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1.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496123

RESUMO

Several studies have shown that the airways of asthma patients contain higher diversity of bacteria and are enriched in pathogenic species. However, sampling the airways in children is challenging. Here we aimed to identify differences in the salivary bacterial composition between African Americans children with and without asthma. Saliva samples from 57 asthma cases and 57 healthy controls were analyzed by means of 16S ribosomal RNA amplicon profiling. Measurements of bacterial diversity and genus relative abundance were compared between cases and controls using the nonparametric Wilcoxon test and multivariate regression models. A total of five phyla and a mean of 56 genera were identified. Among them, 15 genera had a relative abundance greater than 1%, being Prevotella, Haemophilus, Streptococcus, and Veillonella the most abundant genera. Differences between cases and controls were found in terms of diversity, as well as in relative abundance for Streptococcus genus (13.0% in cases vs 18.3% in controls; P = .003) and Veillonella genus (11.1% in cases vs 8.0% in controls; P = .002). These differences remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons and when potential confounders were taken into account in logistic regression models. In conclusion, we identified changes in the salivary microbiota associated with asthma among African Americans.

3.
Chest ; 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common respiratory disorder with a highly heterogeneous nature that remains poorly understood. The objective was to identify regions of common genetic variation contributing to lung function in individuals diagnosed with asthma, utilizing whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data. METHODS: WGS data were generated for 1,053 individuals from trios and extended pedigrees participating in the family-based 'Genetic Epidemiology of Asthma in Costa Rica' study. Asthma affection status was defined through a doctor's diagnosis of asthma and the majority of asthma cases also had airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine. Family-based association tests for single-variants were performed to assess the associations with lung function phenotypes. RESULTS: A plausible association was identified between baseline FEV1/FVC-ratio and a SNP in our top hit CRISPLD2 (rs12051168, p=3.6x10-8 in unadjusted model) that retained suggestive significance in the covariate-adjusted model (p=5.6x10-6). Rs12051168 was also nominally associated with other related phenotypes: baseline FEV1 (p=3.3x10-3), post-bronchodilator (PB) FEV1 (7.3x10-3), PB FEV1/FVC (p=5.1x10-5). The identified baseline FEV1/FVC-ratio and rs12051168 association was meta-analyzed and replicated in three independent cohorts where the majority of asthmatics also had confirmed AHR (combined weighted Z p-value=0.015) but not in cohorts without information on AHR. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that utilizing specific asthma characteristics, such as AHR, can identify more genetically homogenous asthma subgroups with genotype-phenotype associations that may not be observed in all children with asthma. CRISPLD2 may also be important for baseline lung function in individuals with asthma that may also have AHR.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 747-762, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543216

RESUMO

Runs of homozygosity (ROH) are important genomic features that manifest when an individual inherits two haplotypes that are identical by descent. Their length distributions are informative about population history, and their genomic locations are useful for mapping recessive loci contributing to both Mendelian and complex disease risk. We have previously shown that ROH, and especially long ROH that are likely the result of recent parental relatedness, are enriched for homozygous deleterious coding variation in a worldwide sample of outbred individuals. However, the distribution of ROH in admixed populations and their relationship to deleterious homozygous genotypes is understudied. Here we analyze whole-genome sequencing data from 1,441 unrelated individuals from self-identified African American, Puerto Rican, and Mexican American populations. These populations are three-way admixed between European, African, and Native American ancestries and provide an opportunity to study the distribution of deleterious alleles partitioned by local ancestry and ROH. We re-capitulate previous findings that long ROH are enriched for deleterious variation genome-wide. We then partition by local ancestry and show that deleterious homozygotes arise at a higher rate when ROH overlap African ancestry segments than when they overlap European or Native American ancestry segments of the genome. These results suggest that, while ROH on any haplotype background are associated with an inflation of deleterious homozygous variation, African haplotype backgrounds may play a particularly important role in the genetic architecture of complex diseases for admixed individuals, highlighting the need for further study of these populations.

5.
BMC Genet ; 20(1): 59, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Association studies in recently admixed populations are extremely useful to identify the genetic architecture of pigmentation, due to their high genotypic and phenotypic variation. However, to date only four Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have been carried out in these populations. RESULTS: We present a GWAS of skin pigmentation in an admixed sample from Cuba (N = 762). Additionally, we conducted a meta-analysis including the Cuban sample, and admixed samples from Cape Verde, Puerto Rico and African-Americans from San Francisco. This meta-analysis is one of the largest efforts so far to characterize the genetic basis of skin pigmentation in admixed populations (N = 2,104). We identified five genome-wide significant regions in the meta-analysis, and explored if the markers observed in these regions are associated with the expression of relevant pigmentary genes in human melanocyte cultures. In three of the regions identified in the meta-analysis (SLC24A5, SLC45A2, and GRM5/TYR), the association seems to be driven by non-synonymous variants (rs1426654, rs16891982, and rs1042602, respectively). The rs16891982 polymorphism is strongly associated with the expression of the SLC45A2 gene. In the GRM5/TYR region, in addition to the rs1042602 non-synonymous SNP located on the TYR gene, variants located in the nearby GRM5 gene have an independent effect on pigmentation, possibly through regulation of gene expression of the TYR gene. We also replicated an association recently described near the MFSD12 gene on chromosome 19 (lead variant rs112332856). Additionally, our analyses support the presence of multiple signals in the OCA2/HERC2/APBA2 region on chromosome 15. A clear causal candidate is the HERC2 intronic variant rs12913832, which has a profound influence on OCA2 expression. This variant has pleiotropic effects on eye, hair, and skin pigmentation. However, conditional and haplotype-based analyses indicate the presence of other variants with independent effects on melanin levels in OCA2 and APBA2. Finally, a follow-up of genome-wide signals identified in a recent GWAS for tanning response indicates that there is a substantial overlap in the genetic factors influencing skin pigmentation and tanning response. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis of skin pigmentation GWAS in recently admixed populations provides new insights about the genetic architecture of this complex trait.

6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(3): 839-845.e10, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomere length (TL) can serve as a potential biomarker for conditions associated with chronic oxidative stress and inflammation, such as asthma. Air pollution can induce oxidative stress. Understanding the relationship between TL, asthma, and air pollution is important for identifying risk factors contributing to unhealthy aging in children. OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate associations between exposures to ambient air pollutants and TL in African American children and adolescents and to examine whether African ancestry, asthma status, and steroid medication use alter the association. METHODS: Linear regression was used to examine associations between absolute telomere length (aTL) and estimated annual average residential ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) exposures in a cross-sectional analysis of 1072 children in an existing asthma case-control study. African ancestry, asthma status, and use of steroid medications were examined as effect modifiers. RESULTS: Participants' aTLs were measured by using quantitative PCR. A 1-ppb and 1 µg/m3 increase in annual average exposure to O3 and PM2.5 were associated with a decrease in aTL of 37.1 kilo-base pair (kb; 95% CI, -66.7 to -7.4 kb) and 57.1 kb (95% CI, -118.1 to 3.9 kb), respectively. African ancestry and asthma were not effect modifiers; however, exposure to steroid medications modified the relationships between TL and pollutants. Past-year exposure to O3 and PM2.5 was associated with shorter TLs in patients without steroid use. CONCLUSION: Exposure to air pollution was associated with shorter TLs in nonasthmatic children and adolescents. This was not the case for asthmatic children as a group, but those receiving steroid medication had less shortening than those not using steroids. Reduced exposure to air pollution in childhood might help to preserve TL.

7.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 106(5): 1133-1140, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209858

RESUMO

American Thoracic Society guidelines recommend inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy, plus a short-acting bronchodilator, in patients with persistent asthma. However, few prior studies have examined the efficacy of this combination in children of all racial/ethnic groups. We evaluated the association between ICS use and bronchodilator response (BDR) in three pediatric populations with persistent asthma (656 African American, 916 Puerto Rican, and 398 Mexican American children). The association was assessed using multivariable quantile regression. After adjusting for baseline forced expiratory volume in one second and use of controller medications, ICS use was significantly associated with increased BDR only among Mexican Americans (1.56%, P = 0.028) but not African Americans (0.49%, P = 0.426) or Puerto Ricans (0.16%, P = 0.813). Our results demonstrate that ICS augmentation is disproportionate across racial/ethnic groups, where improved BDR is observed in Mexican Americans only. This study highlights the complexities of treating asthma in children, and reinforces the importance of investigating the influence of race/ethnicity on pharmacological response.

8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(4): 962-971, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research in transformed immortalized cell lines indicates the cadherin-related family member 3 (CDHR3) protein serves as a receptor for human rhinovirus (HRV)-C. Similar experiments indicate that the CDHR3 coding variant rs6967330 increases CDHR3 protein surface expression. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether CDHR3 is necessary for HRV-C infection of primary airway epithelial cells (AECs) and to identify molecular mechanisms by which CDHR3 variants confer risk for asthma exacerbations. METHODS: CDHR3 function and influence on HRV-C infection were investigated by using single-cell transcriptomics, CRISPR-Cas9 gene knockout, and genotype-specific donor experiments performed in primary AECs. Nasal airway epithelium cis-expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis of CDHR3 was performed, followed by association testing for asthma hospitalization in minority children. RESULTS: CDHR3 lung expression is exclusive to ciliated AECs and associated with basal bodies during and after motile ciliogenesis. Knockout of CDHR3 in human AECs did not prevent ciliated cell differentiation but was associated with a decrease in transepithelial resistance and an 80% decrease in HRV-C infection of the mucociliary epithelium. AECs from subjects homozygous for the risk-associated rs6967330 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) exhibited greater HRV-C infection compared with cells homozygous for the nonrisk allele. AEC cis-eQTL analysis indicated that rs6967330 and other SNPs are eQTLs for CDHR3. Only the eQTL block containing the rs6967330 SNP showed a significant association with childhood asthma hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic deletion and genotype-specific studies in primary AECs indicate CDHR3 is critical to HRV-C infection of ciliated cells. The rs6967330 SNP confers risk of severe childhood asthma exacerbations, likely through increasing HRV-C infection levels and protein surface localization.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 880, 2019 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787307

RESUMO

Asthma is a complex disease with striking disparities across racial and ethnic groups. Despite its relatively high burden, representation of individuals of African ancestry in asthma genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has been inadequate, and true associations in these underrepresented minority groups have been inconclusive. We report the results of a genome-wide meta-analysis from the Consortium on Asthma among African Ancestry Populations (CAAPA; 7009 asthma cases, 7645 controls). We find strong evidence for association at four previously reported asthma loci whose discovery was driven largely by non-African populations, including the chromosome 17q12-q21 locus and the chr12q13 region, a novel (and not previously replicated) asthma locus recently identified by the Trans-National Asthma Genetic Consortium (TAGC). An additional seven loci reported by TAGC show marginal evidence for association in CAAPA. We also identify two novel loci (8p23 and 8q24) that may be specific to asthma risk in African ancestry populations.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Asma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Asma/epidemiologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 12/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(5): 1914-1922, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acculturation is an important predictor of asthma in Latino youth, specifically Mexican Americans. Less is known about acculturation and pulmonary function measures. OBJECTIVE: We sought to estimate the association of acculturation measures with asthma and pulmonary function in Latino youth and determine whether this association varies across Latino subgroups. METHODS: We included 1849 Latinos (302 Caribbean Spanish, 193 Central or South Americans, 1136 Mexican Americans, and 218 other Latino children) aged 8 to 21 years from 4 urban regions in the United States. Acculturation measures include nativity status, age of immigration, language of preference, and generation in the United States. We used multivariable logistic and linear regression models to quantify the association of acculturation factors with the presence of asthma (case-control study) and pulmonary function (case-only study), adjusting for demographic, socioenvironmental, and clinical variables. RESULTS: For all acculturation measures (nativity status, age of immigration, language of preference, and generation in the United States), greater levels of acculturation were associated with greater odds of asthma. Among cases, high (English preference) and medium (equal preference for Spanish and English) levels of language acculturation were associated with decreased bronchodilator response compared with low (Spanish preference) levels (P = .009 and .02, respectively). Similarly, high language acculturation was associated with increased FEV1 compared with low language acculturation (P = .02). There was insufficient evidence of heterogeneity for associations across Latino subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Acculturation was associated with diagnosed asthma and pulmonary function in Latino children and is an important factor to consider in the management of Latino youth with asthma.

12.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 49(6): 789-798, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30697902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the most widely prescribed and effective medication to control asthma symptoms and exacerbations. However, many children still have asthma exacerbations despite treatment, particularly in admixed populations, such as Puerto Ricans and African Americans. A few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed in European and Asian populations, and they have demonstrated the importance of the genetic component in ICS response. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with asthma exacerbations in admixed children treated with ICS and to validate previous GWAS findings. METHODS: A meta-analysis of two GWAS of asthma exacerbations was performed in 1347 admixed children treated with ICS (Hispanics/Latinos and African Americans), analysing 8.7 million genetic variants. Those with P ≤ 5 × 10-6 were followed up for replication in 1697 asthmatic patients from six European studies. Associations of ICS response described in published GWAS were followed up for replication in the admixed populations. RESULTS: A total of 15 independent variants were suggestively associated with asthma exacerbations in admixed populations (P ≤ 5 × 10-6 ). One of them, located in the intergenic region of APOBEC3B and APOBEC3C, showed evidence of replication in Europeans (rs5995653, P = 7.52 × 10-3 ) and was also associated with change in lung function after treatment with ICS (P = 4.91 × 10-3 ). Additionally, the reported association of the L3MBTL4-ARHGAP28 genomic region was confirmed in admixed populations, although a different variant was identified. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study revealed the novel association of APOBEC3B and APOBEC3C with asthma exacerbations in children treated with ICS and replicated previously identified genomic regions. This contributes to the current knowledge about the multiple genetic markers determining responsiveness to ICS which could lead in the future the clinical identification of those asthma patients who are not able to respond to such treatment.

13.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 3, 2019 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a partially heritable trait and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 180 common genetic variants associated with breast cancer. We have previously performed breast cancer GWAS in Latinas and identified a strongly protective single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at 6q25, with the protective minor allele originating from indigenous American ancestry. Here we report on fine mapping of the 6q25 locus in an expanded sample of Latinas. METHODS: We performed GWAS in 2385 cases and 6416 controls who were either US Latinas or Mexican women. We replicated the top SNPs in 2412 cases and 1620 controls of US Latina, Mexican, and Colombian women. In addition, we validated the top novel variants in studies of African, Asian and European ancestry. In each dataset we used logistic regression models to test the association between SNPs and breast cancer risk and corrected for genetic ancestry using either principal components or genetic ancestry inferred from ancestry informative markers using a model-based approach. RESULTS: We identified a novel set of SNPs at the 6q25 locus associated with genome-wide levels of significance (p = 3.3 × 10- 8 - 6.0 × 10- 9) not in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with variants previously reported at this locus. These SNPs were in high LD (r2 > 0.9) with each other, with the top SNP, rs3778609, associated with breast cancer with an odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 0.76 (0.70-0.84). In a replication in women of Latin American origin, we also observed a consistent effect (OR 0.88; 95% CI 0.78-0.99; p = 0.037). We also performed a meta-analysis of these SNPs in East Asians, African ancestry and European ancestry populations and also observed a consistent effect (rs3778609, OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.91-0.97; p = 0.0017). CONCLUSION: Our study adds to evidence about the importance of the 6q25 locus for breast cancer susceptibility. Our finding also highlights the utility of performing additional searches for genetic variants for breast cancer in non-European populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Mama , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
14.
Nat Genet ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455414

RESUMO

We used a deeply sequenced dataset of 910 individuals, all of African descent, to construct a set of DNA sequences that is present in these individuals but missing from the reference human genome. We aligned 1.19 trillion reads from the 910 individuals to the reference genome (GRCh38), collected all reads that failed to align, and assembled these reads into contiguous sequences (contigs). We then compared all contigs to one another to identify a set of unique sequences representing regions of the African pan-genome missing from the reference genome. Our analysis revealed 296,485,284 bp in 125,715 distinct contigs present in the populations of African descent, demonstrating that the African pan-genome contains ~10% more DNA than the current human reference genome. Although the functional significance of nearly all of this sequence is unknown, 387 of the novel contigs fall within 315 distinct protein-coding genes, and the rest appear to be intergenic.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common but complex disease with racial/ethnic differences in prevalence, morbidity, and response to therapies. OBJECTIVE: We sought to perform an analysis of genetic ancestry to identify new loci that contribute to asthma susceptibility. METHODS: We leveraged the mixed ancestry of 3902 Latinos and performed an admixture mapping meta-analysis for asthma susceptibility. We replicated associations in an independent study of 3774 Latinos, performed targeted sequencing for fine mapping, and tested for disease correlations with gene expression in the whole blood of more than 500 subjects from 3 racial/ethnic groups. RESULTS: We identified a genome-wide significant admixture mapping peak at 18q21 in Latinos (P = 6.8 × 10-6), where Native American ancestry was associated with increased risk of asthma (odds ratio [OR], 1.20; 95% CI, 1.07-1.34; P = .002) and European ancestry was associated with protection (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.77-0.96; P = .008). Our findings were replicated in an independent childhood asthma study in Latinos (P = 5.3 × 10-3, combined P = 2.6 × 10-7). Fine mapping of 18q21 in 1978 Latinos identified a significant association with multiple variants 5' of SMAD family member 2 (SMAD2) in Mexicans, whereas a single rare variant in the same window was the top association in Puerto Ricans. Low versus high SMAD2 blood expression was correlated with case status (13.4% lower expression; OR, 3.93; 95% CI, 2.12-7.28; P < .001). In addition, lower expression of SMAD2 was associated with more frequent exacerbations among Puerto Ricans with asthma. CONCLUSION: Ancestry at 18q21 was significantly associated with asthma in Latinos and implicated multiple ancestry-informative noncoding variants upstream of SMAD2 with asthma susceptibility. Furthermore, decreased SMAD2 expression in blood was strongly associated with increased asthma risk and increased exacerbations.

16.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206298

RESUMO

Short-acting ß2-adrenergic receptor agonists (SABAs) are the most commonly prescribed asthma medications worldwide. Response to SABAs is measured as bronchodilator drug response (BDR), which varies among racial/ethnic groups in the United States. However, the genetic variation that contributes to BDR is largely undefined in African Americans with asthma. To identify genetic variants that may contribute to differences in BDR in African Americans with asthma, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BDR in 949 African-American children with asthma, genotyped with the Axiom World Array 4 (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) followed by imputation using 1000 Genomes phase III genotypes. We used linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and genetic ancestry to test for an association between BDR and genotype at single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). To increase power and distinguish between shared vs. population-specific associations with BDR in children with asthma, we performed a meta-analysis across 949 African Americans and 1830 Latinos (total = 2779). Finally, we performed genome-wide admixture mapping to identify regions whereby local African or European ancestry is associated with BDR in African Americans. We identified a population-specific association with an intergenic SNP on chromosome 9q21 that was significantly associated with BDR (rs73650726, p = 7.69 × 10-9). A trans-ethnic meta-analysis across African Americans and Latinos identified three additional SNPs within the intron of PRKG1 that were significantly associated with BDR (rs7903366, rs7070958 and rs7081864, p ≤ 5 × 10-8). Our results failed to replicate in three additional populations of 416 Latinos and 1615 African Americans. Our findings indicate that both population-specific and shared genetic variation contributes to differences in BDR in minority children with asthma, and that the genetic underpinnings of BDR may differ between racial/ethnic groups.

17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13265, 2018 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30185882

RESUMO

Telomere length (TL) is associated with numerous disease states and is affected by genetic and environmental factors. However, TL has been mostly studied in adult populations of European or Asian ancestry. These studies have identified 34 TL-associated genetic variants recently used as genetic proxies for TL. The generalizability of these associations to pediatric populations and racially diverse populations, specifically of African ancestry, remains unclear. Furthermore, six novel variants associated with TL in a population of European children have been identified but not validated. We measured TL from whole blood samples of 492 healthy African American youth (children and adolescents between 8 and 20 years old) and performed the first genome-wide association study of TL in this population. We were unable to replicate neither the 34 reported genetic associations found in adults nor the six genetic associations found in European children. However, we discovered a novel genome-wide significant association between TL and rs1483898 on chromosome 14. Our results underscore the importance of examining genetic associations with TL in diverse pediatric populations such as African Americans.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113228

RESUMO

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants is a common and often severe lung disease with long term sequelae. A genetic component is suspected but not fully defined. We performed an ancestry and genome-wide association study to identify variants, genes and pathways associated with survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia in 387 high-risk infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide in the Trial of Late Surfactant study. Global African genetic ancestry was associated with increased survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia among infants of maternal self-reported Hispanic White race/ethnicity (OR=4.5, p=0.01). Admixture mapping found suggestive outcome associations with local African ancestry at 18q21 and 10q22 among infants of maternal self-reported African American race/ethnicity. For all infants, the top individual variant identified was within the intron of NBL1, which is expressed in mid-trimester lung and is an antagonist of bone morphogenetic proteins (rs372271081, OR=0.17, p=7.4x10-7). The protective allele of this variant was significantly associated with lower nitric oxide metabolites in the urine of non-Hispanic white infants (p= 0.006), supporting a role in the racial differential response to nitric oxide. Interrogating genes upregulated in bronchopulmonary dysplasia lungs indicated association with variants in CCL18, a cytokine associated with fibrosis and interstitial lung disease, and pathway analyses implicated variation in genes involved in immune/inflammatory processes in response to infection and mechanical ventilation. Our results suggest that genetic variation related to lung development, drug metabolism, and immune response contribute to individual and racial/ethnic differences in respiratory outcomes following inhaled nitric oxide treatment of high-risk premature infants.

19.
Thorax ; 73(11): 1041-1048, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29899038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposures have been linked to asthma-related outcomes but quantitative dose-responses using biomarkers of exposure have not been widely reported. OBJECTIVES: Assess dose-response relationships between plasma cotinine-determined SHS exposure and asthma outcomes in minority children, a vulnerable population exposed to higher levels of SHS and under-represented in the literature. METHODS: We performed analyses in 1172 Latino and African-American children with asthma from the mainland USA and Puerto Rico. We used logistic regression to assess relationships of cotinine levels ≥0.05 ng/mL with asthma exacerbations (defined as asthma-related hospitalisations, emergency room visits or oral steroid prescription) in the previous year and asthma control. The shape of dose-response relationships was assessed using a continuous exposure variable in generalised additive logistic models with penalised splines. RESULTS: The OR for experiencing asthma exacerbations in the previous year for cotinine levels ≥0.05 ng/mL, compared with <0.05 ng/mL, was 1.40 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.89), while the OR for poor asthma control was 1.53 (95% CI 1.12 to 2.13). Analyses for dose-response relationships indicated increasing odds of asthma outcomes related with increasing exposure, even at cotinine levels associated with light SHS exposures. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to SHS was associated with higher odds of asthma exacerbations and having poorly controlled asthma with an increasing dose-response even at low levels of exposure. Our results support the conclusion that there are no safe levels of SHS exposures.

20.
Gigascience ; 7(6)2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29762754

RESUMO

Background: Sorted merging of genomic data is a common data operation necessary in many sequencing-based studies. It involves sorting and merging genomic data from different subjects by their genomic locations. In particular, merging a large number of variant call format (VCF) files is frequently required in large-scale whole-genome sequencing or whole-exome sequencing projects. Traditional single-machine based methods become increasingly inefficient when processing large numbers of files due to the excessive computation time and Input/Output bottleneck. Distributed systems and more recent cloud-based systems offer an attractive solution. However, carefully designed and optimized workflow patterns and execution plans (schemas) are required to take full advantage of the increased computing power while overcoming bottlenecks to achieve high performance. Findings: In this study, we custom-design optimized schemas for three Apache big data platforms, Hadoop (MapReduce), HBase, and Spark, to perform sorted merging of a large number of VCF files. These schemas all adopt the divide-and-conquer strategy to split the merging job into sequential phases/stages consisting of subtasks that are conquered in an ordered, parallel, and bottleneck-free way. In two illustrating examples, we test the performance of our schemas on merging multiple VCF files into either a single TPED or a single VCF file, which are benchmarked with the traditional single/parallel multiway-merge methods, message passing interface (MPI)-based high-performance computing (HPC) implementation, and the popular VCFTools. Conclusions: Our experiments suggest all three schemas either deliver a significant improvement in efficiency or render much better strong and weak scalabilities over traditional methods. Our findings provide generalized scalable schemas for performing sorted merging on genetics and genomics data using these Apache distributed systems.


Assuntos
Redes de Comunicação de Computadores , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Software , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Fluxo de Trabalho
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