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Sci Adv ; 7(15)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837084


Cells in vivo generate mechanical traction on the surrounding 3D extracellular matrix (ECM) and neighboring cells. Such traction and biochemical cues may remodel the matrix, e.g., increase stiffness, which, in turn, influences cell functions and forces. This dynamic reciprocity mediates development and tumorigenesis. Currently, there is no method available to directly quantify single-cell forces and matrix remodeling in 3D. Here, we introduce a method to fulfill this long-standing need. We developed a high-resolution microfabricated sensor that hosts a 3D cell-ECM tissue formed by self-assembly. This sensor measures cell forces and tissue stiffness and can apply mechanical stimulation to the tissue. We measured single and multicellular force dynamics of fibroblasts (3T3), human colon (FET) and lung (A549) cancer cells, and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF05) with 1-nN resolution. Single cells show notable force fluctuations in 3D. FET/CAF coculture system, mimicking cancer tumor microenvironment, increased tissue stiffness by three times within 24 hours.

Sci Rep ; 11(1): 378, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432089


Quantitative assessment of soft tissue elasticity is crucial to a broad range of applications, such as biomechanical modeling, physiological monitoring, and tissue diseases diagnosing. However, the modulus measurement of soft tissues, particularly in vivo, has proved challenging since the instrument has to reach the site of soft tissue and be able to measure in a very short time. Here, we present a simple method to measure the elastic modulus of soft tissues on site by exploiting buckling of a long slender bar to quantify the applied force and a spherical indentation to extract the elastic modulus. The method is realized by developing a portable pen-sized instrument (EPen: Elastic modulus pen). The measurement accuracies are verified by independent modulus measures using commercial nanoindenter. Quantitative measurements of the elastic modulus of mouse pancreas, healthy and cancerous, surgically exposed but attached to the body further confirm the potential clinical utility of the EPen.

Estruturas Animais/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Elasticidade/fisiologia , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica/instrumentação , Animais , Biofísica/instrumentação , Módulo de Elasticidade , Feminino , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica/métodos , Teste de Materiais , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microtecnologia/instrumentação , Aplicativos Móveis , Tono Muscular/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Agulhas , Estresse Mecânico
Extreme Mech Lett ; 40: 100924, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835043


Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) may spread through respiratory droplets released by infected individuals during coughing, sneezing, or speaking. Given the limited supply of professional respirators and face masks, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has recommended home-made cloth face coverings for use by the general public. While there have been several studies on aerosol filtration performance of household fabrics, their effectiveness at blocking larger droplets has not been investigated. Here, we ascertained the performance of 11 common household fabrics at blocking large, high-velocity droplets, using a commercial medical mask as a benchmark. We also assessed the breathability (air permeability), texture, fiber composition, and water absorption properties of the fabrics. We found that most fabrics have substantial blocking efficiency (median values >70%). In particular, two layers of highly permeable fabric, such as T-shirt cloth, blocks droplets with an efficiency (>94%) similar to that of medical masks, while being approximately twice as breathable. The first layer allows about 17% of the droplet volume to transmit, but it significantly reduces their velocity. This allows the second layer to trap the transmitted droplets resulting in high blocking efficacy. Overall, our study suggests that cloth face coverings, especially with multiple layers, may help reduce droplet transmission of respiratory infections. Furthermore, face coverings made from materials such as cotton fabrics allow washing and reusing, and can help reduce the adverse environmental effects of widespread use of commercial disposable and non-biodegradable facemasks.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 16: 279-287, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30128085


The role of tumor microenvironment in cancer progression is gaining significant attention. It is realized that cancer cells and the corresponding stroma co-evolve with time. Cancer cells recruit and transform the stromal cells, which in turn remodel the extra cellular matrix of the stroma. This complex interaction between the stroma and the cancer cells results in a dynamic feed-forward/feed-back loop with biochemical and biophysical cues that assist metastatic transition of the cancer cells. Although biochemistry has long been studied for the understanding of cancer progression, biophysical signaling is emerging as a critical paradigm determining cancer metastasis. In this mini review, we discuss the role of one of the biophysical cues, mostly the mechanical stiffness of tumor microenvironment, in cancer progression and its clinical implications.