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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579718

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This trial reports on use of the copper intrauterine device (IUD) after immediate compared with delayed insertion following medical abortion at 17-20 gestational weeks (GW). METHODS: This randomised controlled trial was conducted at one tertiary hospital and five community healthcare centres in Cape Town, South Africa. Eligible consenting women were randomised to immediate (within 24 hours) or delayed (3 weeks post-abortion) insertion of the copper IUD. Follow-up was at 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months. Main outcomes were use of the original IUD and use of any IUD, including replacement IUDs at 6 weeks post-abortion. Secondary outcomes included rates of expulsion and malposition at 6 weeks, use of any IUD at 3 and 6 months, and acceptability of the IUD. RESULTS: We recruited and randomised 114 women admitted for elective medical abortion between August 2018 and June 2019. In the immediate and delayed study arms, respectively, 45/55 (82%) and 12/57 (21%) women received the IUD as planned. By intention-to-treat, 56% in the immediate and 19% in the delayed arms were using the original IUD at 6 weeks (p<0.001), and 76% in the immediate and 40% in the delayed arms were using any IUD (p<0.001). Complete expulsion or removal occurred in 32% in the immediate and 7% in the delayed arms (p=0.044). CONCLUSIONS: Insertion of an IUD immediately after medical abortion at 17-20 GW results in increased use after 6 weeks compared with delayed insertion, however expulsion rates are higher than with interval insertion. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT03505047), Pan African Trials Registry (www.pactr.org), 201804003324963.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229399

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Women on Web (WoW) is a global medical abortion telemedicine service operating outside the formal health sector. In April 2019 they opened their helpdesk to Germany. Our aim was to understand the motivations, and perceived barriers to access, for women who choose telemedicine abortion outside the formal health sector in Germany. METHODS: We conducted a parallel convergent mixed-methods study among 1090 women consulting WoW from Germany between 1 January and 31 December 2019. We performed a cross-sectional study of data contained in online consultations and a content analysis of 108 email texts. Analysis was done until saturation; results were merged and triangulation used to validate results. RESULTS: The quantitative analysis found that the need for secrecy (n=502, 48%) and the wish for privacy (n=500, 48%) were frequent reasons for choosing telemedicine abortion. Adolescents were more likely to report secrecy, cost, stigma and legal restrictions as reasons for using telemedicine abortion compared with older women. The content analysis developed two main themes and seven subsidiary categories, (1) internal motivations for seeking telemedicine abortion encompassing (i) autonomy, (ii) perception of external threat and (iii) shame and stigma, and (2) external barriers to formal abortion care encompassing (iv) financial stress, (v) logistic barriers to access, (vi) provider attitudes and (vii) vulnerability of foreigners. CONCLUSIONS: Women in Germany who choose telemedicine abortion outside the formal health sector do so both from a place of empowerment and a place of disempowerment. Numerous barriers to abortion access exist in the formal sector which are of special relevance to vulnerable groups such as adolescents and undocumented immigrants.

3.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 150 Suppl 1: 34-42, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219992

RESUMO

We performed a country case study using thematic analysis of interviews and existing grey and published literature to identify facilitators and barriers to the implementation of midwife-provided abortion care in Sweden. Identified facilitating factors were: (1) the historical role and high status of Swedish midwives; (2) Swedish research and development of medical abortion that enabled an enlarged clinical role for midwives; (3) collaborations between individual clinicians and researchers within the professional associations, and the autonomy of clinical units to implement changes in clinical practice; (4) a historic precedent of changes in abortion policy occurring without prior official or legal sanction; (5) a context of liberal abortion laws, secularity, gender equality, public support for abortion, trust in public institutions; and (6) an increasing global interest in task-shifting to increase access and reduce costs. Identified barriers/risks were: (1) the lack of systems for monitoring and evaluation; and (2) a loss of physician competence in abortion care.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179265

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to give a global overview of trends in access to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and what is being done to mitigate its impact. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a descriptive analysis and content analysis based on an online survey among clinicians, researchers, and organizations. Our data were extracted from multiple-choice questions on access to SRHR services and risk of SRHR violations, and written responses to open-ended questions on threats to access and required response. RESULTS: The survey was answered by 51 people representing 29 countries. Eighty-six percent reported that access to contraceptive services was less or much less because of COVID-19, corresponding figures for surgical and medical abortion were 62% and 46%. The increased risk of gender-based and sexual violence was assessed as moderate or severe by 79%. Among countries with mildly restrictive abortion policies, 69% had implemented changes to facilitate access to abortion during the pandemic, compared with none among countries with severe restrictions (P < .001), 87.5% compared with 46% had implemented changes to facilitate access to contraception (P = .023). The content analysis showed that (a) prioritizations in health service delivery at the expense of SRHR, (b) lack of political will, (c) the detrimental effect of lockdown, and (d) the suspension of sexual education, were threats to SRHR access (theme 1). Requirements to mitigate these threats (theme 2) were (a) political will and support of universal access to SRH services, (b) the sensitization of providers, (c) free public transport, and (d) physical protective equipment. A contrasting third theme was the state of exception of the COVID-19 pandemic as a window of opportunity to push forward women's health and rights. CONCLUSIONS: Many countries have seen decreased access to and increased violations of SRHR during the COVID-19 pandemic. Countries with severe restrictions on abortion seem less likely to have implemented changes to SRHR delivery to mitigate this impact. Political will to support the advancement of SRHR is often lacking, which is fundamental to ensuring both continued access and, in a minority of cases, the solidification of gains made to SRHR during the pandemic.

5.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 149(1): 113-119, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012258

RESUMO

Ensuring universal access to sexual and reproductive healthcare services is Target 3.7 of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). Refugee and migrant women and children are at particular risk of being forgotten in the global momentum to achieve this target. In this article we discuss the violations of sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) of particular relevance to the refugee and migrant reality. We give context-specific examples of denial of health services to vulnerable groups; lack of dignity as a barrier to care; the vulnerability of adolescents; child marriage; weaponized rape; gender-based violence; and sexual trafficking. We discuss rights frameworks and models that are being used in response to these situations, as well as what remains to be done. Specifically, we call for obstetricians and gynecologists to act as individual providers and through their FIGO member societies to protect women's health and rights in these exposed settings.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Saúde Reprodutiva/normas , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos/normas , Migrantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Saúde Global , Ginecologia/normas , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Obstetrícia/normas , Saúde Sexual/normas , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Saúde da Mulher
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383555

RESUMO

We performed a search in PubMed and Web of Science on the self-use of abortion medication after online access. Studies published between January 1, 1995, and March 31, 2019, were considered. We included studies of online services that were (i) led by healthcare staff (n = 14), (ii) led by non-healthcare staff (n = 4), and (iii) providing noninteractive access (n = 17). Our outcomes were utilization (frequency and demand for services), acceptability for women, safety, and success rate. Key findings: Women are increasingly using the Internet to access abortion medication. Available services are of varying quality. Women accessing noninteractive services report feelings of distress related to the lack of medical guidance, and the demand for interactive guidance through the abortion process is high. Women using services led by healthcare staff report high rates of satisfaction and similar rates of clinical outcomes as those of in-person abortion care.


Assuntos
Abortivos , Aborto Induzido , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Misoprostol , Telemedicina , Abortivos/administração & dosagem , Abortivos/provisão & distribução , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Mortalidade Materna , Mifepristona/administração & dosagem , Mifepristona/provisão & distribução , Misoprostol/administração & dosagem , Misoprostol/provisão & distribução , Gravidez , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
7.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 98(8): 988-996, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767210

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The impact of placenta previa on pregnancy, delivery and infant outcomes has been extensively studied. However, less is known about the possible association of placental location other than previa with pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate if placental location other than previa is associated with adverse pregnancy, delivery and infant outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a population-based cohort study, with data from the regional population-based Stockholm-Gotland Obstetric Cohort, Sweden, from 2008 to 2014. The study population included 74 087 nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies resulting in live-born infants, with information about placental location from the second-trimester ultrasound screening. The association between placental location (fundal, lateral, anterior or posterior) and pregnancy outcomes was estimated using logistic regression analysis. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated, and adjustments were made for maternal age, height, country of birth, smoking in early pregnancy, sex of the infant and in vitro fertilization. Main outcome measures were pregnancy, delivery and infant outcomes. RESULTS: Compared with posterior placental location, fundal and lateral placental locations were associated with a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes, the most important being: very preterm birth (<32 weeks of gestation) (adjusted OR [aOR] 1.78, 95% CI 1.18-2.63 and aOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.39-2.25, respectively), moderate preterm birth (32-36 weeks of gestation) (aOR 1.23, 95% CI 1.001-1.51 and aOR 1.62, 95% CI 1.32-2.00, respectively), small-for-gestational-age birth (aOR 1.67, 95% CI 1.34-2.07 and aOR 1.77, 95% CI 1.39-2.25, respectively) and manual removal of the placenta in vaginal births (aOR 3.27, 95% CI 2.68-3.99 and aOR 3.27, 95% CI 2.60-4.10, respectively). Additionally, lateral placental location was associated with preeclampsia (aOR 1.30, 95% CI 1.03-1.65) and severe postpartum hemorrhage (aOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.27-1.82). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with posterior placental location, fundal and lateral placental locations are associated with a number of adverse pregnancy, delivery and infant outcomes.


Assuntos
Placenta/anatomia & histologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Nascimento Vivo , Paridade , Placenta Prévia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia
8.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 16(1): 384, 2016 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27923344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retained placenta is associated with severe postpartum hemorrhage. Its etiology is unknown and its biochemistry has not been studied. We aimed to assess whether levels of the antioxidative enzyme Glutathione Peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and the transcription factor Nuclear Factor κß (NFκß), as markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, were affected in retained placentas compared to spontaneously released placentas from otherwise normal full term pregnancies. METHODS: In a pilot study we assessed concentrations of GPX1 by ELISA and gene (mRNA) expression of GPX1, NFκß and its inhibitor Iκßα, by quantitative real-time-PCR in periumbilical and peripheral samples from retained (n = 29) and non-retained (n = 31) placental tissue. RESULTS: Median periumbilical GPX1 concentrations were 13.32 ng/ml in retained placentas and 17.96 ng/ml in non-retained placentas (p = 0.22), peripheral concentrations were 13.27 ng/ml and 19.09 ng/ml (p = 0.08). Retained placental tissue was more likely to have a low GPX1 protein concentration (OR 3.82, p = 0.02 for periumbilical and OR 3.95, p = 0.02 for peripheral samples). Median periumbilical GPX1 gene expressions were 1.13 for retained placentas and 0.88 for non-retained placentas (p = 0.08), peripheral expression was 1.32 and 1.18 (p = 0.46). Gene expressions of NFκß and Iκßα were not significantly different between retained and non-retained placental tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Women with retained placenta were more likely to have a low level of GPX1 protein concentration in placental tissue compared to women without retained placenta and retained placental tissue showed a tendency of lower median concentrations of GPX1 protein expression. This may indicate decreased antioxidative capacity as a component in this disorder but requires a larger sample to corroborate results.


Assuntos
Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Placenta Retida/genética , Placenta Retida/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Placenta ; 41: 39-44, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27208406

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Retained placenta is a potentially fatal obstetric disorder due to postpartum hemorrhage, its pathophysiology is however unknown. We aimed to assess if retained placenta was associated with increased macroscopic and histological signs of placental maternal underperfusion, a pattern otherwise seen in preeclampsia and other disorders of defective placentation. METHODS: This was a case-control study of retained (n = 49) and non-retained (n = 47) placentas, collected from full-term singleton and otherwise healthy pregnancies, carried out at a tertiary level obstetric department. Macroscopic and histological analysis was performed. Signs of maternal placental underperfusion and signs of placental inflammation, fetal vascular thrombo-occlusive disease and increased placental attachment were recorded in a primary and secondary analysis respectively. Variables were compared groupwise using unconditional logistic regression or comparison of median or mean values. RESULTS: Compared to non-retained placentas retained placentas had a significantly smaller surface area (p = 0.05), were more oblong in shape (OR 5.24 95% CI:1.34-20.21) and showed overall more signs of maternal underperfusion (OR 2.52 95% CI: 1.07-5.87). There was no significant difference in signs of placental inflammation, fetal vascular thrombo-occlusive disease or placenta accreta but basal plate myometrial fibers were more common among retained placentas. CONCLUSION: In regard to shape, surface area and histological signs of maternal placental underperfusion, retained placentas showed a histological pattern similar to that seen in preeclamptic placentas.


Assuntos
Placenta Retida/patologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Masculino , Miométrio/patologia , Placenta/irrigação sanguínea , Placenta/patologia , Placenta Acreta/patologia , Doenças Placentárias/patologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/patologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
Obstet Gynecol ; 119(4): 801-9, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22433344

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify factors related to retained placenta in the context of contemporary obstetric practice. METHODS: This was a case-control study comparing 408 cases of retained placenta and an equivalent number of control individuals. Epidemiological and delivery-related variables were registered in computerized prenatal and in-hospital medical records. Univariable and multivariable logistic regressions were used for estimation of risk ratios and statistical significance. RESULTS: Independent risk factors for retained placenta were: previous retained placenta (odds ratio [OR] 12.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.61-44.08); preterm delivery (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.60-6.70); oxytocin use for 195-415 minutes (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.20-3.34); oxytocin use more than 415 minutes (OR 6.55, 95% CI 3.42-12.54, number needed to harm 2.3); preeclampsia (OR 2.85, 95% CI 1.20-6.78); two or more previous miscarriages (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.31-5.20); and one or more previous abortion (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.09-2.28). Parity of two or more had a seemingly protective effect (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.24-0.70), as did smoking at the start of pregnancy (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.09-0.88). Retained placenta was significantly associated with an increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage. The OR related to blood loss exceeding 500 mL, 1,000 mL, and 2,000 mL and the need for blood transfusion was 33.07 (95% CI 20.57-53.16), 43.44 (95% CI 26.57-71.02), 111.24 (95% CI 27.26-454.00), and 37.48 (95% CI 13.63-103.03), respectively. Diabetes was numerically overrepresented in the case group, but the power of the study to detect a significant difference in risk outcome was insufficient. CONCLUSION: Identifying risk factors for retained placenta is important in the assessment of women after delivery. The increased risk associated with duration of oxytocin use is of interest, considering its widespread use. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.


Assuntos
Ocitocina/efeitos adversos , Placenta Retida/epidemiologia , Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Distocia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Placenta Retida/etiologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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