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1.
Endocrine ; 64(3): 552-563, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011988

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate independent relationships of daily non-exercise life activity and leisure-time exercise volume and intensity with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its traits in Japanese adults. METHODS: Data of 24,625 eligible subjects (12,709 men, 11,916 women) who participated in the baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study were analyzed. Information about lifestyle characteristics was obtained from a questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the independent associations of daily life activity as well as leisure-time exercise volume and intensity with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its traits by sex. RESULTS: Male subjects with higher daily life activity as well as with higher leisure-time exercise volume had a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome, independently with each other. Female subjects with higher daily life activity also had a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Particularly, male and female subjects with the highest daily life activity quartile showed considerably low odds ratios of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.53-0.81) and 0.64 (0.52-0.79), respectively, for low HDL-cholesterol even after the adjustment for BMI compared with the first quartile. Meanwhile, male subjects with the higher leisure-time exercise showed a quite lower prevalence of elevated triglycerides. Higher moderate-intensity exercise was more intensely associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome and some of its traits in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that higher daily life activity and higher moderate-intensity exercise may be independently associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome in Japanese adults.

2.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 28(1): 79-91, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The relationship between eating rate (ER) and increased risk of obesity in relation to body mass index (BMI, i.e., total body fat) and waist circumference (WC, i.e., abdominal fat) has not been fully examined. Considering gender differences, we identified unknown confounding factors (CFs) for each risk, and then assessed the two actual obesity risks, adjusting for the CFs. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Using a questionnaire, we collected data for ER (slow, normal as "reference," and fast) and related factors and measured BMI and WC for 3,393 men and 2,495 women. Using multiple logistic regression models, odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated adjusting for both conventional and candidate CFs. RESULTS: The following factors were identified as appropriate CFs, but were differed between the two obesity types: fast food consumption in both genders, sleep duration and restaurants/food service use in men, and family structure and packed lunch in women. In men, actual risks of BMI obesity and WC obesity were negatively associated with slow ER (ORs and 95% CIs; 0.70 and 0.52-0.96, and 0.69 and 0.50-0.96), but positively associated with fast ER (1.48 and 1.25-1.76, and 1.45 and 1.21-1.74). In women, those risks were positively related to fast ER (1.78 and 1.39-2.26, and 1.34 and 1.11-1.61). CONCLUSIONS: For both BMI obesity risk and WC obesity risk, we conclude that slow and fast ER were related to decreased and increased risks when adjusted for appropriate CFs, which differed by gender and the obesity type.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar , Circunferência da Cintura , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade , Razão de Chances , Fatores Sexuais
3.
Sleep ; 42(6)2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810208

RESUMO

Usual sleep duration has substantial heritability and is associated with various physical and psychiatric conditions as well as mortality. However, for its genetic locus, only PAX8 and VRK2 have been replicated in previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We conducted a GWAS meta-analysis of self-reported usual sleep duration using three population-based cohorts totaling 31 230 Japanese individuals. A genome-wide significant locus was identified at 12q24 (p-value < 5.0 × 10-8). Subsequently, a functional variant in the ALDH2 locus, rs671, was replicated in an independent sample of 5140 Japanese individuals (p-value = 0.004). The association signal, however, disappeared after adjusting for alcohol consumption, indicating the possibility that the rs671 genotype modifies sleep duration via alcohol consumption. This hypothesis explained a modest genetic correlation observed between sleep duration and alcohol consumption (rG = 0.23). A Mendelian randomization analysis using rs671 and other variants as instrumental variables confirmed this by showing a causal effect of alcohol consumption, but not of coffee consumption on sleep duration. Another genome-wide significant locus was identified at 5q33 after adjusting for drinking frequency. However, this locus was not replicated, nor was the PAX8 and VRK2. Our study has confirmed that a functional ALDH2 variant, rs671, most strongly influences on usual sleep duration possibly via alcohol consumption in the Japanese population, and presumably in East Asian populations. This highlights the importance of considering the involvement of alcohol consumption in future GWAS of usual sleep duration, even in non-East Asian populations, where rs671 is monomorphic.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(48): e13241, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508907

RESUMO

Brief exposure to passive smoking immediately elevates blood pressure. However, little is known about the association between exposure to passive smoking and chronic hypertension. We aimed to examine this association in a cross-sectional study, after controlling multiple potential confounders.Participants included 32,098 lifetime nonsmokers (7,216 men and 24,882 women) enrolled in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. Passive smoking was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. The single question about exposure to passive smoking had five response options: "sometimes or almost never," "almost every day, 2 hours/day or less," "almost every day, 2 to 4 hours/day," "almost every day, 4 to 6 hours/day," and "almost every day, 6 hours/day or longer." Hypertension was defined as any of the following: systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, or use of antihypertensive medication. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for hypertension were estimated by exposure level to passive smoking using unconditional logistic regression models.The multivariate-adjusted OR for hypertension in those exposed almost every day was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.03-1.20) compared with those exposed sometimes or almost never. The OR for a 1-hour per day increase in exposure was 1.03 (95% CI: 1.01-1.06, Pfor trend = .006). This association was stronger in men than in women; the ORs were 1.08 (95% CI: 1.01-1.15, Pfor trend = .036) and 1.03 (95% CI: 1.00-1.05, Pfor trend = .055), respectively.Our findings suggest importance of tobacco smoke control for preventing hypertension.

5.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 50(12): 2433-2441, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30102679

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although several genetic factors may play a role in leisure-time exercise behavior, there is currently no evidence of a significant genomewide association, and candidate gene replication studies have produced inconsistent results. METHODS: We conducted a two-stage genomewide association study and candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) association study on leisure-time exercise behavior using 13,980 discovery samples from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study, and 2036 replication samples from the Hospital-based Epidemiologic Research Program at Aichi Cancer Center-2 study. Leisure-time physical activity was measured using a self-administered questionnaire that inquired about the type, frequency and duration of exercise. Participants with ≥4 MET·h·wk of leisure-time physical activity were defined as exhibiting leisure-time exercise behavior. Association testing using mixed linear regression models was performed on the discovery and replication samples, after which the results were combined in a meta-analysis. In addition, we tested six candidate genetic variants derived from previous genomewide association study. RESULTS: We found that one novel SNP (rs10252228) located in the intergenic region between NPSR1 and DPY19L1 was significantly associated with leisure-time exercise behavior in discovery samples. This association was also significant in replication samples (combined P value by meta-analysis = 2.2 × 10). Several SNP linked with rs10252228 were significantly associated with gene expression of DPY19L1 and DP19L2P1 in skeletal muscle, heart, whole blood, and the nervous system. Among the candidate SNP, rs12612420 in DNAPTP6 demonstrated nominal significance in discovery samples but not in replication samples. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a novel genetic variant associated with regular leisure-time exercise behavior. Further functional studies are required to validate the role of these variants in exercise behavior.

6.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 2018 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30146708

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health problem worldwide including Japan. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have discovered CKD susceptibility variants. We developed a genetic risk score (GRS) based on CKD-associated variants and assessed a possibility that the GRS can improve the discrimination capability for the prevalence of CKD in a Japanese population. The present study consists of 11,283 participants randomly selected from 12 Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study sites. Individual GRS was constructed combining 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) identified in a Japanese population. Participants with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was defined as case (stage 3 CKD or higher) in this study. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between the GRS and CKD risk with adjustment for sex, age, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The frequency of individuals with CKD was 8.3%, which was relatively low compared with those previously reported in a Japanese population. The odds ratio of having CKD was 1.120 (95% confidence interval: 1.042-1.203) per 10 GRS increment in the fully adjusted model (P = 0.002). The C-statistic was significantly increased in the model with the GRS, comparing with the model without the GRS (0.720 vs. 0.719, Pdifference = 0.008). Increment of the GRS was associated with increased risk of CKD. Additionally, the GRS significantly improved the discriminatory ability of CKD prevalence in a Japanese population; however, the improvement of discriminatory ability brought about by the GRS seemed to be small compared with that of non-genetic CKD risk factors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

7.
Am J Nephrol ; 47(5): 304-316, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29779033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a rapidly growing, worldwide public health problem. Recent advances in genome-wide-association studies (GWAS) revealed several genetic loci associated with renal function traits worldwide. METHODS: We investigated the association of genetic factors with the levels of serum creatinine (SCr) and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in Japanese population-based cohorts analyzing the GWAS imputed data with 11,221 subjects and 12,617,569 variants, and replicated the findings with the 148,829 hospital-based Japanese subjects. RESULTS: In the discovery phase, 28 variants within 4 loci (chromosome [chr] 2 with 8 variants including rs3770636 in the LDL receptor related protein 2 gene locus, on chr 5 with 2 variants including rs270184, chr 17 with 15 variants including rs3785837 in the BCAS3 gene locus, and chr 18 with 3 variants including rs74183647 in the nuclear factor of -activated T-cells 1 gene locus) reached the suggestive level of p < 1 × 10-6 in association with eGFR and SCr, and 2 variants on chr 4 (including rs78351985 in the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein gene locus) fulfilled the suggestive level in association with the risk of CKD. In the replication phase, 25 variants within 3 loci (chr 2 with 7 variants, chr 17 with 15 variants and chr 18 with 3 variants) in association with eGFR and SCr, and 2 variants on chr 4 associated with the risk of CKD became nominally statistically significant after Bonferroni correction, among which 15 variants on chr 17 and 3 variants on chr 18 reached genome-wide significance of p < 5 × 10-8 in the combined study meta-analysis. The associations of the loci on chr 2 and 18 with eGFR and SCr as well as that on chr 4 with CKD risk have not been previously reported in the Japanese and East Asian populations. CONCLUSION: Although the present GWAS of renal function traits included the largest sample of Japanese participants to date, we did not identify novel loci for renal traits. However, we identified the novel associations of the genetic loci on chr 2, 4, and 18 with renal function traits in the Japanese population, suggesting these are transethnic loci. Further investigations of these associations are expected to further validate our findings for the potential establishment of personalized prevention of renal disease in the Japanese and East Asian populations.

8.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 80(1): 109-120, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29581620

RESUMO

The number of pollinosis patients in Japan has significantly increased over the past 20 years. The majority of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on pollinosis have been conducted in subjects of European descent, with few studies in Japanese populations. The aim of our GWAS was to identify genetic loci associated with self-reported pollinosis in a Japanese population and to understand its molecular background using a combination of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and gene- and pathway-based analyses. A total of 731 and 560 individuals who were recruited as participants of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study participated in the discovery and replication phases, respectively. The phenotype of pollinosis was based on the information from a self-administered questionnaire. In the single-SNP analysis, four SNPs (rs11975199, rs11979076, rs11979422, and rs12669708) reached suggestive significance level (P < 1 × 10-4) and had effects in the same direction in both phases of the study. The pathway-based analysis identified two suggestive pathways (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain -like receptor and tumor necrosis factor signaling pathways). Both rs1143633 and rs3917368 in the interleukin-1B gene showed associations in the retrace (from pathway to gene and SNP) analysis. We performed single-SNP, gene, and pathway analysis and shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying pollinosis in a Japanese population.

9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 1493, 2018 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29367735

RESUMO

Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages worldwide, and its role in human health has received much attention. Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have investigated genetic variants associated with coffee consumption in European populations, no such study has yet been conducted in an Asian population. Here, we conducted a GWAS to identify common genetic variations that affected coffee consumption in a Japanese population of 11,261 participants recruited as a part of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study. Coffee consumption was collected using a self-administered questionnaire, and converted from categories to cups/day. In the discovery stage (n = 6,312), we found 2 independent loci (12q24.12-13 and 5q33.3) that met suggestive significance (P < 1 × 10-6). In the replication stage (n = 4,949), the lead variant for the 12q24.12-13 locus (rs2074356) was significantly associated with habitual coffee consumption (P = 2.2 × 10-6), whereas the lead variant for the 5q33.3 locus (rs1957553) was not (P = 0.53). A meta-analysis of the discovery and replication populations, and the combined analysis using all subjects, revealed that rs2074356 achieved genome-wide significance (P = 2.2 × 10-16 for a meta-analysis). These findings indicate that the 12q24.12-13 locus is associated with coffee consumption among a Japanese population.

10.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 18(10): 2875-2881, 2017 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29072829

RESUMO

Background: Tea catechins are considered to be important preventive factors of cancer on several organs; however, the relationships of the actual daily intakes (ADIs) on the preventive effects have not been adequately addressed. We measured the ADIs of tea catechins as annual averages derived from every their ingested cups recorded by each subject, and the estimation models were established considering tea origin. Methods: Fifty-nine Japanese men and women completed four season 3 day weighed dietary records (WDRs) and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and samples of green, oolong and black teas, ingested during a total 12 days were collected for the analysis. The ADIs of the total and composed catechins of all tea samples were measured by a high-performance liquid chromatography. The estimation models for the ADIs (R2: coefficient of determination) based on the WDRs and FFQ were established with multiple regression analysis using appropriate confounding factors. Results: The ADIs of total catechins and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) were 110 and 21.4 mg/day in men and 157 and 34.7 mg/day in women, respectively. The total catechins ADIs were positively associated with green tea consumption based on WDRs and FFQ (adjusted R2 =0.421 and 0.341 for men and 0.346 and 0.238 for women, p<0.05 for all, respectively). Likewise, the EGCg ADIs were associated with green tea intake derived from WDRs and FFQ, respectively. Conclusions: We revealed the ADIs of total catechins and EGCg as annual averages could establish their estimation models. These provide reference information to clarify their relationships with cancer risks.

11.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 24(12): 1267-1281, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28904253

RESUMO

AIM: Stroke is associated closely with vascular homeostasis, and several complex processes and interacting pathways, which involve various genetic and environmental factors, contribute to the risk of stroke. Although adrenomedullin (ADM) has a number of physiological and vasoprotective functions, there are few studies of the ADM receptor system in humans. The ADM receptor comprises a calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the RAMP2 and CLR genes to determine their association with stroke in the light of gene-environment interactions. METHODS: Using cross-sectional data from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study in the baseline surveys, 14,087 participants from 12 research areas were genotyped. We conducted a hypothesis-based association between stroke prevalence and SNPs in the RAMP2 and CLR genes based on data abstracted from two SNPs in RAMP2 and 369 SNPs in CLR. We selected five SNPs from among the CLR variants (rs77035639, rs3815524, rs75380157, rs574603859, and rs147565266) and one RAMP2 SNP (rs753152), which were associated with stroke, for analysis. RESULTS: Five of the SNPs (rs77035639, rs3815524, rs75380157, rs147565266, and rs753152) showed no significant association with obesity, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. In the logistic regression analysis, rs574603859 had a lower odds ratio (0.238; 95% confidence interval, 0.076-0.745, adjusted for age, sex, and research area) and the other SNPs had higher odds ratios for association with stroke. CONCLUSIONS: This was the first study to investigate the relationships between ADM receptor genes (RAMP2 and CLR) and stroke in the light of gene-environment interactions in human.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Proteína Semelhante a Receptor de Calcitonina/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína 2 Modificadora da Atividade de Receptores/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
12.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 17(4): 2007-17, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27221888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Modifying lifestyle factors such as diet and exercise can reduce the risk of cancer. Psychological stress (PS) might be indirectly associated with cancer because it alters lifestyle factors. However, the relationship among these variables has not been fully investigated. Thus, we examined interactions between self-reported PS (SRPS) and habitual exercise on diet. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In all, 5,587 men and 2,718 women were divided into "exerciser" and "non-exerciser" groups, based on whether they exercised regularly, and classified into three SRPS levels: low, moderate and high. Diet was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Using a general linear model, food and nutrient consumption was estimated for each SRPS level in the 2 exercise groups, and the interactions between SRPS levels and exercise were calculated. RESULTS: In women, the intake of pork and beef, low fat milk and yogurt, natto (fermented soybean), carrots and squash, other root vegetables, mushrooms, seaweeds, and wine, along with the nutrients vegetable protein, soluble, insoluble and total dietary fiber, daidzein, genistein, carotene, retinol equivalents, vitamin B2, pantothenic acid, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and iron demonstrated significant interaction with SRPS and habitual exercise (p for interaction <0.05). In men, raw and green leafy vegetables and fruit and vegetable juice significantly interacted with SRPS and habitual exercise (p for interaction <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that certain foods and nutrients, which are thought to have a protective effect against cancer, interact with SRPS and habitual exercise, especially in women. This information is valuable for understanding and improving interventions for cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Dieta , Exercício , Autorrelato , Fumar , Estresse Psicológico , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Alcohol ; 51: 71-7, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26992703

RESUMO

The relationship between drinking frequency and amount of alcohol consumption (i.e., drinking habits) and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear. We aimed to clarify either a linear or J-shaped dose-response relationship between drinking habits and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as a biomarker for identifying individuals at high risk of CKD. In a large-scale cross-sectional study, 403 men and 121 women with an eGFR of 30-60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) were defined as cases, and 1209 men and 363 women with ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) were randomly extracted as controls (one case subject was matched with three control subjects, matched according to age and season of data collection). We calculated multivariate-adjusted CKD risk and the corresponding mean eGFR according to drinking habits. In men, negative and positive linear relationships with drinking habits were found for CKD risk and mean eGFR (p < 0.001 for all linear terms), respectively, but there were no corresponding J-shaped relationships (not significant for all quadratic terms). In regard to the mean eGFR, however, positive linear relationships were only shown in men in the highest eGFR quartile (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 for drinking frequency and amount of alcohol consumption, respectively). In women, no association was found. Regarding each drinking habit, we found a positive linear dose-response relationship to eGFR in middle-aged men with an eGFR ≥30 mL/min/1.73 m(2).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hábitos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 16(15): 6527-34, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26434869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Japan, in comparison with the rest of the world the death rate of lung cancer is low although the smoking rate is relatively high. This is the so-called "Japanese smoking paradox". A healthy diet is proposed to attenuate the risk without quitting smoking. We here examined the relationships between smoking status (SS) and the consumption of food and nutrient in Japan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Totals of 5,587 men and 2,718 women were divided into three (non-smokers, smokers and heavy smokers) and two (non-smokers and smokers) groups, respectively, according to pack-year, which represents the amount of smoking over a long period. Food and nutrient consumption was estimated with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Using general linear models, food and nutrient consumption was estimated for each group in men and women, separately. RESULTS: In men, SS was positively related to consumption of rice, 3 alcoholic beverages, carbohydrate, alcohol and other 8 foods/nutrients (p<0.05 for all) and negatively to those of protein animal, fat, fatty acids, dietary fiber, isoflavones and 36 other foods/nutrients (p<0.05 for all). In women, SS was positively associated with intake of 13 foods/nutrients, while being negatively associated with those of rice, energy, dietary fiber, and 14 other foods/nutrients (p<0.05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Our results support lower intake of vegetables and fruits rich in antioxidants, which are thought as preventive factors for many diseases, in smokers.


Assuntos
Dieta , Alimentos , Fumar , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais
15.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 61(1): 64-72, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26027597

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between psychological stress (PS) and drinking status in relation to diet among middle-aged Japanese men and women in a large-scale cross-sectional study. The study population included 5,587 middle-aged Japanese men and 2,718 middle-aged Japanese women who underwent annual health checkups. The subjects were divided into 2 groups (non-drinkers and drinkers) and classified as having low, moderate, or high self-reported PS levels. Energy-adjusted food and nutrient consumption was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Using a general linear model, food and nutrient consumption was estimated for each self-reported PS level in the 2 groups (non-drinkers and drinkers) and the interactions between self-reported PS levels and drinking status were calculated. In men, pork and beef; squid, octopus, shrimp, and clams; eggs; mushrooms; Japanese-style sweets; ice cream; bread; Chinese noodles; coffee; and soda as foods and protein, animal protein, fat, animal fat, carbohydrate, monounsaturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA, cholesterol, vitamin D, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, niacin, pantothenic acid, magnesium, phosphorus, and zinc as nutrients significantly interacted with self-reported PS levels and drinking status (p for interaction <0.05 for all). No specific interactions were found in women. These findings suggest interactions between PS levels and drinking status with consumption of some foods and nutrients, especially macronutrient intake, in men but not in women.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Arch Microbiol ; 197(7): 919-34, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26068535

RESUMO

Relationships between human gut microbiota, dietary habits, and health/diseases are the subject of epidemiological and clinical studies. However, the temporal stability and variability of the bacterial community in fecal samples remain unclear. In this study, middle-aged Japanese male and female volunteers (n = 5 each) without disease were recruited from the Sakura Diet Study. Fecal samples and lifestyle information were collected in every quarter and at each defecation for 7 continuous days. Next-generation sequencing of 16S rDNA and hierarchical clustering showed no time trend and intra-individual differences in both fecal sample sets. Significant inter-individual variations in seasonal and daily fecal sample sets were detected for 24 and 23 out of 39 selected dominant genera (>0.1% of the total human gut microbiota; occupation rate >85%), respectively. Intra- to inter-individual variance ratios in 26 and 35 genera were significantly <1.0 for seasonal and daily stabilities. Seasonal variation in fermented milk consumption might be associated with Bifidobacterium composition, but not with Lactobacillus. For most of the dominant genera in the human gut microbiota, inter-individual variations were significantly larger than intra-individual variations. Further studies are warranted to determine the contributions of human gut microbiota to nutritional metabolism, health promotion, and prevention/development of diseases.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Bifidobacterium/fisiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
J AOAC Int ; 95(6): 1609-13, 2012 Nov-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23451375

RESUMO

As a part of the development of an alternative to microbiological assay for vitamin B12, we performed a quantitative analysis of cyanocobalamin (CN-cbl) in a National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (SRM 3280) by HPLC. Using this method, the observed value (4.64 microg/g) of CN-cbl in SRM 3280 was found to be in good agreement with the certified value (4.80 microg/g). The accuracy was over 95%, with a corresponding measurement precision value of 5%. To evaluate the applicability of the method on commercial multivitamin tablets, the method was applied to a variety of these samples. The present method has a good accuracy and precision to evaluate CN-cbl with respect to all of the examined tablets.


Assuntos
Vitamina B 12/análise , Vitaminas/análise , Calibragem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Indicadores e Reagentes , Padrões de Referência , Soluções , Comprimidos
18.
Nutr Cancer ; 59(1): 99-105, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17927508

RESUMO

We examined the protective effect of dietary folate on benzene-induced chromosomal damage in bone marrow of mice regarding folate levels in diet and tissue. Male mice were fed either a deficient, basal, or high folate diet (0, 2, or 8 mg/kg diet, respectively) for 4 wk followed by a single dose of benzene. Plasma folate levels corresponded to those of dietary intake. Meanwhile, bone marrow, erythrocyte, and liver folate were decreased to 40% in the deficient group and almost saturated in the high group. Plasma homocysteine levels negatively correlated to levels of tissue folate. Chromosomal damage, evaluated by micronucleus assay, was not affected by folate status alone but was markedly enhanced by benzene, particularly in the deficient group (P < 0.05 vs. the basal and high groups). The activities of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes did not enhance benzene metabolism in the deficient groups, indicating that enhanced chromosomal damage was solely due to the low folate status. These results suggest that a low folate status can increase the risk of benzene-induced chromosomal damage in bone marrow, but excess folate intake does not enhance protection, as it is saturated in tissue.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Aberrações Cromossômicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/fisiopatologia , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Benzeno/toxicidade , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eritrócitos/química , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Homocisteína/sangue , Fígado/química , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Testes para Micronúcleos , Distribuição Aleatória , Complexo Vitamínico B/metabolismo
19.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 59(6): 871-7, 2007 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17637180

RESUMO

In a search for substances related to the marked induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) by ginkgo biloba extract (GBE), mice were given either GBE (1000 mg kg(-1)) or fractions of GBE for 5 days. The content and activity of CYPs were induced markedly by a bilobalide-rich fraction, but not by flavonoid-rich fractions. The level of induction by the bilobalide-rich fraction was almost the same as that induced by the unfractionated GBE, suggesting that bilobalide is largely responsible for the CYPs induction. To confirm these findings, mice were given various doses of bilobalide (10.5, 21 and 42 mg kg(-1)), or GBE (1000 mg kg(-1), containing bilobalide at 42 mg kg(-1)). Treatment with bilobalide induced CYPs markedly and in a dose-dependent manner, and the level of induction was quite similar between bilobalide (42 mg kg(-1)) and GBE. Treatment with GBE and with bilobalide greatly induced pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity. These findings indicate that bilobalide is the major substance in GBE that induces hepatic CYPs.


Assuntos
Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/biossíntese , Furanos/farmacologia , Ginkgo biloba , Ginkgolídeos/farmacologia , Microssomos Hepáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ciclopentanos/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Indução Enzimática , Furanos/administração & dosagem , Ginkgolídeos/administração & dosagem , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Microssomos Hepáticos/enzimologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
20.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 85(4): 1148-56, 2007 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17413118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have reported the cholesterol-lowering effects of soy protein intake, but the components responsible are not known. OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis was primarily conducted to evaluate the precise effects of soy isoflavones on lipid profiles. The effects of soy protein that contains enriched and depleted isoflavones were also examined. DESIGN: PUBMED was searched for English-language reports of randomized controlled trials published from 1990 to 2006 that described the effects of soy protein intake in humans. Eleven studies were selected for the meta-analysis. RESULTS: Soy isoflavones significantly decreased serum total cholesterol by 0.10 mmol/L (3.9 mg/dL or 1.77%; P = 0.02) and LDL cholesterol by 0.13 mmol/L (5.0 mg/dL or 3.58%; P < 0.0001); no significant changes in HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol were found. Isoflavone-depleted soy protein significantly decreased LDL cholesterol by 0.10 mmol/L (3.9 mg/dL or 2.77%; P = 0.03). Soy protein that contained enriched isoflavones significantly decreased LDL cholesterol by 0.18 mmol/L (7.0 mg/dL or 4.98%; P < 0.0001) and significantly increased HDL cholesterol by 0.04 mmol/L (1.6 mg/dL or 3.00%; P = 0.05). The reductions in LDL cholesterol were larger in the hypercholesterolemic subcategory than in the normocholesterolemic subcategory, but no significant linear correlations were observed between reductions and the starting values. No significant linear correlations were found between reductions in LDL cholesterol and soy protein ingestion or isoflavone intakes. CONCLUSIONS: Soy isoflavones significantly reduced serum total and LDL cholesterol but did not change HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol. Soy protein that contained enriched or depleted isoflavones also significantly improved lipid profiles. Reductions in LDL cholesterol were larger in hypercholesterolemic than in normocholesterolemic subjects.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/dietoterapia , Isoflavonas/uso terapêutico , Soja/química , Anticolesterolemiantes/administração & dosagem , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Isoflavonas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Proteínas de Soja/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Soja/uso terapêutico , Triglicerídeos/sangue
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