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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245386, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278528

RESUMO

Abstract Herbivory is an interaction with great impact on plant communities since relationships between herbivores and plants are fundamental to the distribution and abundance of species over time and space. The aim of this study was to monitor the rate of leaf expansion in the tree fern Cyathea phalerata and evaluate the damage caused by herbivores to leaves of different ages and whether such damage is related to temperature and precipitation. The study was performed in a subtropical Atlantic Forest fragment located in the municipality of Caraá, in the northeast hillside of Rio Grande do Sul state, in southern Brazil. We monitored 24 mature individuals of C. phalerata with croziers in a population of approximately 50 plants. Leaf expansion rate, percentage of damaged leaves and leaf blade consumption rate by herbivory were calculated. Monthly means for temperature and accumulated rainfall were calculated from daily data. Croziers of C. phalerata were found to expand rapidly during the first and second months after emergence (3.98 cm day-1; 2.91 cm day-1, respectively). Damage caused by herbivory was observed in all of the monitored leaves, but none of the plants experienced complete defoliation. The highest percentage (57%) of damaged leaves was recorded at 60 days of monitoring, and also the highest monthly consumption rate of the blade (6.04%) occurred with young, newly-expanded leaves, while this rate remained between 1.50 and 2.21% for mature leaves. Rates of monthly leaf consumption and damaged leaves showed positive and strong relationship with each other and with temperature. The rapid leaf expansion observed for C. phalerata can be considered a phenological strategy to reduce damage to young leaves by shortening the developmental period and accelerating the increase of defenses in mature leaves.


Resumo A herbivoria é uma interação de grande impacto sobre as comunidades de plantas, uma vez que as relações entre herbívoros e plantas são fundamentais para a distribuição e abundância das espécies ao longo do tempo e do espaço. O objetivo deste estudo foi monitorar a taxa de expansão foliar da samambaia arborescente Cyathea phalerata e avaliar o dano causado por herbívoros a folhas de diferentes idades, assim como verificar se este dano está relacionado à temperatura e à precipitação. O estudo foi realizado em um fragmento de Floresta Atlântica subtropical localizado no município de Caraá, na encosta nordeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, no sul do Brasil. Nós monitoramos 24 indivíduos maduros de C. phalerata com báculos em uma população de aproximadamente 50 plantas. A taxa de expansão foliar, a porcentagem de folhas danificadas e a taxa de consumo da lâmina foliar por herbivoria foram calculados. Médias mensais de temperatura e precipitação acumulada foram calculadas a partir de dados diários. Báculos de C. phalerata expandiram rapidamente durante o primeiro e o segundo mês após emergência (3,98 cm dia-1; 2,91 cm dia-1, respectivamente). O dano causado por herbivoria foi observado em todas as folhas monitoradas, mas nenhuma das plantas sofreu desfolhação completa. A maior porcentagem (57%) de folhas danificadas foi registrada aos 60 dias de monitoramento, e também a maior taxa de consumo mensal (6,04%) ocorreu em folhas jovens, recém expandidas, enquanto esta taxa permaneceu entre 1,50 e 2,21% em folhas maduras. As taxas mensais de consumo da lâmina foliar e de folhas danificadas mostraram relação positiva e forte entre si e com a temperatura. A rápida expansão foliar observada em C. phalerata pode ser considerada uma estratégia fenológica para reduzir o dano a folhas jovens, abreviando o período de desenvolvimento e acelerando o aumento das defesas em folhas maduras.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245386, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161461

RESUMO

Herbivory is an interaction with great impact on plant communities since relationships between herbivores and plants are fundamental to the distribution and abundance of species over time and space. The aim of this study was to monitor the rate of leaf expansion in the tree fern Cyathea phalerata and evaluate the damage caused by herbivores to leaves of different ages and whether such damage is related to temperature and precipitation. The study was performed in a subtropical Atlantic Forest fragment located in the municipality of Caraá, in the northeast hillside of Rio Grande do Sul state, in southern Brazil. We monitored 24 mature individuals of C. phalerata with croziers in a population of approximately 50 plants. Leaf expansion rate, percentage of damaged leaves and leaf blade consumption rate by herbivory were calculated. Monthly means for temperature and accumulated rainfall were calculated from daily data. Croziers of C. phalerata were found to expand rapidly during the first and second months after emergence (3.98 cm day-1; 2.91 cm day-1, respectively). Damage caused by herbivory was observed in all of the monitored leaves, but none of the plants experienced complete defoliation. The highest percentage (57%) of damaged leaves was recorded at 60 days of monitoring, and also the highest monthly consumption rate of the blade (6.04%) occurred with young, newly-expanded leaves, while this rate remained between 1.50 and 2.21% for mature leaves. Rates of monthly leaf consumption and damaged leaves showed positive and strong relationship with each other and with temperature. The rapid leaf expansion observed for C. phalerata can be considered a phenological strategy to reduce damage to young leaves by shortening the developmental period and accelerating the increase of defenses in mature leaves.


Assuntos
Gleiquênias , Herbivoria , Brasil , Florestas , Humanos , Folhas de Planta
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(2): 437-448, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132382

RESUMO

Abstract Bromeliaceae is restricted to the Neotropical region and has a high degree of endemism, which contributes to increased biodiversity because of the diverse morphological characteristics of individuals. In order to develop an in vitro conservation technology to obtain plants for reintroduction, seeds of Vriesea flammea L.B.Sm. were collected, sterilized and germinated in culture medium. The plants obtained were cultured for 180 days in MS medium with different concentrations of mineral nutrients (25 and 50% of nitrogenous salts and macronutrients), and different concentrations of sucrose (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 g L-1), and then acclimatized for 150 days on commercial substrate. When seeds were sterilized directly, only 4% of them were contaminated, whereas sterilization of capsules resulted in 43.6% contaminated seeds. Germination rates above 80% were recorded. Low concentrations of nitrogenous salts and macronutrients produced greater than 76% survival and promoted greater in vitro plant development than the complete MS medium. The development of the aerial system, root system, fresh mass and photosynthetic pigments were positively related to sucrose concentration in vitro. The highest sucrose concentration also indirectly promoted greater development of the aerial system and fresh mass of acclimatized plants. We established conditions for in vitro cultivation and acclimatization for efficient propagation of V. flammea with a view towards conservation of the species or reestablishment of natural populations.


Resumo Bromeliaceae é restrita à região neotropical, com alto grau de endemismo, que contribui para o aumento da biodiversidade, devido às características morfológicas dos indivíduos. Objetivando desenvolver uma tecnologia in vitro de conservação para obtenção de plantas com vistas à reintrodução, sementes de Vriesea flammea L.B.Sm. foram coletadas, esterilizadas, germinadas em meio de cultura e as plantas obtidas foram cultivadas por 180 dias em meio MS com diferentes concentrações de nutrientes minerais (25 e 50% dos sais nitrogenados e dos macronutrientes), bem como em diferentes concentrações de sacarose (20, 30, 40, 50 e 60 g L-1). Após, as plantas foram aclimatizadas por 150 dias em substrato comercial. Quando da esterilização das sementes, apenas 4% destas contaminaram. Por sua vez, a esterilização de cápsulas resultou em 43,6% de sementes contaminadas. Taxas de germinação superiores a 80% foram registradas. Baixas concentrações dos sais nitrogenados e de macronutrientes proporcionaram sobrevivência superior a 76% e promoveram maior desenvolvimento das plantas in vitro do que o meio MS completo. O desenvolvimento do sistema aéreo, radicular, a massa fresca e pigmentos fotossintéticos apresentaram relação positiva com a concentração de sacarose in vitro. A maior concentração de sacarose também propiciou indiretamente maior desenvolvimento do sistema aéreo e massa fresca das plantas aclimatizadas. Estabelecemos as condições de cultivo in vitro e aclimatização para a eficiente propagação de V. flammea com vistas à conservação da espécie ou reestabelecimento das populações naturais.

4.
Braz J Biol ; 80(2): 437-448, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291407

RESUMO

Bromeliaceae is restricted to the Neotropical region and has a high degree of endemism, which contributes to increased biodiversity because of the diverse morphological characteristics of individuals. In order to develop an in vitro conservation technology to obtain plants for reintroduction, seeds of Vriesea flammea L.B.Sm. were collected, sterilized and germinated in culture medium. The plants obtained were cultured for 180 days in MS medium with different concentrations of mineral nutrients (25 and 50% of nitrogenous salts and macronutrients), and different concentrations of sucrose (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 g L-1), and then acclimatized for 150 days on commercial substrate. When seeds were sterilized directly, only 4% of them were contaminated, whereas sterilization of capsules resulted in 43.6% contaminated seeds. Germination rates above 80% were recorded. Low concentrations of nitrogenous salts and macronutrients produced greater than 76% survival and promoted greater in vitro plant development than the complete MS medium. The development of the aerial system, root system, fresh mass and photosynthetic pigments were positively related to sucrose concentration in vitro. The highest sucrose concentration also indirectly promoted greater development of the aerial system and fresh mass of acclimatized plants. We established conditions for in vitro cultivation and acclimatization for efficient propagation of V. flammea with a view towards conservation of the species or reestablishment of natural populations.


Assuntos
Bromeliaceae , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Brasil , Carbono , Nutrientes
5.
Braz J Biol ; 75(2 Suppl): 91-7, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26270220

RESUMO

The Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) bioassay was used to investigate genotoxicity of water bodies in the Parque Municipal Henrique Luís Roessler (PMHLR), a conservation unit in the city of Novo Hamburgo, Southern Brazil, from November 2010 to October 2011. Every month, cuttings with young inflorescences of Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea were exposed for 24 hours to water collected at three sites in the park: (S1) head of the main stream; (S2) head of a secondary stream; (S3) a point past the junction of the two water bodies in which S1 and S2 were located. As a negative control, cuttings were exposed to distilled water for 24 h every quarter. Micronuclei (MCN) frequency was determined in young tetrads of pollen mother cells and described as MCN/100 tetrads. Rainfall data were also recorded. In nine months at S1 and S2, and in eleven months at S3, micronuclei frequencies were significantly higher than in quarterly controls, in which frequencies varied from 1.19 to 1.62. During sampling, no significant differences were found in MCN frequencies at S1, which ranged from 2.2 to 3.6. At the other sampling sites, there were significant differences between the months evaluated, and MCN frequencies ranged from 1.3 to 6.5 at S2 and from 2.3 to 5.2 at S3. There were no associations between rainfall and MCN frequencies at the three sampling sites. Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea confirmed genotoxicity in the water bodies of the PMHLR, even at the head of the streams, which suggests that actions should be promoted to control anthropogenic effects in the streams of this conservation unit.


Assuntos
Rios/química , Tradescantia/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Qualidade da Água , Brasil , Dano ao DNA , Monitoramento Ambiental , Testes para Micronúcleos , Tradescantia/genética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(2,supl): 91-97, May 2015. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-755030

RESUMO

The Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) bioassay was used to investigate genotoxicity of water bodies in the Parque Municipal Henrique Luís Roessler (PMHLR), a conservation unit in the city of Novo Hamburgo, Southern Brazil, from November 2010 to October 2011. Every month, cuttings with young inflorescences of Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea were exposed for 24 hours to water collected at three sites in the park: (S1) head of the main stream; (S2) head of a secondary stream; (S3) a point past the junction of the two water bodies in which S1 and S2 were located. As a negative control, cuttings were exposed to distilled water for 24 h every quarter. Micronuclei (MCN) frequency was determined in young tetrads of pollen mother cells and described as MCN/100 tetrads. Rainfall data were also recorded. In nine months at S1 and S2, and in eleven months at S3, micronuclei frequencies were significantly higher than in quarterly controls, in which frequencies varied from 1.19 to 1.62.

During sampling, no significant differences were found in MCN frequencies at S1, which ranged from 2.2 to 3.6. At the other sampling sites, there were significant differences between the months evaluated, and MCN frequencies ranged from 1.3 to 6.5 at S2 and from 2.3 to 5.2 at S3. There were no associations between rainfall and MCN frequencies at the three sampling sites. Tradescantia pallida var. purpureaconfirmed genotoxicity in the water bodies of the PMHLR, even at the head of the streams, which suggests that actions should be promoted to control anthropogenic effects in the streams of this conservation unit.

.

O bioensaio de micronúcleo em Tradescantia (Trad-MCN) foi utilizado para investigar a genotoxicidade de corpos d'água no Parque Municipal Henrique Luís Roessler (PMHLR), uma Unidade de Conservação no município de Novo Hamburgo, Sul do Brasil, de novembro de 2010 a outubro de 2011. Mensalmente, ramos com inflorescências jovens de Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea foram expostos por 24 horas a amostras de água coletadas em três pontos de cursos d’água no interior do parque: (S1) nascente do principal curso d’água; (S2) nascente de um curso d’agua secundário; (S3) ponto situado após a junção dos corpos d’água em que S1 e S2 estavam localizados. Como controle negativo, ramos foram expostos à água destilada por 24 h, com periodicidade trimestral. Frequências de micronúcleos (MCN) foram determinadas em tétrades jovens de células-mãe de grãos de pólen e expressas como MCN/100 tétrades. Dados de precipitação também foram registrados durante o experimento. Foram observadas frequências de MCN significativamente superiores em nove meses em S1 e S2 e em onze meses em S3 quando comparadas às frequências nos controles trimestrais, que variaram de 1,19 a 1,62. Durante o período de amostragem, não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nas frequências de MCN em S1, que variaram de 2,2 a 3,6. Nos demais pontos amostrais, houve diferenças significativas entre os meses avaliados para as frequências de MCN, que variaram de 1,3 a 6,5, em S2, e de 2,3 a 5,2, em S3. Não foi verificada relação entre a pluviosidade e as frequências de MCN observadas nos três pontos amostrais. Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea indicou haver genotoxicidade nos corpos hídricos do PMHLR, inclusive junto às nascentes, indicando a necessidade de ações que visem ao controle do efeito antropogênico sobre a água nesta unidade de conservação.

.


Assuntos
Rios/química , Tradescantia/efeitos dos fármacos , Qualidade da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Brasil , Dano ao DNA , Monitoramento Ambiental , Testes para Micronúcleos , Tradescantia/genética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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