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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2590, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972513

RESUMO

Thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in acute ischemic stroke aims to restore compromised blood flow and prevent further neuronal damage. Despite the proven clinical efficacy of this treatment, little is known about the short-term effects of systemic thrombolysis on structural brain connectivity. In this secondary analysis of the WAKE-UP trial, we used MRI-derived measures of infarct size and estimated structural network disruption to establish that thrombolysis is associated not only with less infarct growth, but also with reduced loss of large-scale connectivity between grey-matter areas after stroke. In a causal mediation analysis, infarct growth mediated a non-significant 8.3% (CI95% [-8.0, 32.6]%) of the clinical effect of thrombolysis on functional outcome. The proportion mediated jointly through infarct growth and change of structural connectivity, especially in the border zone around the infarct core, however, was as high as 33.4% (CI95% [8.8, 77.4]%). Preservation of structural connectivity is thus an important determinant of treatment success and favourable functional outcome in addition to lesion volume. It might, in the future, serve as an imaging endpoint in clinical trials or as a target for therapeutic interventions.

2.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 14(4): e007444, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergency interhospital transfer of patients with stroke with large vessel occlusion to a comprehensive stroke center for mechanical thrombectomy is resource-intensive and can be logistically challenging. Imaging markers may identify patients in whom intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) alone is likely to result in thrombus resolution, potentially rendering interhospital transfers unnecessary. Here, we investigate how predicted probabilities to achieve IVT-mediated recanalization affect cost-effectiveness estimates of interhospital transfer. METHODS: We performed a health economic analysis comparing emergency interhospital transfer of patients with acute large vessel occlusion stroke after administration of IVT with a scenario in which patients also receive IVT but remain at the primary hospital. Results were stratified by clinical parameters, treatment delays, and the predicted probability to achieve IVT-mediated recanalization. Estimated 3-month outcomes were combined with a long-term probabilistic model to yield quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs. Uncertainty was quantified in probabilistic sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: Depending on input parameters, marginal costs of interhospital transfer ranged from USD -61 366 (cost saving) to USD +20 443 and additional QALYs gained from 0.1 to 3.0, yielding incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of

3.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; : 271678X211010071, 2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866849

RESUMO

MRI-based vessel size imaging (VSI) allows for in-vivo assessment of cerebral microvasculature and perfusion. This exploratory analysis of vessel size (VS) and density (Q; both assessed via VSI) in the subacute phase of ischemic stroke involved sixty-two patients from the BAPTISe cohort ('Biomarkers And Perfusion--Training-Induced changes after Stroke') nested within a randomized controlled trial (intervention: 4-week training vs. relaxation). Relative VS, Q, cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and -flow (rCBF) were calculated for: ischemic lesion, perilesional tissue, and region corresponding to ischemic lesion on the contralateral side (mirrored lesion). Linear mixed-models detected significantly increased rVS and decreased rQ within the ischemic lesion compared to the mirrored lesion (coefficient[standard error]: 0.2[0.08] p = 0.03 and -1.0[0.3] p = 0.02, respectively); lesion rCBF and rCBV were also significantly reduced. Mixed-models did not identify time-to-MRI, nor training as modifying factors in terms of rVS or rQ up to two months post-stroke. Larger lesion VS was associated with larger lesion volumes (ß 34, 95%CI 6.2-62; p = 0.02) and higher baseline NIHSS (ß 3.0, 95%CI 0.49-5.3;p = 0.02), but was not predictive of six-month outcome. In summary, VSI can assess the cerebral microvasculature and tissue perfusion in the subacute phases of ischemic stroke, and may carry relevant prognostic value in terms of lesion volume and stroke severity.

4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2206, 2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850125

RESUMO

Spreading depression (SD) is an intense and prolonged depolarization in the central nervous systems from insect to man. It is implicated in neurological disorders such as migraine and brain injury. Here, using an in vivo mouse model of focal neocortical seizures, we show that SD may be a fundamental defense against seizures. Seizures induced by topical 4-aminopyridine, penicillin or bicuculline, or systemic kainic acid, culminated in SDs at a variable rate. Greater seizure power and area of recruitment predicted SD. Once triggered, SD immediately suppressed the seizure. Optogenetic or KCl-induced SDs had similar antiseizure effect sustained for more than 30 min. Conversely, pharmacologically inhibiting SD occurrence during a focal seizure facilitated seizure generalization. Altogether, our data indicate that seizures trigger SD, which then terminates the seizure and prevents its generalization.


Assuntos
Depressão , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/metabolismo , 4-Aminopiridina , Animais , Bicuculina/farmacologia , Tronco Encefálico , Depressão Alastrante da Atividade Elétrica Cortical , Feminino , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Ácido Caínico/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Sistema Nervoso , Optogenética , Penicilinas/farmacologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/efeitos adversos , Convulsões/patologia , Tetrodotoxina/farmacologia
5.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 8(4): 774-789, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739604

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Genetic variant classification is a challenge in rare adult-onset disorders as in SCA-PRKCG (prior spinocerebellar ataxia type 14) with mostly private conventional mutations and nonspecific phenotype. We here propose a refined approach for clinicogenetic diagnosis by including protein modeling and provide for confirmed SCA-PRKCG a comprehensive phenotype description from a German multi-center cohort, including standardized 3D MR imaging. METHODS: This cross-sectional study prospectively obtained neurological, neuropsychological, and brain imaging data in 33 PRKCG variant carriers. Protein modeling was added as a classification criterion in variants of uncertain significance (VUS). RESULTS: Our sample included 25 cases confirmed as SCA-PRKCG (14 variants, thereof seven novel variants) and eight carriers of variants assigned as VUS (four variants) or benign/likely benign (two variants). Phenotype in SCA-PRKCG included slowly progressive ataxia (onset at 4-50 years), preceded in some by early-onset nonprogressive symptoms. Ataxia was often combined with action myoclonus, dystonia, or mild cognitive-affective disturbance. Inspection of brain MRI revealed nonprogressive cerebellar atrophy. As a novel finding, a previously not described T2 hyperintense dentate nucleus was seen in all SCA-PRKCG cases but in none of the controls. INTERPRETATION: In this largest cohort to date, SCA-PRKCG was characterized as a slowly progressive cerebellar syndrome with some clinical and imaging features suggestive of a developmental disorder. The observed non-ataxia movement disorders and cognitive-affective disturbance may well be attributed to cerebellar pathology. Protein modeling emerged as a valuable diagnostic tool for variant classification and the newly described T2 hyperintense dentate sign could serve as a supportive diagnostic marker of SCA-PRKCG.

6.
Int J Stroke ; : 17474930211006286, 2021 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: To report the six-month safety analyses among patients enrolled in the "Physical Fitness Training in Subacute Stroke-PHYS-STROKE" trial and identify underlying risk factors associated with serious adverse events. METHODS: We performed a pre-specified safety analysis of a multicenter, randomized controlled, endpoint-blinded trial comprising 200 patients with moderate to severe subacute stroke (days 5-45 after stroke) that were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either aerobic, bodyweight supported, treadmill-based training (n = 105), or relaxation sessions (n = 95, control group). Each intervention session lasted for 25 min, five times weekly for four weeks, in addition to standard rehabilitation therapy. Serious adverse events defined as cerebro- and cardiovascular events, readmission to hospital, and death were assessed during six months of follow-up. Incident rate ratios (IRR) were calculated, and Poisson regression analyses were conducted to identify risk factors for serious adverse events and to test the association with aerobic training. RESULTS: Six months after stroke, 50 serious adverse events occurred in the trial with a higher incidence rate (per 100 patient-months) in the training group compared to the relaxation group (6.31 vs. 3.22; IRR 1.70, 95% CI 0.96 to 3.12). The association of aerobic training with serious adverse events incidence rates were modified by diabetes mellitus (IRR for interaction: 7.10, 95% CI 1.56 to 51.24) and by atrial fibrillation (IRR for interaction: 4.37, 95% CI 0.97 to 31.81). CONCLUSIONS: Safety analysis of the PHYS-STROKE trial found a higher rate of serious adverse events in patients randomized to aerobic training compared to control within six months after stroke. Exploratory analyses found an association between serious adverse events occurrence in the aerobic training group with pre-existing diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation which should be further investigated in future trials. DATA ACCESS STATEMENT: The raw data and analyses scripts are provided by the authors on a secure online repository for reproduction of reported findings.

7.
Eur J Neurol ; 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim was to study the effect of intravenous alteplase on the development of post-stroke depression (PSD) in acute stroke patients, and to identify predictors of PSD. METHODS: This post hoc analysis included patients with unknown onset stroke randomized to treatment with alteplase or placebo in the WAKE-UP trial (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01525290), in whom a composite end-point of PSD was defined as a Beck Depression Inventory ≥10, medication with an antidepressant, or depression recorded as an adverse event. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify predictors of PSD at 90 days. Structural equation modelling was applied to assess the indirect effect of thrombolysis on PSD mediated by the modified Rankin Scale. RESULTS: Information on the composite end-point was available for 438 of 503 randomized patients. PSD was present in 96 of 224 (42.9%) patients in the alteplase group and 115 of 214 (53.7%) in the placebo group (odds ratio 0.63; 95% confidence interval 0.43-0.94; p = 0.022; adjusted for age and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale at baseline). Prognostic factors associated with PSD included baseline medication with antidepressants, higher lesion volume, history of depression and assignment to placebo. While 65% of the effect of thrombolysis on PSD were caused directly, 35% were mediated by an improvement of the mRS. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with alteplase in patients with acute stroke resulted in lower rates of depression at 90 days, which were only partially explained by reduced functional disability. Predictors of PSD including history and clinical characteristics may help in identifying patients at risk of PSD.

8.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(2): e24186, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated cardiac troponin, which indicates cardiomyocyte injury, is common after acute ischemic stroke and is associated with poor functional outcome. Myocardial injury is part of a broad spectrum of cardiac complications that may occur after acute ischemic stroke. Previous studies have shown that in most patients, the underlying mechanism of stroke-associated myocardial injury may not be a concomitant acute coronary syndrome. Evidence from animal research and clinical and neuroimaging studies suggest that functional and structural alterations in the central autonomic network leading to stress-mediated neurocardiogenic injury may be a key underlying mechanism (ie, stroke-heart syndrome). However, the exact pathophysiological cascade remains unclear, and the diagnostic and therapeutic implications are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this CORONA-IS (Cardiomyocyte injury following Acute Ischemic Stroke) study is to quantify autonomic dysfunction and to decipher downstream cardiac mechanisms leading to myocardial injury after acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: In this prospective, observational, single-center cohort study, 300 patients with acute ischemic stroke, confirmed via cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and presenting within 48 hours of symptom onset, will be recruited during in-hospital stay. On the basis of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin levels and corresponding to the fourth universal definition of myocardial infarction, 3 groups are defined (ie, no myocardial injury [no cardiac troponin elevation], chronic myocardial injury [stable elevation], and acute myocardial injury [dynamic rise/fall pattern]). Each group will include approximately 100 patients. Study patients will receive routine diagnostic care. In addition, they will receive 3 Tesla cardiovascular MRI and transthoracic echocardiography within 5 days of symptom onset to provide myocardial tissue characterization and assess cardiac function, 20-min high-resolution electrocardiogram for analysis of cardiac autonomic function, and extensive biobanking. A follow-up for cardiovascular events will be conducted 3 and 12 months after inclusion. RESULTS: After a 4-month pilot phase, recruitment began in April 2019. We estimate a recruitment period of approximately 3 years to include 300 patients with a complete cardiovascular MRI protocol. CONCLUSIONS: Stroke-associated myocardial injury is a common and relevant complication. Our study has the potential to provide a better mechanistic understanding of heart and brain interactions in the setting of acute stroke. Thus, it is essential to develop algorithms for recognizing patients at risk and to refine diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03892226; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03892226. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/24186.

9.
JAMA ; 325(5): 454-466, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528537

RESUMO

Importance: Effects of thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke are time-dependent. Ambulances that can administer thrombolysis (mobile stroke units [MSUs]) before arriving at the hospital have been shown to reduce time to treatment. Objective: To determine whether dispatch of MSUs is associated with better clinical outcomes for patients with acute ischemic stroke. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective, nonrandomized, controlled intervention study was conducted in Berlin, Germany, from February 1, 2017, to October 30, 2019. If an emergency call prompted suspicion of stroke, both a conventional ambulance and an MSU, when available, were dispatched. Functional outcomes of patients with final diagnosis of acute cerebral ischemia who were eligible for thrombolysis or thrombectomy were compared based on the initial dispatch (both MSU and conventional ambulance or conventional ambulance only). Exposure: Simultaneous dispatch of an MSU (computed tomographic scanning with or without angiography, point-of-care laboratory testing, and thrombolysis capabilities on board) and a conventional ambulance (n = 749) vs conventional ambulance alone (n = 794). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the distribution of modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores (a disability score ranging from 0, no neurological deficits, to 6, death) at 3 months. The coprimary outcome was a 3-tier disability scale at 3 months (none to moderate disability; severe disability; death) with tier assignment based on mRS scores if available or place of residence if mRS scores were not available. Common odds ratios (ORs) were used to quantify the association between exposure and outcome; values less than 1.00 indicated a favorable shift in the mRS distribution and lower odds of higher levels of disability. Results: Of the 1543 patients (mean age, 74 years; 723 women [47%]) included in the adjusted primary analysis, 1337 (87%) had available mRS scores (primary outcome) and 1506 patients (98%) had available the 3-tier disability scale assessment (coprimary outcome). Patients with an MSU dispatched had lower median mRS scores at month 3 (1; interquartile range [IQR], 0-3) than did patients without an MSU dispatched (2; IQR, 0-3; common OR for worse mRS, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.58-0.86; P < .001). Similarly, patients with an MSU dispatched had lower 3-month coprimary disability scores: 586 patients (80.3%) had none to moderate disability; 92 (12.6%) had severe disability; and 52 (7.1%) had died vs patients without an MSU dispatched: 605 (78.0%) had none to moderate disability; 103 (13.3%) had severe disability; and 68 (8.8%) had died (common OR for worse functional outcome, 0.73, 95% CI, 0.54-0.99; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: In this prospective, nonrandomized, controlled intervention study of patients with acute ischemic stroke in Berlin, Germany, the dispatch of mobile stroke units, compared with conventional ambulances alone, was significantly associated with lower global disability at 3 months. Clinical trials in other regions are warranted.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Trombolítica , Tempo para o Tratamento , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ambulâncias , Berlim , Avaliação da Deficiência , Despacho de Emergência Médica , Medicina de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , /diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Neurobiol Aging ; 101: 221-223, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636574

RESUMO

Serum BDNF concentrations in 2053 participants of the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II; 1572 individuals from the older age group [60-85 years], 481 individuals from the younger-age reference group [22-37 years]) were studied. There was no effect of age, sex, body mass index, self-reported depression, or BDNF Val66Met variant on serum BDNF concentrations. Multiple linear regression analysis failed to detect significant relationships of Digit Symbol Substitution Test score and Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease memory score to BDNF levels. However, we detected a positive correlation between platelet counts and BDNF levels (r = 0.303, p < 0.001). Our findings do not support an effect of aging, self-reported depression, or the Val66Met variant on serum BDNF concentrations. The role of thrombocytes in the biology of serum BDNF merits further study.

11.
Stroke ; 52(3): 975-984, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The impact of statins on hematoma characteristics, perihemorrhagic edema (PHE), cardiovascular events, seizures, and functional recovery in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is insufficiently studied. METHODS: Patients with ICH of the prospective UKER-ICH (Universitätsklinikum Erlangen Cohort of Patients With Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage) study (URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03183167) were analyzed by multivariable regression modeling and propensity score matching, and PHE volumes were volumetrically assessed. Outcomes comprised hematoma characteristics, the impact of continuation, discontinuation, and initiation of statins on peak PHE extent, and the influence of statin treatment on the occurrence of seizures, cardiovascular adverse events, and functional recovery after ICH. RESULTS: A total of 1275 patients with ICH with information on statin treatment were analyzed. Statin treatment on hospital admission (21.7%) was associated with higher rates of lobar versus nonlobar ICH (odds ratio, 1.57 [1.03-2.40]; P=0.038). Initiation of statins after ICH was associated with increased peak PHE (ß=0.12, SE=0.06, P=0.008), whereas continuation versus discontinuation of prior statin treatment was not significantly associated with edema formation (P>0.10). There were no significant differences in the incidence of remote symptomatic seizures according to statin exposure during follow-up (statins: 11.5% versus no statins: 7.8%, subdistribution hazard ratio: 1.15 [0.80-1.66]; P=0.512). Patients on statins revealed less cardiovascular adverse events and more frequently functional recovery after 12 months (functional recovery: 57.7% versus 45.0%, odds ratio 1.67 [1.09-2.56]; P=0.019). CONCLUSIONS: Among statin users, lobar ICH occurs more frequently as compared with nonstatin users. While continuation of prior statin treatment appears to be safe regarding PHE formation, the initiation of statins during the first days after ICH may increase PHE extent. However, statins should be initiated thereafter (eg, at hospital discharge) to prevent cardiovascular events and potentially improve functional recovery.

13.
Trials ; 22(1): 83, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is highly prevalent in acute ischaemic stroke and is associated with worse functional outcome and increased risk of recurrence. Recent meta-analyses suggest the possibility of beneficial effects of nocturnal ventilatory treatments (continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV)) in stroke patients with SDB. The evidence for a favourable effect of early SDB treatment in acute stroke patients remains, however, uncertain. METHODS: eSATIS is an open-label, multicentre (6 centres in 4 countries), interventional, randomized controlled trial in patients with acute ischaemic stroke and significant SDB. Primary outcome of the study is the impact of immediate SDB treatment with non-invasive ASV on infarct progression measured with magnetic resonance imaging in the first 3 months after stroke. Secondary outcomes are the effects of immediate SDB treatment vs non-treatment on clinical outcome (independence in daily functioning, new cardio-/cerebrovascular events including death, cognition) and physiological parameters (blood pressure, endothelial functioning/arterial stiffness). After respiratory polygraphy in the first night after stroke, patients are classified as having significant SDB (apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) > 20/h) or no SDB (AHI < 5/h). Patients with significant SDB are randomized to treatment (ASV+ group) or no treatment (ASV- group) from the second night after stroke. In all patients, clinical, physiological and magnetic resonance imaging studies are performed between day 1 (visit 1) and days 4-7 (visit 4) and repeated at day 90 ± 7 (visit 6) after stroke. DISCUSSION: The trial will give information on the feasibility and efficacy of ASV treatment in patients with acute stroke and SDB and allows assessing the impact of SDB on stroke outcome. Diagnosing and treating SDB during the acute phase of stroke is not yet current medical practice. Evidence in favour of ASV treatment from a randomized multicentre trial may lead to a change in stroke care and to improved outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02554487 , retrospectively registered on 16 September 2015 (actual study start date, 13 August 2015), and www.kofam.ch (SNCTP000001521).

14.
Neurocrit Care ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), pre-hospital markers of disease severity might be useful to potentially triage patients to undergo early interventions. OBJECTIVE: Here, we tested whether loss of consciousness (LOC) at the onset of ICH is associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) on brain computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Among 3000 ICH cases from ERICH (Ethnic/Racial Variations of Intracerebral Hemorrhage study, NS069763), we included patients with complete ICH/IVH volumetric CT measurements and excluded those with seizures at ICH onset. Trained investigators extracted data from medical charts. Mental status at symptom onset (categorized as alert/oriented, alert/confused, drowsy/somnolent, coma/unresponsive/posturing) and 3-month disability (modified Rankin score, mRS) were assessed through standardized interviews of participants or dedicated proxies. We used logistic regression and mediation analysis to assess relationships between LOC, IVH, and unfavorable outcome (mRS 4-6). RESULTS: Two thousand seven hundred and twenty-four patients met inclusion criteria. Median admission Glasgow Coma Score was 15 (interquartile range 11-15). 46% had IVH on admission or follow-up CT. Patients with LOC (mental status: coma/unresponsive, n = 352) compared to those without LOC (all other mental status, n = 2372) were younger (60 vs. 62 years, p = 0.005) and had greater IVH frequency (77 vs. 41%, p < 0.001), greater peak ICH volumes (28 vs. 11 ml, p < 0.001), greater admission systolic blood pressure (200 vs. 184 mmHg, p < 0.001), and greater admission serum glucose (158 vs. 127 mg/dl, p < 0.001). LOC was independently associated with IVH presence (odds ratio, OR, 2.6, CI 1.9-3.5) and with unfavorable outcome (OR 3.05, CI 1.96-4.75). The association between LOC and outcome was significantly mediated by IVH (beta = 0.24, bootstrapped CI 0.17-0.32). CONCLUSION: LOC at ICH onset may be a useful pre-hospital marker to identify patients at risk of having or developing IVH.

15.
Brain Behav Immun ; 93: 415-419, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 intensive care patients can present with neurological syndromes, usually in the absence of SARS-CoV-2 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The recent finding of some virus-neutralizing antibodies cross-reacting with brain tissue suggests the possible involvement of specific autoimmunity. DESIGN: Blood and CSF samples from eleven critically ill COVID-19 patients presenting with unexplained neurological symptoms including myoclonus, oculomotor disturbance, delirium, dystonia and epileptic seizures, were analyzed for anti-neuronal and anti-glial autoantibodies. RESULTS: Using cell-based assays and indirect immunofluorescence on unfixed murine brain sections, all patients showed anti-neuronal autoantibodies in serum or CSF. Antigens included intracellular and neuronal surface proteins, such as Yo or NMDA receptor, but also various specific undetermined epitopes, reminiscent of the brain tissue binding observed with certain human monoclonal SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. These included vessel endothelium, astrocytic proteins and neuropil of basal ganglia, hippocampus or olfactory bulb. CONCLUSION: The high frequency of autoantibodies targeting the brain in the absence of other explanations suggests a causal relationship to clinical symptoms, in particular to hyperexcitability (myoclonus, seizures). Several underlying autoantigens and their potential molecular mimicry with SARS-CoV-2 still await identification. However, autoantibodies may already now explain some aspects of multi-organ disease in COVID-19 and can guide immunotherapy in selected cases.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Idoso , Autoantígenos , Autoimunidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Behav Brain Res ; 396: 112875, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858115

RESUMO

Monoclonal anti-proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PSCK9) neutralizing antibodies effectively lower plasma cholesterol levels and decrease cardiovascular events but also raised some concern that cognitive function could worsen as a side effect. Here, we performed experiments in mice to characterize the effect of anti-PCSK9 antibodies on behavior and cognitive function in detail. APOE*3Leiden.CETP mice and B6129SF1/J wildtype mice were fed a Western type diet and treated with the fully human anti-PCSK9 antibody CmAb1 (PL-45134; 10mg*kg-1 s.c.) or vehicle for 6 weeks. Locomotor activity, anxiety levels, recognition memory, and spatial learning were investigated using the open field, novel object recognition test, and Morris water maze, respectively. Serum cholesterol levels in APOE*3Leiden.CETP mice after treatment with anti-PCSK9 antibody were significantly lower compared to controls whereas cholesterol levels in B6129SF1/J wildtype mice remained unchanged at low levels. No apparent differences were found regarding locomotor activity, anxiety, recognition memory, and spatial learning between animals treated with anti-PCSK9 antibody or vehicle in APOE*3Leiden.CETP and B6129SF1/J wildtype mice. In this study, we found no evidence that treatment with anti-PCSK9 antibodies lead to differences in behavior or changes of cognition in mice.

18.
J Neurol ; 2020 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372247

RESUMO

Cardiac troponin is a specific and sensitive biomarker to identify and quantify myocardial injury. Myocardial injury is frequently detected after acute ischemic stroke and strongly associated with unfavorable outcomes. Concomitant acute coronary syndrome is only one of several possible differential diagnoses that may cause elevation of cardiac troponin after stroke. As a result, there are uncertainties regarding the correct interpretation and optimal management of stroke patients with myocardial injury in clinical practice. Elevation of cardiac troponin may occur as part of a 'Stroke-Heart Syndrome'. The term 'Stroke-Heart Syndrome' subsumes a clinical spectrum of cardiac complications after stroke including cardiac injury, dysfunction, and arrhythmia which may relate to disturbances of autonomic function and the brain-heart axis. In this review, we provide an up-to-date overview about prognostic implications, mechanisms, and management of elevated cardiac troponin levels in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

19.
Lancet ; 396(10262): 1574-1584, 2020 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients who have had a stroke with unknown time of onset have been previously excluded from thrombolysis. We aimed to establish whether intravenous alteplase is safe and effective in such patients when salvageable tissue has been identified with imaging biomarkers. METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data for trials published before Sept 21, 2020. Randomised trials of intravenous alteplase versus standard of care or placebo in adults with stroke with unknown time of onset with perfusion-diffusion MRI, perfusion CT, or MRI with diffusion weighted imaging-fluid attenuated inversion recovery (DWI-FLAIR) mismatch were eligible. The primary outcome was favourable functional outcome (score of 0-1 on the modified Rankin Scale [mRS]) at 90 days indicating no disability using an unconditional mixed-effect logistic-regression model fitted to estimate the treatment effect. Secondary outcomes were mRS shift towards a better functional outcome and independent outcome (mRS 0-2) at 90 days. Safety outcomes included death, severe disability or death (mRS score 4-6), and symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020166903. FINDINGS: Of 249 identified abstracts, four trials met our eligibility criteria for inclusion: WAKE-UP, EXTEND, THAWS, and ECASS-4. The four trials provided individual patient data for 843 individuals, of whom 429 (51%) were assigned to alteplase and 414 (49%) to placebo or standard care. A favourable outcome occurred in 199 (47%) of 420 patients with alteplase and in 160 (39%) of 409 patients among controls (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·49 [95% CI 1·10-2·03]; p=0·011), with low heterogeneity across studies (I2=27%). Alteplase was associated with a significant shift towards better functional outcome (adjusted common OR 1·38 [95% CI 1·05-1·80]; p=0·019), and a higher odds of independent outcome (adjusted OR 1·50 [1·06-2·12]; p=0·022). In the alteplase group, 90 (21%) patients were severely disabled or died (mRS score 4-6), compared with 102 (25%) patients in the control group (adjusted OR 0·76 [0·52-1·11]; p=0·15). 27 (6%) patients died in the alteplase group and 14 (3%) patients died among controls (adjusted OR 2·06 [1·03-4·09]; p=0·040). The prevalence of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage was higher in the alteplase group than among controls (11 [3%] vs two [<1%], adjusted OR 5·58 [1·22-25·50]; p=0·024). INTERPRETATION: In patients who have had a stroke with unknown time of onset with a DWI-FLAIR or perfusion mismatch, intravenous alteplase resulted in better functional outcome at 90 days than placebo or standard care. A net benefit was observed for all functional outcomes despite an increased risk of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage. Although there were more deaths with alteplase than placebo, there were fewer cases of severe disability or death. FUNDING: None.

20.
Neurology ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184230

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of circulating microvesicles (MV) on long-term cardiovascular outcomes after stroke, we measured them in first-ever stroke patients with a three-year follow-up. METHODS: In the PROSpective Cohort with Incident Stroke Berlin (PROSCIS-B), patients with first-ever ischemic stroke were followed for 3 years. The primary combined endpoint consisted of recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, and all-cause mortality. Citrate-blood levels of endothelial MV (EMV), leukocyte-derived MV (LMV), monocytic MV (MMV), and platelet-derived MV (PMV) were measured using flow cytometry. Kaplan-Meier curves and adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the effect of MV levels on the combined endpoint. RESULTS: Five hundred seventy-one patients were recruited (median age 69 years; 39% female; median NIHSS 2, interquartile range 1-4) and 95 endpoints occurred. Patients with levels of EMV [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-4.9] or LMV (HR = 3.1, 95% CI 1.4-6.8) in the highest quartile were more likely to experience an event than participants with lower levels using the lowest quartile as reference category. The association was less pronounced for PMV (HR = 1.7, 95% CI 0.9-3.2) and absent for MMV (HR = 1.1, 95% CI 0.6-1.8). CONCLUSION: High levels of EMV and LMV after stroke were associated with worse cardiovascular outcome within 3 years. These results reinforce that endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation affect the long-term prognosis after stroke. EMV and LMV might play a role in risk prediction for stroke patients. STUDY REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01363856. UID: NCT01363856. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence of the impact of MV levels on subsequent stroke, myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality in survivors of mild stroke.

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