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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bronchial remodeling is a key feature of asthma already present in preschool wheezers. Moreover, bronchial smooth muscle (BSM) remodeling at preschool age is predictive of asthma at school age. However, the mechanism responsible for BSM remodeling in preschool wheezers remains totally unknown. By contrast, in adult asthma, BSM remodeling has been associated to an increase in BSM cell proliferation related to increased mitochondrial mass and biogenesis triggered by an altered calcium homeostasis. Indeed, BSM cell proliferation was decreased in vitro by the calcium channel blocker gallopamil. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanisms involved in BSM cell proliferation in severe preschool wheezers, with special attention to the role of mitochondria and calcium signaling. METHODS: Bronchial tissue obtained from 12 non-wheezing preschool controls and 10 severe preschool wheezers, was used to measure BSM mass and establish primary BSM cell cultures. BSM cell proliferation was assessed by manual counting and flow cytometry, ATP content by bioluminescence, mitochondrial respiration either by Seahorse and Oroboros, mitochondrial mass and biogenesis by immunoblotting, and calcium response to carbachol by confocal microscopy. The effect of gallopamil was also evaluated. RESULTS: BSM mass, cell proliferation, ATP content, mitochondrial respiration, mass and biogenesis, and calcium response were all increased in severe preschool wheezers compared to those of controls. Gallopamil significantly decreased BSM mitochondrial biogenesis and mass, and cell proliferation. CONCLUSION: Mitochondria are a key player in BSM cell proliferation in severe preschool wheezers and could represent a potential target to treat BSM remodeling at an early stage of the disease.

2.
Pediatr Res ; 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noninvasive assessments of liver fibrosis are currently used to evaluate cystic fibrosis (CF)-related liver disease. However, there is scarce data regarding their repeatability and reproducibility, especially in children with CF. The present study aimed to evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of transient elastography (TE) (FibroScan®) and point shear-wave elastography using virtual touch quantification (pSWE VTQ) in children with CF. METHODS: TE and pSWE VTQ were performed in 56 children with CF by two different operators. Analysis of repeatability and reproducibility was available in 33 patients for TE and 46 patients for pSWE VTQ. Intra- and interobserver agreement were assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and their 95% confidence interval (CI), and Bland and Altman graphs. RESULTS: For TE, ICC was 0.91 (0.83-0.95) for intraobserver agreement and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.86-0.96) for interobserver agreement. For pSWE VTQ, ICC was 0.83 (0.72-0.90) for intraobserver agreement and 0.67 (0.48-0.80) for interobserver agreement. CONCLUSIONS: Both technics can be proposed in the follow-up of patients, according to their availability in CF centers. IMPACT: This study shows that TE and pSWE VTQ are reliable methods to evaluate liver fibrosis in children with CF. This study shows for the first time that TE and pSWE VTQ are both repeatable and reproducible in children with CF. These data indicate that both TE and pSWE VTQ can be proposed for the follow-up of patients with CF, according to their availability in each CF center.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The links between microbial environmental exposures and asthma are well documented, but no study has combined deep sequencing results from pulmonary and indoor microbiomes of patients with asthma with spirometry, clinical, and endotype parameters. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate the links between indoor microbial exposures and pulmonary microbial communities and to document the role of microbial exposures on inflammatory and clinical outcomes of patients with severe asthma (SA). METHODS: A total of 55 patients with SA from the national Cohort of Bronchial Obstruction and Asthma cohort were enrolled for analyzing their indoor microbial flora through the use of electrostatic dust collectors (EDCs). Among these patients, 22 were able to produce sputum during "stable" or pulmonary "exacerbation" periods and had complete pairs of EDC and sputum samples, both collected and analyzed. We used amplicon targeted metagenomics to compare microbial communities from EDC and sputum samples of patients according to type 2 (T2)-asthma endotypes. RESULTS: Compared with patients with T2-low SA, patients with T2-high SA exhibited an increase in bacterial α-diversity and a decrease in fungal α-diversity of their indoor microbial florae, the latter being significantly correlated with fraction of exhaled nitric oxide levels. The ß-diversity of the EDC mycobiome clustered significantly according to T2 endotypes. Moreover, the proportion of fungal taxa in common between the sputum and EDC samples was significantly higher when patients exhibited acute exacerbation. CONCLUSION: These results illustrated, for the first time, a potential association between the indoor mycobiome and clinical features of patients with SA, which should renew interest in deciphering the interactions between indoor environment, fungi, and host in asthma.

5.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 71(6): 778-781, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740537

RESUMO

A chronic intestinal inflammation may occur in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), while no therapeutic management is proposed. Although Lumacaftor/Ivacaftor is well-known to modulate the defective cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein in lungs, no data are available on the impact of this treatment on CF intestinal disorders. We, therefore, investigated the evolution of intestinal inflammation after initiation of Lumacaftor/Ivacaftor in CF adolescents (median of follow-up: 336 days [IQR: 278;435]). Median fecal calprotectin concentrations decreased significantly after Lumacaftor/Ivacaftor initiation (102 µg/g [IQR: 69-210]) compared with the baseline (713 µg/g (IQR:148-852), P = 0.001). To our knowledge, this study showed for the first time that CF-related intestinal inflammation is improved by Lumacaftor/Ivacaftor treatment.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740538

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Crohn disease (CD) can affect patient's quality of life (QOL) with physical, social, and psychological impacts. This study aimed to investigate the QOL of children with CD and its relationship with patient and disease characteristics. METHODS: Children ages from 10 to 17 years with diagnosed CD for more than 6 months were eligible to this cross-sectional study conducted in 35 French pediatric centers. QOL was assessed by the IMPACT-III questionnaire. Patient and disease characteristics were collected. RESULTS: A total of 218 children (42% of girls) were included at a median age of 14 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 13--16). Median duration of CD was 3.2 years (IQR: 1.7-5.1) and 63% of children were in clinical remission assessed by wPCDAI. Total IMPACT-III score was 62.8 (±11.0). The lowest score was in "emotional functioning" subdomain (mean: 42.8 ±â€Š11.2). Clinical remission was the main independent factor associated with QOL of children with CD (5.74 points higher compared with those "with active disease", 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.77--8.70, P < 0.001). Age of patient at the evaluation was found negatively correlated with QOL (-0.76 per year, 95% CI: -1.47 to -0.06, P = 0.009). Presence of psychological disorders was associated with a lower QOL (-9.6 points lower to those without, 95% CI: -13.34 to -5.86, P < 0.0001). Total IMPACT-III and its subdomains scores were not related to sex, disease duration, or treatments. CONCLUSIONS: These results not only confirm that clinical remission is a major issue for the QOL of patients, but also highlights the importance of psychological care.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140452

RESUMO

The gut and lungs are anatomically distinct, but potential anatomic communications and complex pathways involving their respective microbiota have reinforced the existence of a gut-lung axis (GLA). Compared to the better-studied gut microbiota, the lung microbiota, only considered in recent years, represents a more discreet part of the whole microbiota associated to human hosts. While the vast majority of studies focused on the bacterial component of the microbiota in healthy and pathological conditions, recent works have highlighted the contribution of fungal and viral kingdoms at both digestive and respiratory levels. Moreover, growing evidence indicates the key role of inter-kingdom crosstalks in maintaining host homeostasis and in disease evolution. In fact, the recently emerged GLA concept involves host-microbe as well as microbe-microbe interactions, based both on localized and long-reaching effects. GLA can shape immune responses and interfere with the course of respiratory diseases. In this review, we aim to analyze how the lung and gut microbiota influence each other and may impact on respiratory diseases. Due to the limited knowledge on the human virobiota, we focused on gut and lung bacteriobiota and mycobiota, with a specific attention on inter-kingdom microbial crosstalks which are able to shape local or long-reached host responses within the GLA.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3589, 2020 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108159

RESUMO

Lung infections play a critical role in cystic fibrosis (CF) pathogenesis. CF respiratory tract is now considered to be a polymicrobial niche and advances in high-throughput sequencing allowed to analyze its microbiota and mycobiota. However, no NGS studies until now have characterized both communities during CF pulmonary exacerbation (CFPE). Thirty-three sputa isolated from patients with and without CFPE were used for metagenomic high-throughput sequencing targeting 16S and ITS2 regions of bacterial and fungal rRNA. We built inter-kingdom network and adapted Phy-Lasso method to highlight correlations in compositional data. The decline in respiratory function was associated with a decrease in bacterial diversity. The inter-kingdom network revealed three main clusters organized around Aspergillus, Candida, and Scedosporium genera. Using Phy-Lasso method, we identified Aspergillus and Malassezia as relevantly associated with CFPE, and Scedosporium plus Pseudomonas with a decline in lung function. We corroborated in vitro the cross-domain interactions between Aspergillus and Streptococcus predicted by the correlation network. For the first time, we included documented mycobiome data into a version of the ecological Climax/Attack model that opens new lines of thoughts about the physiopathology of CF lung disease and future perspectives to improve its therapeutic management.

9.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 70(2): 238-242, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978024

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This multicentric study aimed to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) in children with Hirschsprung's disease (HD). METHODS: HD patients aged from 6 to 18 years and followed-up in 2 French pediatric surgery centers were included in this study. QOL was assessed using the HAQL questionnaires according to age (6-11 and 12-18), filled by patients and their parents (proxy reports) and correlated with initial disease characteristics, nutritional status, and functional score of Krickenbeck. RESULTS: Sixty-three patients were included. The acquisition of satisfactory voluntary bowel movements was found in only 50% of the 6 to 11 years old and 68% of the teenagers. Seventy percentage of the children and 55% of teenagers had soiling issues. The overall HAQLproxy6--11 score was 528/700; best scores were found for "fecal continence" (94/100), "social functioning" (94/100), and "urinary continence" (92/100) whereas the worst scores were for "general well-being" (64/100) and "diurnal fecal continence" (58/100). The overall HAQLproxy12--16 score was 607/700; best scores were for "urinary continence" (96/100) and "social functioning" (93/100). In a multivariate analysis, soiling was the only factor significantly associated with low QOL (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Soiling remains frequent in children operated on for HD and negatively affects their QOL. Assessment and treatment of soiling should be the priority for medical teams in the follow-up of these children.

10.
Mycoses ; 62(12): 1096-1099, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498487

RESUMO

Although substantial efforts have been made to investigate about the composition of the microbiota, fungi that constitute the mycobiota play a pivotal role in maintaining microbial communities and physiological processes in the body. Here, we conducted an international survey focusing on laboratory's current procedures regarding their goals and practices of mycobiota characterisation using NGS. A questionnaire was proposed to laboratories affiliated to working groups from ECMM (NGS study group) and ESCMID (ESGHAMI and EFISG study groups). Twenty-six questionnaires from 18 countries were received. The use of NGS to characterise the mycobiota was not in routine for most of the laboratories (N = 23, 82%), and the main reason of using NGS was primary to understand the pathophysiology of a dysbiosis (N = 20), to contribute to a diagnosis (N = 16) or to implement a therapeutic strategy (N = 12). Other reported reasons were to evaluate the exposome (environmental studies) (N = 10) or to investigate epidemics (N = 8). Sputum is the main sample studied, and cystic fibrosis represents a major disease studied via the analysis of pulmonary microbiota. No consensus has emerged for the choice of the targets with 18S, ITS1 and ITS2 used alternatively among the laboratories. Other answers are detailed in the manuscript. We report a photography of mycobiota analysis that may become a major tool in the near future. We can draw some conclusions on the diversity of approaches within the answers of the 27 laboratories and underline the need for standardisation.


Assuntos
Fungos/classificação , Objetivos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Micobioma/genética , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Clin Med ; 8(5)2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083321

RESUMO

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a systemic genetic disease that leads to pulmonary and digestive disorders. In the majority of CF patients, the intestine is the site of chronic inflammation and microbiota disturbances. The link between gut inflammation and microbiota dysbiosis is still poorly understood. The main objective of this study was to assess gut microbiota composition in CF children depending on their intestinal inflammation. We collected fecal samples from 20 children with CF. Fecal calprotectin levels were measured and fecal microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing. We observed intestinal inflammation was associated with microbiota disturbances characterized mainly by increased abundances of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Veillonella dispar, along with decreased abundances of Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Those changes exhibited similarities with that of Crohn's disease (CD), as evidenced by the elevated CD Microbial-Dysbiosis index that we applied for the first time in CF. Furthermore, the significant over-representation of Streptococcus in children with intestinal inflammation appears to be specific to CF and raises the issue of gut-lung axis involvement. Taken together, our results provide new arguments to link gut microbiota and intestinal inflammation in CF and suggest the key role of the gut-lung axis in the CF evolution.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32010640

RESUMO

Probiotics have been used to treat a variety of diseases for decades; however, what is the rationale for their application? Such a treatment was first proposed in the early nineteenth century based on observations of decreased bifidobacterial populations in children suffering from diarrhea, suggesting that oral intake of bifidobacteria could replete this subpopulation of the microbiota and improve health. Since then, studies have shown modifications in the gut or skin microbiota in the course of a variety of diseases and suggested positive effects of certain probiotics. Most studies failed to report any impact on the microbiota. The impact of probiotics as well as of bacteria colonizing food does not reside in their ability to graft in the microbiota but rather in sharing genes and metabolites, supporting challenged microbiota, and directly influencing epithelial and immune cells. Such observations argue that probiotics could be associated with conventional drugs for insulin resistance, infectious diseases, inflammatory diseases, and psychiatric disorders and could also interfere with drug metabolism. Nevertheless, in the context of a plethora of probiotic strains and associations produced in conditions that do not allow direct comparisons, it remains difficult to know whether a patient would benefit from taking a particular probiotic. In other words, although several mechanisms are observed when studying a single probiotic strain, not all individual strains are expected to share the same effects. To clarify the role of probiotics in the clinic, we explored the relation between probiotics and the gut and skin microbiota.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Criança , Diarreia/terapia , Interações Medicamentosas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Psiquiatria , Psicopatologia
13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 5446, 2018 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29615661

RESUMO

Spondyloarthritis (SpA) pathophysiology remains largely unknown. While the association with genetic factors has been established for decades, the influence of gut microbiota is only an emerging direction of research. Despite the remarkable efficacy of anti-TNF-α treatments, non-responders are frequent and no predictive factors of patient outcome have been identified. Our objective was to investigate the modifications of intestinal microbiota composition in patients suffering from SpA three months after an anti-TNF-α treatment. We performed 16S rDNA sequencing of 38 stool samples from 19 spondyloarthritis patients before and three months after anti-TNF-α treatment onset. SpA activity was assessed at each time using ASDAS and BASDAI scores. Some modifications of the microbiota composition were observed after three months of anti-TNF-α treatment, but no specific taxon was modified, whatever the clinical response. We identified a particular taxonomic node before anti-TNF-α treatment that can predict the clinical response as a biomarker, with a higher proportion of Burkholderiales order in future responder patients. This study suggests a cross-influence between anti-TNF-α treatment and intestinal microbiota. If its results are confirmed on larger groups of patients, it may pave the way to the development of predictive tests suitable for clinical practices.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Espondilartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Espondilartrite/microbiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Microorganisms ; 6(1)2018 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29522426

RESUMO

In recent years, the gut microbiota has been considered as a full-fledged actor of the gut-brain axis, making it possible to take a new step in understanding the pathophysiology of both neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, most of the studies have been devoted to gut bacterial microbiota, forgetting the non-negligible fungal flora. In this review, we expose how the role of the fungal component in the microbiota-gut-brain axis is legitimate, through its interactions with both the host, especially with the immune system, and the gut bacteria. We also discuss published data that already attest to a role of the mycobiome in the microbiota-gut-brain axis, and the impact of fungi on clinical and therapeutic research.

15.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 66(3): 455-460, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29112089

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cystic fibrosis-related liver disease (CFLD) can develop silently in early life and approximately 10% of children with cystic fibrosis (CF) become cirrhotic before adulthood. Clinical, biological, and ultrasound criteria used to define CFLD often reveal liver involvement at an advanced stage. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the progression of liver stiffness measurement (LSM) in pediatric patients with CF. METHODS: The change of LSM, expressed as kPa/year and %/year, was measured using transient elastography (Fibroscan) in 82 children with CF (median age: 6.8 years, interquartile range [IQR]: 5.8). Mean time interval between the 2 LSM was 3.5 years. RESULTS: Median initial liver stiffness was 3.7 kPa (IQR: 1.3), and then progressed by 0.23 kPa/year, that is, 6%/year. The 7 patients who developed CFLD had a higher initial level of alanine aminotransferase (50 [IQR: 15] vs 30 [IQR: 18], P = 0.0001) and presented a more rapid progression of LSM (0.94 vs 0.23 kPa/year, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that the slope of worsening of liver stiffness is greater in patients who will develop CFLD, suggesting that annual transient elastography may be useful to detect risk of severe liver disease at an earlier stage.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/complicações , Progressão da Doença , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Lineares , Hepatopatias/patologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 52(8): 1051-1056, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28719106

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and its components, that is, membrane diffusing capacity (DmCO) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) in children with Crohn's disease (CD), and to investigate the correlation between these parameters and disease activity. WORKING HYPOTHESIS: The most common lung function abnormalities are a reduced pulmonary DLCO and small airways disorders which are in many instances, clinically silent. No valid explanations have been proposed regarding the modifications in gas transfer capacity in active CD. METHODS: DLCO, DmCO, and Vc were measured in 25 CD children by the simultaneous single breath lung diffusing capacity method using nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) transfer. These parameters were analyzed in relation to the CD disease activity index. RESULTS: DLCO (90.7 ± 4.5% vs 128.5 ± 4.7%; P < 0.001), Dm (92.4 ± 5.9% vs 125.6 ± 6.3%; P < 0.001), and Vc (72.6 ± 3.7% vs 104.4 ± 4.0%; P < 0.001) were significantly decreased in the active CD group in comparison with the inactive CD group. DLCO (r = -0.60; P < 0.01), DmCO (r = -0.45; P < 0.01), and Vc (r = -0.60; P < 0.01) were inversely correlated to the PCDAI. In 8 patients who participated to the study at initial diagnosis then during remission, DmCO and Vc increased significantly between the active and the inactive period of the disease. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary diffusing capacity is impaired in children with active CD, mainly because of a decrease of the pulmonary capillary volume.


Assuntos
Volume Sanguíneo , Doença de Crohn/metabolismo , Doença de Crohn/fisiopatologia , Capacidade de Difusão Pulmonar , Adolescente , Capilares/fisiologia , Monóxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Criança , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo
18.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 34(8): 544-549, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28682815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is often underdiagnosed in hospitalised children, although it is associated with postoperative complications, longer hospital lengths of stay and increased healthcare-related costs. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the frequency of, and identify factors associated with, malnutrition in children undergoing anaesthesia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: Paediatric anaesthesia department at the University Children's Hospital, Bordeaux, France. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 985 patients aged less than 18 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anthropometric measurements, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification score and the Pediatric Nutritional Risk Score (PNRS) recorded at the pre-anaesthesia evaluation. RESULTS: When assessed as a Waterlow index less than 80%, malnutrition was present in 7.6% children. This increased to 8.1% of children assessed by clinical signs and to 11% of children when defined by a BMI less than the third percentile. In a univariate analysis, children with a BMI less than the third percentile were more often born prematurely (22.4 vs 10.4%; P = 0.0008), were small for gestational age at birth (18.4 vs 4.5%; P < 0.0001), were admitted from the emergency department (12.0 vs 5.6%; P = 0.02), had a high American Society of Anesthesiologists score (P < 0.0001), or had a high Pediatric Nutritional Risk Score (P < 0.0001). Presence (P = 0.01) and type (P = 0.002) of chronic disease were also associated with malnutrition. In the multivariate analysis, a premature birth, a lower birth weight and a higher Pediatric Nutritional Risk Score were significantly associated with a higher odds of malnutrition when defined by BMI. CONCLUSION: All children should be screened routinely for malnutrition or the risk of malnutrition at the pre-anaesthesia visit, allowing a programme of preoperative and/or postoperative nutritional support to be initiated. We suggest that as well as weight and height, BMI and a pediatric nutritional risk score such as PNRS should be recorded routinely at the pre-anaesthesia visit.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/tendências , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Hospitais Universitários/tendências , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Criança , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/fisiopatologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
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