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1.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 48, 2019 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although mosaic variation has been known to cause disease for decades, high-throughput sequencing technologies with the analytical sensitivity to consistently detect variants at reduced allelic fractions have only recently emerged as routine clinical diagnostic tests. To date, few systematic analyses of mosaic variants detected by diagnostic exome sequencing for diverse clinical indications have been performed. METHODS: To investigate the frequency, type, allelic fraction, and phenotypic consequences of clinically relevant somatic mosaic single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and characteristics of the corresponding genes, we retrospectively queried reported mosaic variants from a cohort of ~ 12,000 samples submitted for clinical exome sequencing (ES) at Baylor Genetics. RESULTS: We found 120 mosaic variants involving 107 genes, including 80 mosaic SNVs in proband samples and 40 in parental/grandparental samples. Average mosaic alternate allele fraction (AAF) detected in autosomes and in X-linked disease genes in females was 18.2% compared with 34.8% in X-linked disease genes in males. Of these mosaic variants, 74 variants (61.7%) were classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic and 46 (38.3%) as variants of uncertain significance. Mosaic variants occurred in disease genes associated with autosomal dominant (AD) or AD/autosomal recessive (AR) (67/120, 55.8%), X-linked (33/120, 27.5%), AD/somatic (10/120, 8.3%), and AR (8/120, 6.7%) inheritance. Of note, 1.7% (2/120) of variants were found in genes in which only somatic events have been described. Nine genes had recurrent mosaic events in unrelated individuals which accounted for 18.3% (22/120) of all detected mosaic variants in this study. The proband group was enriched for mosaicism affecting Ras signaling pathway genes. CONCLUSIONS: In sum, an estimated 1.5% of all molecular diagnoses made in this cohort could be attributed to a mosaic variant detected in the proband, while parental mosaicism was identified in 0.3% of families analyzed. As ES design favors breadth over depth of coverage, this estimate of the prevalence of mosaic variants likely represents an underestimate of the total number of clinically relevant mosaic variants in our cohort.

3.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 30, 2019 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exome sequencing (ES) has been successfully applied in clinical detection of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and small indels. However, identification of copy number variants (CNVs) using ES data remains challenging. The purpose of this study is to understand the contribution of CNVs and copy neutral runs of homozygosity (ROH) in molecular diagnosis of patients referred for ES. METHODS: In a cohort of 11,020 consecutive ES patients, an Illumina SNP array analysis interrogating mostly coding SNPs was performed as a quality control (QC) measurement and for CNV/ROH detection. Among these patients, clinical chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) was performed at Baylor Genetics (BG) on 3229 patients, either before, concurrently, or after ES. We retrospectively analyzed the findings from CMA and the QC array. RESULTS: The QC array can detect ~ 70% of pathogenic/likely pathogenic CNVs (PCNVs) detectable by CMA. Out of the 11,020 ES cases, the QC array identified PCNVs in 327 patients and uniparental disomy (UPD) disorder-related ROH in 10 patients. The overall PCNV/UPD detection rate was 5.9% in the 3229 ES patients who also had CMA at BG; PCNV/UPD detection rate was higher in concurrent ES and CMA than in ES with prior CMA (7.2% vs 4.6%). The PCNVs/UPD contributed to the molecular diagnoses in 17.4% (189/1089) of molecularly diagnosed ES cases with CMA and were estimated to contribute in 10.6% of all molecularly diagnosed ES cases. Dual diagnoses with both PCNVs and SNVs were detected in 38 patients. PCNVs affecting single recessive disorder genes in a compound heterozygous state with SNVs were detected in 4 patients, and homozygous deletions (mostly exonic deletions) were detected in 17 patients. A higher PCNV detection rate was observed for patients with syndromic phenotypes and/or cardiovascular abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Our clinical genomics study demonstrates that detection of PCNV/UPD through the QC array or CMA increases ES diagnostic rate, provides more precise molecular diagnosis for dominant as well as recessive traits, and enables more complete genetic diagnoses in patients with dual or multiple molecular diagnoses. Concurrent ES and CMA using an array with exonic coverage for disease genes enables most effective detection of both CNVs and SNVs and therefore is recommended especially in time-sensitive clinical situations.

4.
J Genet Couns ; 28(2): 213-228, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964584

RESUMO

There are approximately 7,000 rare diseases affecting 25-30 million Americans, with 80% estimated to have a genetic basis. This presents a challenge for genetics practitioners to determine appropriate testing, make accurate diagnoses, and conduct up-to-date patient management. Exome sequencing (ES) is a comprehensive diagnostic approach, but only 25%-41% of the patients receive a molecular diagnosis. The remaining three-fifths to three-quarters of patients undergoing ES remain undiagnosed. The Stanford Center for Undiagnosed Diseases (CUD), a clinical site of the Undiagnosed Diseases Network, evaluates patients with undiagnosed and rare diseases using a combination of methods including ES. Frequently these patients have non-diagnostic ES results, but strategic follow-up techniques identify diagnoses in a subset. We present techniques used at the CUD that can be adopted by genetics providers in clinical follow-up of cases where ES is non-diagnostic. Solved case examples illustrate different types of non-diagnostic results and the additional techniques that led to a diagnosis. Frequent approaches include segregation analysis, data reanalysis, genome sequencing, additional variant identification, careful phenotype-disease correlation, confirmatory testing, and case matching. We also discuss prioritization of cases for additional analyses.

5.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2135-2144, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890783

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide a validated method to confidently identify exon-containing copy-number variants (CNVs), with a low false discovery rate (FDR), in targeted sequencing data from a clinical laboratory with particular focus on single-exon CNVs. METHODS: DNA sequence coverage data are normalized within each sample and subsequently exonic CNVs are identified in a batch of samples, when the target log2 ratio of the sample to the batch median exceeds defined thresholds. The quality of exonic CNV calls is assessed by C-scores (Z-like scores) using thresholds derived from gold standard samples and simulation studies. We integrate an ExonQC threshold to lower FDR and compare performance with alternate software (VisCap). RESULTS: Thirteen CNVs were used as a truth set to validate Atlas-CNV and compared with VisCap. We demonstrated FDR reduction in validation, simulation, and 10,926 eMERGESeq samples without sensitivity loss. Sixty-four multiexon and 29 single-exon CNVs with high C-scores were assessed by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA). CONCLUSION: Atlas-CNV is validated as a method to identify exonic CNVs in targeted sequencing data generated in the clinical laboratory. The ExonQC and C-score assignment can reduce FDR (identification of targets with high variance) and improve calling accuracy of single-exon CNVs respectively. We propose guidelines and criteria to identify high confidence single-exon CNVs.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850373

RESUMO

DNM1L encodes a GTPase of the dynamin superfamily, which plays a crucial role in mitochondrial and peroxisomal fission. Pathogenic variants affecting the middle domain and the GTPase domain of DNM1L have been implicated in encephalopathy because of defective mitochondrial and peroxisomal fission 1 (EMPF1, MIM #614388). Patients show variable phenotypes ranging from severe hypotonia leading to death in the neonatal period to developmental delay/regression, with or without seizures. Familial pathogenic variants in the GTPase domain have also been associated with isolated optic atrophy. We present a 27-yr-old woman with static encephalopathy, a history of seizures, and nystagmus, in whom a novel de novo heterozygous variant was detected in the GTPase effector domain (GED) of DNM1L (c.2072A>G, p.Tyr691Cys). Functional studies in Drosophila demonstrate large, abnormally distributed peroxisomes and mitochondria, an effect very similar to that of middle domain missense alleles observed in pediatric subjects with EMPF1. To our knowledge, not only is this the first report of a disease-causing variant in the GED domain in humans, but this is also the oldest living individual reported with EMPF1. Longitudinal data of this kind helps to expand our knowledge of the natural history of a growing list of DNM1L-related disorders.

7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(6): 966-977, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920161

RESUMO

Phacomatosis pigmentovascularis (PPV) comprises a family of rare conditions that feature vascular abnormalities and melanocytic lesions that can be solely cutaneous or multisystem in nature. Recently published work has demonstrated that both vascular and melanocytic abnormalities in PPV of the cesioflammea and cesiomarmorata subtypes can result from identical somatic mosaic activating mutations in the genes GNAQ and GNA11. Here, we present three new cases of PPV with features of the cesioflammea and/or cesiomarmorata subtypes and mosaic mutations in GNAQ or GNA11. To better understand the risk of potentially occult complications faced by such patients we additionally reviewed 176 cases published in the literature. We report the frequency of clinical findings, their patterns of co-occurrence as well as published recommendations for surveillance after diagnosis. Features assessed include: capillary malformation; dermal and ocular melanocytosis; glaucoma; limb asymmetry; venous malformations; and central nervous system (CNS) anomalies, such as ventriculomegaly and calcifications. We found that ocular findings are common in patients with phacomatosis cesioflammea and cesiomarmorata. Facial vascular involvement correlates with a higher risk of seizures (p = .0066). Our genetic results confirm the role of mosaic somatic mutations in GNAQ and GNA11 in phacomatosis cesioflammea and cesiomarmorata. Their clinical and molecular findings place these conditions on a clinical spectrum encompassing other GNAQ and GNA11 related disorders and inform recommendations for their management.

8.
Nat Med ; 25(4): 701-702, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787481

RESUMO

In the version of this article originally published, some cases that were presented in Fig. 3 should have been underlined but were not. The appropriate cases have now been underlined. The error has been corrected in the print, PDF and HTML versions of the article.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(3): 422-438, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773277

RESUMO

SPONASTRIME dysplasia is an autosomal-recessive spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia characterized by spine (spondylar) abnormalities, midface hypoplasia with a depressed nasal bridge, metaphyseal striations, and disproportionate short stature. Scoliosis, coxa vara, childhood cataracts, short dental roots, and hypogammaglobulinemia have also been reported in this disorder. Although an autosomal-recessive inheritance pattern has been hypothesized, pathogenic variants in a specific gene have not been discovered in individuals with SPONASTRIME dysplasia. Here, we identified bi-allelic variants in TONSL, which encodes the Tonsoku-like DNA repair protein, in nine subjects (from eight families) with SPONASTRIME dysplasia, and four subjects (from three families) with short stature of varied severity and spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with or without immunologic and hematologic abnormalities, but no definitive metaphyseal striations at diagnosis. The finding of early embryonic lethality in a Tonsl-/- murine model and the discovery of reduced length, spinal abnormalities, reduced numbers of neutrophils, and early lethality in a tonsl-/- zebrafish model both support the hypomorphic nature of the identified TONSL variants. Moreover, functional studies revealed increased amounts of spontaneous replication fork stalling and chromosomal aberrations, as well as fewer camptothecin (CPT)-induced RAD51 foci in subject-derived cell lines. Importantly, these cellular defects were rescued upon re-expression of wild-type (WT) TONSL; this rescue is consistent with the hypothesis that hypomorphic TONSL variants are pathogenic. Overall, our studies in humans, mice, zebrafish, and subject-derived cell lines confirm that pathogenic variants in TONSL impair DNA replication and homologous recombination-dependent repair processes, and they lead to a spectrum of skeletal dysplasia phenotypes with numerous extra-skeletal manifestations.

11.
Nat Med ; 25(3): 439-447, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30692697

RESUMO

Current non-invasive prenatal screening is targeted toward the detection of chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus1,2. However, screening for many dominant monogenic disorders associated with de novo mutations is not available, despite their relatively high incidence3. Here we report on the development and validation of, and early clinical experience with, a new approach for non-invasive prenatal sequencing for a panel of causative genes for frequent dominant monogenic diseases. Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) extracted from maternal plasma was barcoded, enriched, and then analyzed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) for targeted regions. Low-level fetal variants were identified by a statistical analysis adjusted for NGS read count and fetal fraction. Pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were confirmed by a secondary amplicon-based test on cfDNA. Clinical tests were performed on 422 pregnancies with or without abnormal ultrasound findings or family history. Follow-up studies on cases with available outcome results confirmed 20 true-positive, 127 true-negative, zero false-positive, and zero-false negative results. The initial clinical study demonstrated that this non-invasive test can provide valuable molecular information for the detection of a wide spectrum of dominant monogenic diseases, complementing current screening for aneuploidies or carrier screening for recessive disorders.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico por imagem , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Acondroplasia/diagnóstico , Acondroplasia/genética , Acrocefalossindactilia/diagnóstico , Acrocefalossindactilia/genética , Adulto , Osso e Ossos/anormalidades , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Síndrome de Lange/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Lange/genética , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Hidropisia Fetal/diagnóstico por imagem , Hidropisia Fetal/genética , Linfangioma Cístico/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfangioma Cístico/genética , Medição da Translucência Nucal , Osteogênese Imperfeita/diagnóstico , Osteogênese Imperfeita/genética , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Displasia Tanatofórica/diagnóstico , Displasia Tanatofórica/genética , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
12.
Hum Mutat ; 2018 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520571

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing has been instrumental in solving the genetic basis of rare inherited diseases, especially neurodevelopmental syndromes. However, functional workup is essential for precise phenotype definition and to understand the underlying disease mechanisms. Using whole exome and whole genome sequencing in 4 independent families with hypotonia, neurodevelopmental delay, facial dysmorphism, loss of white matter and thinning of the corpus callosum, we identified 4 previously unreported homozygous truncating PPP1R21 alleles: c.347delT p.(Ile116Lysfs*25), c.2170_2171insGGTA p.(Ile724Argfs*8), c.1607dupT p.(Leu536Phefs*7), c.2063delA p.(Lys688Serfs*26) and found that PPP1R21 was absent in fibroblasts of an affected individual, supporting the allele's loss of function effect. PPP1R21 function had not been studied except that a large scale affinity proteomics approach suggested an interaction with PIBF1 defective in Joubert syndrome. Our co-Immunoprecipitation studies did not confirm this but in contrast defined the localization of PPP1R21 to the early endosome. Consistent with the subcellular expression pattern and the clinical phenotype exhibiting features of storage diseases, we found patient fibroblasts exhibited a delay in clearance of transferrin-488 while uptake was normal. In summary, we delineate a novel neurodevelopmental syndrome caused by bi-allelic PPP1R21 loss of function variants, and suggest a role of PPP1R21 within the endosomal sorting process or endosome maturation pathway. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

13.
N Engl J Med ; 379(22): 2131-2139, 2018 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30304647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many patients remain without a diagnosis despite extensive medical evaluation. The Undiagnosed Diseases Network (UDN) was established to apply a multidisciplinary model in the evaluation of the most challenging cases and to identify the biologic characteristics of newly discovered diseases. The UDN, which is funded by the National Institutes of Health, was formed in 2014 as a network of seven clinical sites, two sequencing cores, and a coordinating center. Later, a central biorepository, a metabolomics core, and a model organisms screening center were added. METHODS: We evaluated patients who were referred to the UDN over a period of 20 months. The patients were required to have an undiagnosed condition despite thorough evaluation by a health care provider. We determined the rate of diagnosis among patients who subsequently had a complete evaluation, and we observed the effect of diagnosis on medical care. RESULTS: A total of 1519 patients (53% female) were referred to the UDN, of whom 601 (40%) were accepted for evaluation. Of the accepted patients, 192 (32%) had previously undergone exome sequencing. Symptoms were neurologic in 40% of the applicants, musculoskeletal in 10%, immunologic in 7%, gastrointestinal in 7%, and rheumatologic in 6%. Of the 382 patients who had a complete evaluation, 132 received a diagnosis, yielding a rate of diagnosis of 35%. A total of 15 diagnoses (11%) were made by clinical review alone, and 98 (74%) were made by exome or genome sequencing. Of the diagnoses, 21% led to recommendations regarding changes in therapy, 37% led to changes in diagnostic testing, and 36% led to variant-specific genetic counseling. We defined 31 new syndromes. CONCLUSIONS: The UDN established a diagnosis in 132 of the 382 patients who had a complete evaluation, yielding a rate of diagnosis of 35%. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health Common Fund.).

15.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 5(10): 1277-1285, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349862

RESUMO

De novo variants in DDX3X account for 1-3% of unexplained intellectual disability (ID) cases and are amongst the most common causes of ID especially in females. Forty-seven patients (44 females, 3 males) have been described. We identified 31 additional individuals carrying 29 unique DDX3X variants, including 30 postnatal individuals with complex clinical presentations of developmental delay or ID, and one fetus with abnormal ultrasound findings. Rare or novel phenotypes observed include respiratory problems, congenital heart disease, skeletal muscle mitochondrial DNA depletion, and late-onset neurologic decline. Our findings expand the spectrum of DNA variants and phenotypes associated with DDX3X disorders.

16.
Genome Med ; 10(1): 74, 2018 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30266093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exome sequencing is now being incorporated into clinical care for pediatric and adult populations, but its integration into prenatal diagnosis has been more limited. One reason for this is the paucity of information about the clinical utility of exome sequencing in the prenatal setting. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed indications, results, time to results (turnaround time, TAT), and impact of exome results for 146 consecutive "fetal exomes" performed in a clinical diagnostic laboratory between March 2012 and November 2017. We define a fetal exome as one performed on a sample obtained from a fetus or a product of conception with at least one structural anomaly detected by prenatal imaging or autopsy. Statistical comparisons were performed using Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Prenatal exome yielded an overall molecular diagnostic rate of 32% (n = 46/146). Of the 46 molecular diagnoses, 50% were autosomal dominant disorders (n = 23/46), 41% were autosomal recessive disorders (n = 19/46), and 9% were X-linked disorders (n = 4/46). The molecular diagnostic rate was highest for fetuses with anomalies affecting multiple organ systems and for fetuses with craniofacial anomalies. Out of 146 cases, a prenatal trio exome option designed for ongoing pregnancies was performed on 62 fetal specimens, resulting in a diagnostic yield of 35% with an average TAT of 14 days for initial reporting (excluding tissue culture time). The molecular diagnoses led to refined recurrence risk estimates, altered medical management, and informed reproductive planning for families. CONCLUSION: Exome sequencing is a useful diagnostic tool when fetal structural anomalies suggest a genetic etiology, but other standard prenatal genetic tests did not provide a diagnosis.

17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(1): 154-162, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29961569

RESUMO

TRAF7 is a multi-functional protein involved in diverse signaling pathways and cellular processes. The phenotypic consequence of germline TRAF7 variants remains unclear. Here we report missense variants in TRAF7 in seven unrelated individuals referred for clinical exome sequencing. The seven individuals share substantial phenotypic overlap, with developmental delay, congenital heart defects, limb and digital anomalies, and dysmorphic features emerging as key unifying features. The identified variants are de novo in six individuals and comprise four distinct missense changes, including a c.1964G>A (p.Arg655Gln) variant that is recurrent in four individuals. These variants affect evolutionarily conserved amino acids and are located in key functional domains. Gene-specific mutation rate analysis showed that the occurrence of the de novo variants in TRAF7 (p = 2.6 × 10-3) and the recurrent de novo c.1964G>A (p.Arg655Gln) variant (p = 1.9 × 10-8) in our exome cohort was unlikely to have occurred by chance. In vitro analyses of the observed TRAF7 mutations showed reduced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Our findings suggest that missense mutations in TRAF7 are associated with a multisystem disorder and provide evidence of a role for TRAF7 in human development.

19.
Hum Genet ; 137(3): 257-264, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29556724

RESUMO

PRR12 encodes a proline-rich protein nuclear factor suspected to be involved in neural development. Its nuclear expression in fetal brains and in the vision system supports its role in brain and eye development more specifically. However, its function and potential role in human disease has not been determined. Recently, a de novo t(10;19) (q22.3;q13.33) translocation disrupting the PRR12 gene was detected in a girl with intellectual disability and neuropsychiatric alterations. Here we report on three unrelated patients with heterozygous de novo apparent loss-of-function mutations in PRR12 detected by clinical whole exome sequencing: c.1918G>T (p.Glu640*), c.4502_4505delTGCC (p.Leu1501Argfs*146) and c.903_909dup (p.Pro304Thrfs*46). All three patients had global developmental delay, intellectual disability, eye and vision abnormalities, dysmorphic features, and neuropsychiatric problems. Eye abnormalities were consistent among the three patients and consisted of stellate iris pattern and iris coloboma. Additional variable clinical features included hypotonia, skeletal abnormalities, sleeping problems, and behavioral issues such as autism and anxiety. In summary, we propose that haploinsufficiency of PRR12 is associated with this novel multisystem neurodevelopmental disorder.

20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(4): 973-979, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29423971

RESUMO

SHANK3 encodes for a scaffolding protein that links neurotransmitter receptors to the cytoskeleton and is enriched in postsynaptic densities of excitatory synapses. Deletions or mutations in one copy of the SHANK3 gene cause Phelan-McDermid syndrome, also called 22q13.3 deletion syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder with common features including global developmental delay, absent to severely impaired language, autistic behavior, and minor dysmorphic features. By whole exome sequencing, we identified two de novo novel variants including one frameshift pathogenic variant and one missense variant of unknown significance in a 14-year-old boy with delayed motor milestones, delayed language acquisition, autism, intellectual disability, ataxia, progressively worsening spasticity of the lower extremities, dysmorphic features, short stature, microcephaly, failure to thrive, chronic constipation, intrauterine growth restriction, and bilateral inguinal hernias. Both changes are within the CpG island in exon 21, separated by a 375 bp sequence. Next generation sequencing of PCR products revealed that the two variants are most frequently associated with each other. Sanger sequencing of the cloned PCR products further confirmed that both changes were on a single allele. The clinical presentation in this individual is consistent with other patients with a truncating mutation in exon 21, suggesting that the missense change contributes none or minimally to the phenotypes. This is the first report of two de novo mutations in one SHANK3 allele.

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