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1.
Pediatr Obes ; 15(4): e12602, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fast food is cross-sectionally associated with having overweight and obesity in young children. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether fast food intake independently contributes to the development of overweight and obesity among preschool-age children. METHODS: Prospective cohort of 3- to 5-year-old children (n = 541) followed for 1 year. Children's height and weight were objectively measured at baseline and study end. Parents reported their child's fast food intake frequency in the past week from 11 chain fast food restaurants in six online follow-up surveys, completed approximately 8 weeks apart. Poisson regression with robust standard errors modelled the risk of a child increasing in weight status (ie, transitioning from a having a healthy weight to having overweight or from having overweight to having obesity) over the study period in relation to their average weekly fast food intake, adjusted for sociodemographics, child obesogenic behaviours, and parent weight status. RESULTS: At baseline, 18.1% of children had overweight and 9.8% had obesity; 8.1% of children transitioned to a greater weight status over the 1-year period. Mean fast food intake frequency among consumers was 2.1 (SD: 1.4) times per week. The risk of increasing in weight status increased linearly with each additional time fast food was consumed in an average week over the study year (RR: 1.38; 95% CI, 1.13-1.67; P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Greater fast food intake over 1 year was associated with increasing weight status during that time in this preschool-age cohort.

2.
Appetite ; 148: 104610, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958480

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Attentional bias to food cues may be a risk factor for childhood obesity, yet there are few paradigms to measure such biases in young children. Therefore, the present work introduces an eye-tracking visual search task to measure attentional bias in young children. METHODS: Fifty-one 3-6-year-olds played a game to find a target cartoon character among food (experimental condition) or toy (control condition) distractors. Children completed the experimental and toy conditions on two separate visits in randomized order. Behavioral (response latencies) and eye-tracking measures (time to first fixation, initial gaze duration duration, cumulative gaze duration ) of attention to food and toy cues were computed. Regressions were used to test for attentional bias to food versus toy cues, and whether attentional bias to food cues was related to current BMI z-score. RESULTS: Children spent more cumulative time looking at food versus toy distractors and took longer to locate the target when searching through food versus toy distractors. The faster children fixated on their first food versus toy distractor was associated with higher BMI z-scores. CONCLUSIONS: Using a game-based paradigm employing eye-tracking, we found a behavioral attentional bias to food vs. toy distractors in young children. Further, attentional bias to food cues was associated with current BMI z-score.

3.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e032184, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772098

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Research on the relationship between digital media exposure and child development is complex, inconsistent and fraught with debate. A highlighted area of inadequacy surrounds the methodological limitations of measuring digital media use for both researchers and clinicians, alike. This protocol aims to (1) identify core concepts in the area of screen time and digital media use in children and adolescents (2) map existing research paradigms and screening/measurement tools that serve to underpin and operationalise core concepts and (3) provide an initial step in integrating these findings into a consolidated screening toolkit. It is expected this enterprise will help advance research and clinical evaluation in fields concerned with digital media use, namely medicine, child development and the social sciences. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The planned scoping review will search relevant electronic databases, including Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Scopus, in addition to grey literature. All empirical investigations and presentation of original research will be considered, and measurement/screening tools for digital media usage in children and adolescents will be identified and reported on. Two reviewers will pilot test the screening criteria, and data extraction forms prior to independently screening all relevant literature and extracting the data. A three-stage synthesis process will be used to map the existent measurement and screening tools for digital media usage in children and adolescents. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: There are no ethical considerations for this scoping review. Plans for dissemination include publication in a top-tier, open-access journal, public presentations and conference proceedings. Presentation of the full scoping review has been accepted to the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 66th Annual Meeting.

4.
Front Psychol ; 10: 2256, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649589

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the associations between dietary cognitive restraint, disinhibited eating, and how taste and health perceptions relate to food preference; and further, whether cognitive restraint and disinhibited eating are associated with food preference decision reaction time. Methods: Five hundred and seventeen adults participated in the study. Dietary cognitive restraint and disinhibited eating were assessed using the shortened Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R18). Participants also completed a dietary decision-making task to examine their food-related decisions. Participants were presented with 50 food items and asked to rate them for health and for taste. Participants were then presented with a reference food item and comparison items one at a time and asked to indicate which of the two foods they would prefer to eat. Results: Participants with higher levels of cognitive restraint were more sensitive to health perceptions whereas those with higher levels of disinhibited eating were more sensitive to taste perceptions when indicating food preference. Reaction time analysis corroborated these results. Being classified as high for cognitive restraint was associated with faster reaction times if the preferred food was rated as healthier than the referent food. Conversely, being classified as high for disinhibited eating was associated with faster reaction times if the preferred food was rated as tastier than the referent food. Conclusion: The dietary decision-making task appears to capture distinct aspects of dietary restraint and disinhibition and may be useful in future studies to measure and/or alter levels of dietary restraint and disinhibition.

5.
Appetite ; 140: 134-141, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078700

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fast food (FF) advertising is a potential risk factor for FF consumption among children, yet the impact of such advertising on children's FF intake has not been assessed in a longitudinal, naturalistic study. Whether parents' FF consumption mitigates advertising effects is also unknown. METHODS: One-year, longitudinal study among 624 preschool-age children, 3-5 years old, and one parent each recruited from New Hampshire, 2014-2015. Parents completed six online surveys every eight weeks and, at each, reported the number of times their children consumed FF in the past week. Each child's advertisement exposure was determined by counting the brand-specific FF advertisements aired within the programs they viewed on children's TV networks during the study. At baseline, parents reported the frequency of their own FF consumption. Data were analyzed in 2017-2018. RESULTS: Three FF brands targeted TV advertising to children during the study: McDonald's, Wendy's and Subway. Few children were exposed to child-targeted advertising for Wendy's or Subway. Results from adjusted Poisson regression models focused on McDonald's showed a differential effect of advertisement exposure on children's McDonald's intake in the past week (any or mean intake) by parental FF consumption (P < 0.01). Specifically, McDonald's intake was consistently high among children whose parents consumed FF more frequently (≥monthly), regardless of children's advertisement exposure. However, advertisement exposure increased the risk of McDonald's intake among children nearly two-fold when parents consumed FF less frequently (

6.
Appetite ; 139: 119-126, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31047939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conditioned eating in response to external food cues may contribute to obesity risk in young children. OBJECTIVES: To develop a brief, parent-reported scale to measure external food cue responsiveness for preschool-age children. METHODS: Focus groups with parents of preschool-age children were conducted to create an initial pool of items reflecting children's behavioral responses to external food cues. Items were included in a nationally-distributed online survey of parents of preschool-age children (n = 456). Factor analysis was used to reduce the initial item pool, the scale's psychometric properties were assessed, and scores were correlated with reported snacking behaviors. RESULTS: Nine items met inclusion criteria in the final scale, which had high internal consistency (alpha = 0.86). Final scores were the mean across the nine items. External food cue responsiveness was greater among children with, versus without, usual TV advertisement exposure. Furthermore, greater external food cue responsiveness mediated the relationship between children's usual TV advertisement exposure and snacking during TV viewing. Findings remained statistically significant when adjusted for food responsiveness as measured with the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide preliminary evidence that external food cue responsiveness is measurable by parental report in preschool-age children.

7.
Am J Prev Med ; 56(2): e35-e43, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573338

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Child-directed TV advertising is believed to influence children's diets, yet prospective studies in naturalistic settings are absent. This study examined if child-directed TV advertisement exposure for ten brands of high-sugar breakfast cereals was associated with children's intake of those brands prospectively. METHODS: Observational study of 624 preschool-age children and their parents conducted in New Hampshire, 2014-2015. Over 1 year, parents completed a baseline and six online follow-up surveys, one every 8 weeks. Children's exposure to high-sugar breakfast cereal TV advertisements was based on the network-specific TV programs children watched in the 7 days prior to each follow-up assessment, and parents reported children's intake of each advertised high-sugar breakfast cereal brand during that same 7-day period. Data were analyzed in 2017-2018. RESULTS: In the fully adjusted Poisson regression model accounting for repeated measures and brand-specific effects, children with high-sugar breakfast cereal advertisement exposure in the past 7 days (i.e., recent exposure; RR=1.34, 95% CI=1.04, 1.72), at any assessment in the past (RR=1.23, 95% CI=1.06, 1.42), or recent and past exposure (RR=1.37, 95% CI=1.15, 1.63) combined had an increased risk of brand-specific high-sugar breakfast cereal intake. Absolute risk difference of children's high-sugar breakfast cereal intake because of high-sugar breakfast cereal TV advertisement exposure varied by brand. CONCLUSIONS: This naturalistic study demonstrates that child-directed high-sugar breakfast cereal TV advertising was prospectively associated with brand-specific high-sugar breakfast cereal intake among preschoolers. Findings indicate that child-directed advertising influences begin earlier and last longer than previously demonstrated, highlighting limitations of current industry guidelines regarding the marketing of high-sugar foods to children under age 6 years.

8.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 1210, 2018 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30373557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excess screen media use is a robust predictor of childhood obesity. Understanding how household factors may affect children's screen use is needed to tailor effective intervention efforts. The preschool years are a critical time for obesity prevention, and while it is likely that greater household disorder influences preschool-aged children's screen use, data on that relationship are absent. In this study, our goal was to quantify the relationships between household chaos and screen use in preschool-aged children. METHODS: A cross-sectional, online survey was administered to 385 parents of 2-5 year-olds recruited in 2017. Household chaos was measured with the Confusion, Hubbub and Order Scale (i.e., the chaos scale), a validated, parent-reported scale. The scale consists of 15 items, each scored on a 4-point Likert scale. Final scores were the sum across the 15 items and modeled as quartiles for analyses. Parents reported their children's screen use for nine electronic media activities. Adjusted linear and Poisson regression were used to model associations between household chaos and children's total weekly screen use, screen use within one hour of bedtime and screen use in the bedroom. RESULTS: Children averaged 31.0 (SD = 23.8) hours per week with screens, 49.6% used screens within one hour of bedtime and 41.0% used screens in their bedrooms. In adjusted regression models, greater household chaos was positively associated with weekly screen use (P = 0.03) and use of screens within one hour of bedtime (P < 0.01) in a dose-dependent manner. Children in the fourth versus the first quartile of household chaos were more likely to use screens in their bedroom (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Greater household chaos was associated with increased total screen use as well as screen use behaviors that are related to disrupted nighttime sleep. Findings suggest that household chaos may be an obesity risk factor during the preschool years because of such effects on screen use, and highlight the need to consider household chaos when implementing home-based obesity prevention programs for young children.


Assuntos
Computadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Família/psicologia , Televisão/estatística & dados numéricos , Jogos de Vídeo/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Microbiome ; 6(1): 109, 2018 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29973274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome has an important role in infant health and immune development and may be affected by early-life exposures. Maternal diet may influence the infant gut microbiome through vertical transfer of maternal microbes to infants during vaginal delivery and breastfeeding. We aimed to examine the association of maternal diet during pregnancy with the infant gut microbiome 6 weeks post-delivery in mother-infant dyads enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study. Infant stool samples were collected from 145 infants, and maternal prenatal diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. We used targeted sequencing of the 16S rRNA V4-V5 hypervariable region to characterize infant gut microbiota. To account for differences in baseline and trajectories of infant gut microbial profiles, we stratified analyses by delivery mode. RESULTS: We identified three infant gut microbiome clusters, characterized by increased abundance of Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus and Clostridium, and Bacteroides, respectively, overall and in the vaginally delivered infant stratum. In the analyses stratified to infants born vaginally and adjusted for other potential confounders, maternal fruit intake was associated with infant gut microbial community structure (PERMANOVA, p < 0.05). In multinomial logistic regression analyses, increased fruit intake was associated with an increased odds of belonging to the high Streptococcus/Clostridium group among infants born vaginally (OR (95% CI) = 2.73 (1.36, 5.46)). In infants delivered by Cesarean section, we identified three clusters that differed slightly from vaginally delivered infants, which were characterized by a high abundance of Bifidobacterium, high Clostridium and low Streptococcus and Ruminococcus genera, and high abundance of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Maternal dairy intake was associated with an increased odds of infants belonging to the high Clostridium cluster in infants born by Cesarean section (OR (95% CI) = 2.36 (1.05, 5.30)). Linear models suggested additional associations between maternal diet and infant intestinal microbes in both delivery mode strata. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that maternal diet influences the infant gut microbiome and that these effects differ by delivery mode.


Assuntos
Bacteroides/isolamento & purificação , Bifidobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Cesárea , Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Bacteroides/classificação , Bacteroides/genética , Bifidobacterium/classificação , Bifidobacterium/genética , Clostridium/classificação , Clostridium/genética , Laticínios , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Alimentos Marinhos , Streptococcus/classificação , Streptococcus/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Nutr ; 148(1): 22-30, 2018 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29378041

RESUMO

Background: Birth weight has a U-shaped relation with chronic disease. Diet quality during pregnancy may impact fetal growth and infant birth weight, yet findings are inconclusive. Objective: We examined the relation between maternal diet quality during pregnancy and infant birth size among women enrolled in a prospective birth cohort. Methods: Women 18-45 y old with a singleton pregnancy were recruited at 24-28 wk of gestation from prenatal clinics in New Hampshire. Women completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at enrollment. Diet quality was computed as adherence to the Alternative Healthy Eating Index. Infant birth outcomes (sex, head circumference, weight, and length) were extracted from medical records. Weight-for-length z scores, low birth weight, macrosomia, and size for gestational age [small for gestational age (SGA) or large for gestational age (LGA)] were computed. Multivariable regression models fit each outcome on quartiles of diet quality, adjusted for covariates. Models were computed overall and stratified by smoking status. Results: Analyses included 862 women and infants with complete data. Lower diet quality was associated with lower maternal education, being a smoker, prepregnancy obesity status, and lack of exercise during pregnancy. Overall, 3.4% of infants were born with a low birth weight, 12.1% with macrosomia, 4.6% were SGA, and 8.7% were LGA. In an adjusted model, increased diet quality appeared linearly associated with a reduced likelihood of SGA (P-trend = 0.03), although each quartile comparison did not reach statistical significance. Specifically, ORs for SGA were 0.89 (95% CI: 0.37, 2.15), 0.73 (95% CI: 0.28, 1.89), and 0.35 (95% CI: 0.11, 1.08) for each increasing quartile of diet quality compared to the lowest quartile. Similar trends for SGA were observed among non-smokers (n = 756; P-trend = 0.07). Also among non-smokers, increased diet quality was associated with lower infant birth weight (P-trend = 0.03) and a suggested reduction in macrosomia (P-trend = 0.07). Conclusions: Increased diet quality during pregnancy was related to a reduced risk of SGA in this cohort of pregnant women from New Hampshire. Additional studies are needed to elucidate the relation between maternal diet quality and macrosomia.


Assuntos
Dieta , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Macrossomia Fetal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Hampshire , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
Tob Control ; 27(6): 650-655, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29363609

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Flavour capsule cigarettes are a recent product worldwide, and little is known about the epidemiology of their use. We used data from a nationally representative survey to understand the sociodemographic characteristics of flavour capsule cigarette smokers and reasons for flavour capsule use. METHODS: Data were from the nationally representative, U.S. Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health survey (2013-2014). Analyses included 7181 adults, aged 18-44 years, who were current or former established (≥100 lifetime cigarettes) cigarette smokers. Participants reported their usual brand of cigarettes which were classified as non-menthol, menthol or flavour capsule. Analyses assessed differences in participant demographics, smoking patterns and reasons for use by product type among those aged 18-24 years. Analyses were weighted to account for the survey design. RESULTS: Flavour capsule cigarettes were the usual cigarettes among 9.4% of smokers aged 18-24 years and 6.0%, 3.7% and <1% of smokers aged 25-34, 35-44 and ≥45 years, respectively. Among smokers aged 18-24 year, a significantly higher percentage of Hispanic smokers (17.3%) usually used flavour capsule cigarettes versus non-Hispanic white (8.4%, P<0.05) and non-Hispanic black (3.2%, P<0.05) smokers. Flavour capsule use was associated with later onset of smoking and lower levels of nicotine dependency and flavour capsule users placed more emphasis on taste, lower price and pack design than menthol or non-menthol users. CONCLUSIONS: Flavour capsule cigarettes use is highest in young adults, particularly Hispanics. Young adult predominance, lower level of addiction symptoms and emphasis on pack design by flavour capsule users suggest that these products may be positioned as starter products.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Aromatizantes , Mentol , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Appetite ; 117: 321-329, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28712975

RESUMO

Polymorphisms in the Fat Mass and Obesity Associated (FTO) gene are robustly associated with overweight and obesity among children, although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We tested if appetitive traits partially mediated the association between FTO genotype and increased BMI among a sample of US preadolescents. Data were from 178 unrelated 9-10 year olds who participated in an experimental study between 2013 and 2015. Children's DNA was isolated from buccal swabs, and the rs9939609 SNP in the FTO gene was genotyped. Children's age- and sex-adjusted BMI z-scores were computed using height and weight measured at the laboratory. Parents completed the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire that includes three validated scales of habitual appetitive traits related to drive and regulation: satiety responsiveness, enjoyment of food and food responsiveness. Structural equation modeling was used to assess if those traits mediated the relationship between FTO and BMI z-score. The sample of children was 48.9% male and 91.0% non-Hispanic white. FTO distribution was in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium, and 16.3% of participants were homozygous for the high-risk allele. Mean BMI z-score was greatest among those with the high-risk genotype (ANOVA P < 0.01). In separate structural equation models adjusted for the child's sex and maternal education, decreased satiety responsiveness and increased food responsiveness each partially mediated the positive association between the high-risk genotype and increased BMI z-score (P-value for each indirect effect <0.05). Continued research is needed to better understand how other known genetic obesity risk factors may impact appetitive traits among children.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Adolescente , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Regulação do Apetite , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sobrepeso/genética , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adolescente , Alelos , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mucosa Bucal/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Pais , Obesidade Pediátrica/metabolismo , Resposta de Saciedade , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos
13.
Pediatrics ; 138(6)2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27940713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preschoolers in the United States are heavily exposed to unhealthy food advertisements. Whether such exposure promotes cued eating has not been documented in this age group. METHODS: Randomized experiment among 60 children, aged 2 to 5 years, recruited in 2015-2016 from New Hampshire and Vermont. Children completed the experiment at a behavioral laboratory. Children were provided with a healthy snack to consume upon arrival then randomized to view a 14-minute TV program embedded with advertisements for either a food or a department store. Children were provided 2 snack foods to consume ad libitum while viewing the TV program; 1 of those snacks was the food advertised. Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) was operationalized as the kilocalories of snack foods consumed. t tests were used to compare EAH by advertisement condition; linear regression models assessed effect modification by the child's age, sex, BMI percentile, and parental feeding restriction. RESULTS: Mean age was 4.1 (SD 0.9) years, 55% of children were male, 80% were non-Hispanic white, and 20% were overweight or obese. There were no differences in child or socioeconomic characteristics by advertisement condition. Child BMI was not related to EAH. Mean kilocalories consumed during the EAH phase was greater among children exposed to the food advertisements (126.8, SD: 58.5) versus those exposed to the nonfood advertisements (97.3, SD: 52.3; P = .04), an effect driven by greater consumption of the advertised food (P < .01). There was no evidence of effect modification. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that food advertisement exposure may encourage obesogenic-eating behaviors among the very young.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Fome , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , New Hampshire , Relações Pais-Filho , Medição de Risco , Vermont
14.
PLoS One ; 11(5): e0155521, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27196523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore whether a common variant in the FTO gene moderates the relationship between parental restriction and child BMI. METHODS: This study reports on baseline data from 178 parent-child (ages 9-10 years) dyads. Parents completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire and reported on socio-demographic characteristics. Each child's height, weight and FTO rs9939609 genotype was assessed. Ordinary least squares regression was used to fit the child's BMI-percentile on parental restriction and the child's FTO genotype, adjusted for covariates. A likelihood ratio test was used to compare a model with and without a multiplicative interaction term between restriction and genotype. RESULTS: Most participants (93.3%) were white, non-Hispanic. Twenty-three percent of children were overweight/obese and FTO genotype was associated with weight status. Mean parental restriction was statistically higher among overweight/obese vs. normal weight children: 3.3 (SD 0.8) vs. 2.8 (SD 1.0); t-test p-value = 0.002. Parental restriction was positively associated with child BMI-percentile and BMI-z only among children with two copies of the high-risk FTO allele (p for interaction = 0.02), where each one-point increase in parental restriction was associated with a 14.7 increase in the child's BMI-percentile or a 0.56-point increase in the child's BMI z-score. CONCLUSION: For only the children with two high-risk alleles, parental restriction was positively associated with child BMI-percentile.


Assuntos
Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar , Poder Familiar , Alelos , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Obesidade/genética , Sobrepeso/genética , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Environ Health Perspect ; 124(8): 1299-307, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26955061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that arsenic exposure influences birth outcomes; however, findings are mixed. OBJECTIVE: We assessed in utero arsenic exposure in relation to birth outcomes and whether maternal prepregnancy weight and infant sex modified the associations. METHODS: Among 706 mother-infant pairs exposed to low levels of arsenic through drinking water and diet, we assessed in utero arsenic exposure using maternal second-trimester urinary arsenic, maternal prepregnancy weight through self-report, and birth outcomes from medical records. RESULTS: Median (interquartile range) of total urinary arsenic [tAs; inorganic arsenic (iAs) + monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) + dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)] was 3.4 µg/L (1.7-6.0). In adjusted linear models, each doubling of tAs was associated with a 0.10-cm decrease (95% CI: -0.19, -0.01) in head circumference. Results were similar for MMA and DMA. Ln(tAs) and ln(DMA) were positively associated with birth length in infant males only; among males, each doubling of tAs was associated with a 0.28-cm increase (95% CI: 0.09, 0.46) in birth length (pinteraction = 0.04). Results were similar for DMA. Additionally, arsenic exposure was inversely related to ponderal index, and associations differed by maternal weight. Each ln(tAs) doubling of tAs was associated with a 0.55-kg/m3 lower (95% CI: -0.82, -0.28, p < 0.001) ponderal index for infants of overweight/obese, but not normal-weight, mothers (pinteraction < 0.01). Finally, there was a significant interaction between maternal weight status, infant sex, and arsenic exposure on birth weight (pinteraction = 0.03). In girls born of overweight/obese mothers, each doubling of tAs was associated with a 62.9-g decrease (95% CI: -111.6, -14.2) in birth weight, though the association was null in the other strata. CONCLUSIONS: Low-level arsenic exposure may affect fetal growth, and the associations may be modified by maternal weight status and infant sex. CITATION: Gilbert-Diamond D, Emond JA, Baker ER, Korrick SA, Karagas MR. 2016. Relation between in utero arsenic exposure and birth outcomes in a cohort of mothers and their newborns from New Hampshire. Environ Health Perspect 124:1299-1307; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510065.


Assuntos
Arsênico/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , New Hampshire/epidemiologia , Gravidez
16.
Environ Health Perspect ; 124(3): 290-8, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26186801

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of walking and cycling for transport is low and varies greatly across countries. Few studies have examined neighborhood perceptions related to walking and cycling for transport in different countries. Therefore, it is challenging to prioritize appropriate built-environment interventions. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the strength and shape of the relationship between adults' neighborhood perceptions and walking and cycling for transport across diverse environments. METHODS: As part of the International Physical activity and Environment Network (IPEN) adult project, self-reported data were taken from 13,745 adults (18-65 years) living in physically and socially diverse neighborhoods in 17 cities across 12 countries. Neighborhood perceptions were measured using the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale, and walking and cycling for transport were measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Long Form. Generalized additive mixed models were used to model walking or cycling for transport during the last seven days with neighborhood perceptions. Interactions by city were explored. RESULTS: Walking-for-transport outcomes were significantly associated with perceived residential density, land use mix-access, street connectivity, aesthetics, and safety. Any cycling for transport was significantly related to perceived land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure, aesthetics, safety, and perceived distance to destinations. Between-city differences existed for some attributes in relation to walking or cycling for transport. CONCLUSIONS: Many perceived environmental attributes supported both cycling and walking; however, highly walkable environments may not support cycling for transport. People appear to walk for transport despite safety concerns. These findings can guide the implementation of global health strategies.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Cidades , Planejamento Ambiental , Características de Residência/classificação , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Transportes , Caminhada , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
J Pediatr ; 168: 158-63.e1, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26526362

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations between children's exposure to television (TV) networks that aired child-directed advertisements for children's fast food meals with the collection of fast food meal toy premiums and frequency of family visits to those restaurants. STUDY DESIGN: One hundred parents of children 3-7 years old were recruited from a rural pediatrics clinic during 2011; families receiving Medicaid were oversampled. Parents reported the child's TV viewing habits and family visit frequency to the fast food restaurants participating in child-directed TV marketing at the time, and their child's requests for visits to and the collecting of toy premiums from those restaurants. Logistic regression models assessed adjusted associations between a child's TV viewing with more frequent restaurant visits (≥monthly in this population). Structural equation modeling assessed if child requests or toy collecting mediated that association. RESULTS: Thirty-seven percent of parents reported ≥monthly visits to the select fast food restaurants. Among children, 54% requested visits to and 29% collected toys from those restaurants. Greater child commercial TV viewing was significantly associated with more frequent family visits to those fast food restaurants (aOR 2.84 for each 1-unit increase in the child's commercial TV viewing scale, P < .001); toy collecting partially mediated that positive association. CONCLUSIONS: Higher exposure among children to commercial TV networks that aired child-directed ads for children's fast food meals was associated with more frequent family visits to those fast food restaurants. Child desire for toy premiums may be a mediating factor.


Assuntos
Família , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Jogos e Brinquedos , Restaurantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Televisão/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , New England , População Rural
18.
Pediatrics ; 136(6): 1095-102, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26553181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutritionally poor foods are heavily advertised to children on television. Whether those same products are also advertised to parents on television has not been systematically examined. METHODS: This study is a content analysis of advertisements for children's packaged foods and beverages aired over US network, cable, and syndicated television for 1 year (2012 to 2013). The target audience of each advertisement was defined as children or parents based on advertisement content, where parent-directed advertisements included emotional appeals related to family bonding and love. Advertisement characteristics and patterns of airtime were compared across target audience, and the proportion of total airtime devoted to advertisements targeting parents was computed. RESULTS: Fifty-one children's food or beverage products were advertised over the study year, 25 (49%) of which were advertised directly to parents. Parent-directed advertisements more often featured nutrition and health messaging and an active lifestyle than child-directed advertisements, whereas child-directed advertisements more frequently highlighted fun and product taste. Over all products, 42.4% of total airtime was devoted to advertisements that targeted parents. The products with the most amount of airtime over the study year were ready-to-eat cereals, sugar-sweetened beverages, and children's yogurt, and the proportion of total advertisement airtime for those products devoted to parents was 24.4%, 72.8%, and 25.8%, respectively. DISCUSSION: Television advertisements for children's packaged foods and beverages frequently targeted parents with emotional appeals and messaging related to nutrition and health. Findings are of concern if exposure to such advertisements among parents may shape their beliefs about the appropriateness of nutritionally questionable children's foods and beverages.


Assuntos
/métodos , Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Televisão/estatística & dados numéricos , /estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Estados Unidos
19.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 47(2): 120-6.e1, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25754297

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe programming themes and the inclusion of adolescents in the base audience for television channels with high levels of energy drink advertising airtime. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of energy drink advertising airtime over US network and cable television channels (n = 139) from March, 2012 to February, 2013. Programming themes and the inclusion of adolescents in each channel's base audience were extracted from cable television trade reports. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Energy drink advertising airtime. ANALYSIS: Channels were ranked by airtime; programming themes and the inclusion of adolescents in the base audience were summarized for the 10 channels with the most airtime. RESULTS: Over the study year, 36,501 minutes (608 hours) were devoted to energy drink advertisements; the top 10 channels accounted for 46.5% of such airtime. Programming themes for the top 10 channels were music (n = 3), sports (n = 3), action-adventure lifestyle (n = 2), African American lifestyle (n = 1), and comedy (n = 1). MTV2 ranked first in airtime devoted to energy drink advertisements. Six of the 10 channels with the most airtime included adolescents aged 12-17 years in their base audience. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Energy drink manufacturers primarily advertise on channels that likely appeal to adolescents. Nutritionists may wish to consider energy drink media literacy when advising adolescents about energy drink consumption.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Bebidas Energéticas , Televisão/economia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
20.
PLoS One ; 10(3): e0119300, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25738653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: In the United States, the fast food companies McDonald's and Burger King participate in marketing self-regulation programs that aim to limit emphasis on premiums and promote emphasis of healthy food choices. We determine what children recall from fast food television advertisements aired by these companies. METHODS: One hundred children aged 3-7 years were shown McDonald's and Burger King children's (MDC & BKC) and adult (MDA & BKA) meal ads, randomly drawn from ads that aired on national US television from 2010-11. Immediately after seeing the ad, children were asked to recall what they had seen and transcripts evaluated for descriptors of food, healthy food (apples or milk), and premiums/tie-ins. RESULTS: Premiums/tie-ins were common in children's but rarely appeared in adult ads, and all children's ads contained images of healthy foods (apples and milk). Participants were significantly less likely to recall any food after viewing the children's vs. the adult ad (MDC 32% [95% confidence interval 23, 41] vs. MDA 68% [59, 77]) p <0.001; BKC 46% [39, 56] vs. BKA 67% [58, 76] respectively, p = 0.002). For children's ads alone and for both restaurants, recall frequency for all food was not significantly different from premium/tie-ins, and participants were significantly more likely to recall other food items than apples or milk. Moreover, premiums/tie-ins were recalled much more frequently than healthy food (MDC 45% [35, 55] vs. 9% [3, 15] p<0.001; BKC 54% [44, 64] vs. 2% [0, 5] respectively, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Children's net impressions of television fast food advertising indicate that industry self-regulation failed to achieve a de-emphasis on toy premiums and tie-ins and did not adequately communicate healthy menu choices. The methods devised for this study could be used to monitor and better regulate advertising patterns of practice.


Assuntos
/legislação & jurisprudência , Fast Foods/economia , Regulamentação Governamental , Rememoração Mental , Televisão , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Indústria Alimentícia/economia , Indústria Alimentícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Masculino
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