand-mediated-cytotoxicity. Altogether, our results indicate that ß2-Glycoprotein I is able to elicit a local Interleukin-17/Interleukin-21 and Interferon-γ inflammation in lupus-antiphospholipid syndrome patients that might lead, if unabated, to plaque instability and subsequent arterial thrombosis, suggesting that the T helper 17/T helper 1 pathway may represent a novel target for the prevention and treatment of the disease.

18.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2019: 1623847, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30881221

RESUMO

Objective: This study was aimed at assessing the long-term ocular control of adalimumab (ADA) in a large real-world population with noninfectious primary or secondary uveitis, focusing on the steroid-sparing effect and on disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) cotreatment. Methods: In this retrospective, multicenter study, the efficacy of ADA was evaluated in terms of ocular control, changes in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), corticosteroid-sparing effect, and drug retention rate, overall and stratified according to DMARD cotreatment. Results: 106 patients were included. 88.7% had an associated systemic disease. After 6 and 12 months, proportions of patients with effective ocular control were 83.7% and 83.3%, respectively. At last the follow-up, 94.6% of patients had satisfactory ocular control. No difference in terms of ocular control at all time points emerged among patients starting ADA for ocular vs. systemic involvements. Patients with poor baseline BCVA remained stable or improved, while those with good BCVA hardly worsened. At 6 and 12 months, the median dose of prednisone significantly reduced to 5 mg/day (0-5) and 2.5 mg/day (0-5) (p < 0.001). Over a median follow-up of 36 months, 38 subjects discontinued ADA treatment. Mild to moderate side effects were reported in 7 patients (6.6%). ADA ocular control, corticosteroid-sparing effect, and drug retention rate were not influenced by the concomitant use of DMARDs. Conclusion: The long-term ocular control of ADA in noninfectious primary or secondary uveitis is confirmed, also for BCVA preservation. Concomitant use of DMARDs does not provide additional benefits to ADA alone in terms of ocular control, steroid spare, and drug retention rate.


Assuntos
Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Uveíte/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37(2): 301-305, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719968

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of monoclonal anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α agents in patients with anterior uveitis (AU) in terms of decrease of recurrences, variation of visual acuity and steroid sparing effect and to identify any demographic, clinical or therapeutic variables associated with a sustained response to monoclonal TNF-α inhibitors. METHODS: Data from patients suffering from AU treated with adalimumab, infliximab, golimumab or certolizumab pegol were retrospectively collected and statistically analysed. RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients (22 males, 47 females), corresponding to 101 eyes, were enrolled. The mean follow-up period was 29.25±23.51 months. The rate of ocular flares decreased from 42.03 events/100 patients/year recorded during the 12 months preceding the start of TNF-α inhibitors to 2.9 flares/100 patients/year after the start of treatment (p<0.0001). The overall decrease in ocular flares was 93.1%. No statistically significant changes were identified in the best corrected visual acuity during the follow-up period (p>0.99). The number of patients treated with corticosteroids at baseline was significantly higher compared with that referred to the 12-month evaluation (p<0.001) and to the last follow-up visit (p=0.006). Concomitant treatment with conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (cDMARDs) represented the sole clinical, demographic or therapeutic variable associated with long-term treatment duration (p=0.045, R2=0.87). CONCLUSIONS: Monoclonal TNF-α inhibitors induce a remarkable decrease in the recurrence of AU during a long-term follow-up period and lead to a significant steroid sparing effect along with stabilisation of visual acuity. Concomitant treatment with cDMARDs represented the sole variable associated with treatment duration in the long-term.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Uveíte Anterior/tratamento farmacológico , Adalimumab , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Feminino , Humanos , Infliximab , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Exacerbação dos Sintomas , Resultado do Tratamento , Uveíte Anterior/imunologia
20.
Rheumatol Int ; 39(6): 971-990, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30799530

RESUMO

Behçet's syndrome (BS) is a chronic (auto)-inflammatory disorder characterized by different clusters of symptoms, including mucocutaneous and ocular involvements. Interleukin-1 inhibitors anakinra (ANA), canakinumab (CAN), and gevokizumab (GEV) represent a promising therapeutic alternative in BS. To date, evidence on the use of ANA, CAN, and GEV is mainly based on small isolated studies or case series, and the real place of anti-IL1 agents in the treatment of BS is still unclear. We performed a systematic review of current evidence on the efficacy and safety of anti-IL1 agents in BS. The PubMed search yielded a total of 398 references, from which we retrieved 24 studies for inclusion (4 clinical trials, 6 observational studies, 14 case reports, case series or letters to the editor). Four studies evaluated the overall efficacy of IL-1 inhibitors, 15 studies focused on the specific efficacy of ANA, whereas efficacy of CAN and GEV was evaluated in 8 and 3 studies, respectively. Both ANA and CAN were associated with good control of mucocutaneous and ocular manifestations. ANA resulted effective also for osteoarticular manifestations. GEV was studied only for ocular manifestations, but gave contrasting results. Discordant evidence supports the use of ANA and CAN in pediatric setting and for first-line treatment of general BS manifestations. Most frequent side effects were local or diffuse cutaneous reactions and injection site reactions, particularly for ANA treatment. Blocking the IL-1 pathway could be an effective therapeutic strategy in particular BS involvements.

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