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1.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 136, 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low- and Middle-income countries (LMIC) face considerable health and nutrition challenges, many of which can be addressed through strong academic leadership and robust research translated into evidence-based practice. A North-South-South partnership between three universities was established to implement a master's programme in nutritional epidemiology at the Kinshasa School of Public Health (KSPH), Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The partnership aimed to develop academic leadership and research capacity in the field of nutrition in the DRC. In this article we describe the educational approach and processes used, and discuss successes, challenges, and lessons learned. METHODS: Self-administered questionnaires, which included both open and closed questions, were sent to all graduates and students on the master's programme to explore students' experiences and perceptions of all aspects of the educational programme. Quantitative data was analysed using frequencies, and a thematic approach was used to analyse responses to open-ended questions. RESULTS: A two-year master's programme in Nutritional Epidemiology was established in 2014, and 40 students had graduated by 2020. Key elements included using principles of authentic learning, deployment of students for an internship at a rural residential research site, and support of selected students with bursaries. Academic staff from all partner universities participated in teaching and research supervision. The curriculum and teaching approach were well received by most students, although a number of challenges were identified. Most students reported benefits from the rural internship experience but were challenged by the isolation of the rural site, and felt unsupported by their supervisors, undermining students' experiences and potentially the quality of the research. Financial barriers were also reported as challenges by students, even among those who received bursaries. CONCLUSION: The partnership was successful in establishing a Master Programme in Nutritional Epidemiology increasing the number of nutrition researchers in the DRC. This approach could be used in other LMIC settings to address health and nutrition challenges.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3173, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542437

RESUMO

In the ANRS 12174 trial, HIV-exposed uninfected African neonates who received lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r) prophylaxis for 1 year exhibited slower growth from birth to week 50 compared with those receiving lamivudine (3TC). We assessed whether this difference in growth persisted over time, and was accompanied by differences in neuropsychological and clinical outcomes. Between February 2017 and February 2018, we conducted a cross-sectional clinical evaluation among former trial participants who completed the 50-week follow-up and who were not HIV-infected. In addition to clinical examination, neuropsychological outcomes were assessed using the tests Kaufman-ABCII, Test of Variables of Attention, Movement Assessment Battery for Children and the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire, parent version. Of 1101 eligible children, aged 5-7 years, 553 could be traced and analysed (274 in the LPV/r and 279 in the 3TC groups). Growth, clinical and neuropsychological outcomes did not differ between treatment groups. At school age, children exposed to LPV/r and 3TC at birth for 1 year had comparable growth and neuropsychological outcomes without evidence of long-term side-effects of LPV/r. It provides reassuring data on clinical outcomes for all HIV-infected children treated with this antiretroviral drug in early life.

3.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e034770, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109638

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We report the effectiveness of a mentoring approach to improve health workers' (HWs') knowledge, attitudes and confidence with counselling on HIV and infant feeding. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental controlled before-after study. SETTING: Randomly selected primary healthcare clinics (n=24 intervention, n=12 comparison); two districts, South Africa. PARTICIPANTS: All HWs providing infant feeding counselling in selected facilities were invited. INTERVENTIONS: Three 1-2 hours, on-site workshops over 3-6 weeks. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Knowledge (22 binary questions), attitude (21 questions-5-point Likert Scale) and confidence (19 questions-3-point Likert Scale). Individual item responses were added within each of the attitude and confidence domains. The respective sums were taken to be the domain composite index and used as a dependent variable to evaluate intervention effect. Linear regression models were used to estimate the mean score difference between intervention and comparison groups postintervention, adjusting for the mean score difference between them at baseline. Analyses were adjusted for participant baseline characteristics and clustering at health facility level. RESULTS: In intervention and comparison sites, respectively: 289 and 131 baseline and 253 and 114 follow-up interviews were conducted (August-December 2017). At baseline there was no difference in mean number of correctly answered knowledge questions; this differed significantly at follow-up (15.2 in comparison; 17.2 in intervention sites (p<0.001)). At follow-up, the mean attitude and confidence scores towards breast feeding were better in intervention versus comparison sites (p<0.001 and p=0.05, respectively). Controlling for confounders, interactions between time and intervention group and preintervention values, the attitude score was 5.1 points significantly higher in intervention versus comparison groups. CONCLUSION: A participatory, low-intensity on-site mentoring approach to disseminating updated infant feeding guidelines improved HWs' knowledge, attitudes and confidence more than standard dissemination via a circular. Further research is required to evaluate the effectiveness, feasibility and sustainability of this approach at scale.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22352, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has transformed the highly infectious virus to a stable chronic condition, with the advent of Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The longterm effects of HAART on the oral health of children are understudied. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of lopinavir-ritonavir and lamivudine on oral health indicators (dental caries, gingivitis, tooth eruption, and oral health related quality of life) in 5 to 7 year old HIV-1 exposed uninfected children from the ANRS 12174 trial. METHODS: This study used data collected in 2017 among children aged 5 to 7 years from the Ugandan site of the ANRS 12174 randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00640263) implemented between 2009 and 2012 in Mbale district, Eastern Uganda. The intervention was lopinavir-ritonavir or lamuvudine treatment to prevent vertical HIV-1 transmission. One hundred thirty-seven and 139 children were randomized to receive lopinavir-ritonavir or lamivudine treatment at day 7 postpartum to compare efficacy of prevention of vertical HIV-1 transmission. At follow up, the children underwent oral examination using the World Health Organization methods for field conditions. The oral health related quality of life was assessed using the early childhood oral health impact scale. Negative binomial and logistic regression were used for the analysis of data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dental caries, gingivitis, tooth eruption, and oral health related quality of life) in 5 to 7 year old HIV-1 exposed uninfected children. RESULTS: The prevalence of dental caries was 48% in the study sample: 49% in the lopinavir-ritonavir arm and 48% in the lamivudine treatment group. The corresponding mean decayed missing filled teeth and standard deviation was 1.7 (2.4) and 2.3 (3.7) The mean number (standard deviation) of erupted permanent teeth was 3.8 (3.7) and 4.6 (3.9) teeth in the lopinavir- and lamivudine group, respectively. The prevalence of reported impacts on oral health was 7% in the lopinavir-ritonavir and 18% in the lamivudine group. Gingivitis had a prevalence of 7% in the lopinavir-ritonavir and 14% lamivudine treatment group. The regression analysis revealed 70% less reported impacts on oral health in lopinavir-ritonavir group than the lamivudine treatment group with an incidence rate ratio of 0.3 (95% confidence interval: 0.1-0.9). CONCLUSIONS: HIV exposed uninfected infants in the lopinavir-ritonavir group reported less impacts on oral health than the lamivudine treatment group. Dental caries, gingivitis, and tooth eruption were not significantly affected by the treatment lopinavir-ritonavir or lamivudine. TRIAL REGISTRATION CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT00640263.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Lamivudina/farmacologia , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/farmacologia , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Ritonavir/farmacologia , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Erupção Dentária/efeitos dos fármacos , Uganda/epidemiologia
5.
Int Breastfeed J ; 15(1): 43, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months reduces infant morbidity and mortality and can positively impact on cognitive function. In Uganda, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is recommended but many women introduce alternative feeds early. Interventions to scale-up peer support provision for exclusive breastfeeding are limited. We explored the barriers, facilitators and solutions to scaling-up of peer counselling support for exclusive breastfeeding in Uganda. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in Mbale District and Kampala City between April and July 2014. Data were collected through 15 key informant interviews with health workers and managers of organizations involved in child and maternal health as well as seven focus group discussions with peer counsellors who took part in the PROMISE EBF Trial (2006-2008), VHT members, mothers and fathers of children aged 1 year and below. Data were analysed using the content thematic approach. RESULTS: The need for peer support for exclusive breastfeeding, especially for young and first-time mothers, was highlighted by most study participants. While mothers, mothers-in-law, friends and husbands were mentioned as major stakeholders regarding infant feeding, they were perceived to lack adequate information on breastfeeding. Health workers were mentioned as a key source of support, but their constraints of heavy workloads and lack of education materials on breastfeeding were highlighted. High community expectations of peer counsellors, the perceived inadequacy of breast milk, general acceptability of complimentary feeding, household food insecurity, heavy workload for women and unsupportive 'work-places' were key barriers to scaling-up of peer counselling support for breastfeeding. The peer counsellors who were part of the PROMISE EBF trial in Mbale, the village health team programme, health facilities, community groups, the media and professional associations emerged as potential facilitators that can aid the scaling-up of peer counselling support for breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS: Peer support for breastfeeding is highly valued in this setting. The health system and health workers are regarded as the main facilitators to scaling-up of peer support for exclusive breastfeeding. Partnerships with village health teams (VHTs), community groups, role models, professional associations and the media are other potential facilitators to this scaling-up.

6.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 423, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Very few studies consider the oral health status and quality of life in HIV-1 exposed uninfected (HEU) children. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of caries in primary teeth and its oral health related quality of life impacts in HEU children compared to HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) children, whilst adjusting for confounding covariates. METHODS: This study uses data from the Ugandan site of the ANRS 121741 PROMISE- PEP trial (ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00640263) conducted in 2009-2013 that recruited mothers with HIV-1 and their uninfected children. Of 244 HEU-children-caretaker pairs available at the end of the one-year trial, 166 were re-enrolled in the ANRS 12341 PROMISE-PEP M&S study at 5-7 years and 164 were included in this study. These were age and sex-matched with 181 HUU children-caretaker comparators. Caries experience was recorded using World Health Organization's Decayed, Missed and Filled teeth (dmft/DMFT) indices. The Early Childhood Oral health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) was used for assessment of oral health related quality of life. Mixed effects logistic regression was conducted with dmft and ECOHIS scores as outcomes and HIV-1 exposure status as the main exposure. RESULTS: Forty-eight percent of HEU children and 60% of HUU had dmft> 0. Corresponding figures for ECOHIS> 0 were 12% of HEU and 22% of HUU. The crude analysis showed differences related to HIV-1 exposure in caries experience and oral health related quality of life. Mixed effect logistic regression analyses were not significant when adjusted for use of dental care and toothache. If caregivers' DMFT> 0, the adjusted odds ratio for caries experience (dmft> 0) was 1.6 (95% CI: 1.0-2.8) while if dmft> 0 the adjusted odds ratio for quality of life impacts (ECOHIS> 0) was 4.6 (95% CI: 2.0-10.6). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of untreated caries in primary teeth and quality of life impacts was high in this study population. HIV-1 exposed uninfected children were not more likely than HUU children to experience dental caries or have impaired oral health related quality of life. Given the global expansion of the HEU child population, the present findings indicating no adverse effect of pre- and post-natal HIV-1 exposure on caries in deciduous teeth are reassuring.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , HIV-1 , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Estudos de Coortes , Cárie Dentária/virologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Uganda/epidemiologia
7.
Matern Child Nutr ; 16(1): e12877, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339648

RESUMO

Breastfeeding education and support are critical health worker skills. Confusion surrounding infant feeding advice linked to the HIV epidemic has reduced the confidence of health workers to support breastfeeding. High antiretroviral therapy coverage of breastfeeding women living with HIV, and an Infant Feeding policy supportive of breastfeeding, now provides an opportunity to improve breastfeeding practices. Challenges remain in restoring health worker confidence to support breastfeeding. This qualitative study presents findings from focus group discussions with mothers of young infants, exploring their experiences of health worker breastfeeding counselling and support. Analysis followed the thematic framework approach. Six researchers reviewed the transcripts, coded them independently, then jointly reviewed the codes, and agreed on a working analytical framework. Although mothers received antenatal breastfeeding messages, these appeared to focus rigidly on the importance of exclusivity. Mothers described receiving some practical support with initiation of breastfeeding after delivery, but support and advice for post-natal breastfeeding challenges were often incorrect or absent. The support also ignored the context in which women make infant feeding decisions, including returning to work and pressures from family members. Despite improved breastfeeding policies, restoring confidence in health workers to support breastfeeding remains a challenge. The post-natal period, when mothers experience breastfeeding difficulties, is particularly critical, and our findings reinforce the importance of continuity of care between communities and health facilities. This research has implications for how health workers are trained to support breastfeeding. Greater attention is needed on developing skills and confidence in identifying, assessing, and supporting women experiencing breastfeeding challenges.

8.
Matern Child Nutr ; 16(2): e12922, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845538

RESUMO

Clinical guidelines are used to translate research findings into evidence-based clinical practice but are frequently not comprehensively adopted by health workers (HWs). HIV and infant feeding guidelines were revised by the World Health Organization to align feeding advice for HIV-exposed and unexposed infants, and these were adopted in South Africa in 2017. We describe an innovative, team-based, mentoring programme developed to update HWs on these guidelines. The intervention was underpinned by strong theoretical frameworks and aimed to improve HWs' attitudes, knowledge, confidence, and skills about breastfeeding in the context of HIV. On-site workshops and clinical mentoring used interactive participatory methods and a simple low-tech approach, guided by participants' self-reported knowledge gaps. Workshops were conducted at 24 participating clinics over three sessions, each lasting 1-2 hr. Evaluation data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Of 303 participating HWs, 249/303 (82.2%) attended all workshops. Achieving high workshop attendance was challenging and "catch-up" sessions were required to achieve good coverage. Common knowledge gaps identified included antiretroviral therapy adherence monitoring during breastfeeding and management of viral load results (173 participants), management of breast conditions (79), and advice about expressing and storing breastmilk (64). Most participants reported all their knowledge gaps were addressed and anticipated that their practice would change. We describe a feasible, sustainable approach to updating HWs on HIV and infant feeding guidelines and improving skills in breastfeeding counselling in resource-constrained settings. This approach could be adapted to other topics and, with further evaluation, implemented at scale using existing resources.

9.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980806

RESUMO

Since there is no doubt concerning the superiority of breastfeeding compared to other forms of infant feeding, the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding up to six months and continued breastfeeding up to two years and beyond are again embraced at the highest global nutrition agenda. The latest is the United Nations decade of action on nutrition 2016-2025, building on research results and the work by the World Health Organization (WHO) over the last two decades, and extensive societal, clinical, and academic discussions in the field of breastfeeding.While the discussion was about the optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding around the millennium shift, the focus is on the most effective measures for the promotion and protection of breastfeeding. Contemporary breastfeeding rates are well behind the goals. In sub-Saharan Africa, almost all infants are breastfed, while exclusive breastfeeding is more seldom and not sufficient. Africa, being a vast and diverse continent with a myriad of cultural practices, has had some shared attitudes ranging from the west to east regarding views on motherhood, body fluids, including milk, infant feeding, and responsible others.The region still faces high maternal HIV infection rates and high infant and child mortality rates. However, due to effective antiretroviral therapies, it is now possible and safe for women living with HIV to breastfeed their infants and to ensure them HIV-free survival. However, there is need for improvement regarding availability, compliance, and adherence to these drugs. Research gaps include the long-term effects of antiretroviral therapy on the growth, health, and development of the exposed children.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Promoção da Saúde , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Cooperação do Paciente , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , África ao Sul do Saara , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Organização Mundial da Saúde
10.
BMJ Open ; 8(4): e019239, 2018 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29626043

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We have assessed HIV-1 disease progression among HIV-1-positive mothers in relation to duration of any or exclusive breast feeding in the context of ANRS 12174 trial. METHODS: The analysis was completed on 203, 212, 272 and 529 HIV-1-positive and lactating mothers with CD4 count >350 cells/µL from Burkina Faso, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia, respectively. The trial compared lamivudine and lopinavir/ritonavir as a peri-exposure prophylaxis during a 50-week follow-up time. A multiple logistic regression model was run with the mothers' weight, CD4 count and HIV-1 viral load as separate dependent variables, then combined into a dependent composite endpoint called HIV-1 disease progression where HIV-1 viral load was replaced by the HIV-1 clinical stage. Exclusive or predominant breast feeding (EPBF) and any breastfeeding duration were the key explanatory variables. RESULTS: In the adjusted model, the associations between EPBF duration and weight change, CD4 cell count and the HIV-1 viral load were consistently insignificant. The CD4 cell count was associated with a significantly higher mothers' body mass index (BMI; a mean increase of 4.9 (95% CI 2.1 to 7.7) CD4 cells/µL per each additional kilogram per square metre of BMI) and haemoglobin concentration (19.4 (95% CI 11.4 to 27.4) CD4 cells/µL per each additional gram per decilitre of haemoglobin concentration). There was no significant association between EPBF duration and HIV-1 disease progression. A higher education level was a factor associated with a slower HIV-1 disease progression. CONCLUSION: Breast feeding was not a risk factor for a faster progression of HIV-1 disease in mothers of this cohort with a baseline CD4 cell count >350 cells/µL. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT0064026; Post-results.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Infecções por HIV , Adolescente , Burkina Faso , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1 , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Lactação , Londres , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul , Uganda , Zâmbia
12.
PLoS One ; 12(5): e0177259, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28486519

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Breastfeeding is recommended for infants born to HIV-infected women in low-income settings. Both breastfeeding and HIV-infection are energy demanding. Our objective was to explore how exclusive and predominant breastfeeding changes body mass index (BMI) among breastfeeding HIV1-positive women participating in the ANRS12174 trial (clinical trial no NCT0064026). METHODS: HIV-positive women (n = 1 267) with CD4 count >350, intending to breastfeed HIV-negative infants were enrolled from Burkina Faso, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia and counselled on breastfeeding. N = 1 216 were included in the analysis. The trial compared Lamivudine and Lopinavir/Ritonavir as a peri-exposure prophylaxis. We ran a linear mixed-effect model with BMI as the dependent variable and exclusive or predominant breastfeeding duration as the key explanatory variable. RESULTS: Any breastfeeding or exclusive/predominant) breastfeeding was initiated by 99.6% and 98.6% of the mothers respectively in the first week after birth. The median (interquartile range: IQR) duration of the group that did any breastfeeding or the group that did exclusive /predominant breastfeeding were 9.5 (7.5; 10.6) and 5.8 (5.6; 5.9)) months, respectively. The median (IQR) age, BMI, CD4 count, and HIV viral load at baseline (day 7) were 27 (23.3; 31) years, 23.7 (21.3; 27.0) kg/m2, 530 (432.5; 668.5) cells/µl and 0.1 (0.8; 13.7)1000 copies/mL, respectively. No major change in mean BMI was seen in this cohort over a 50-week period during lactation. The mean change between 26 and 50 weeks after birth was 0.7 kg/m2. Baseline mean BMI (measured on day 7 postpartum) and CD4 count were positively associated with maternal BMI change, with a mean increase of 1.0 kg/m2 (0.9; 1.0) per each additional baseline-BMI kilogram and 0.3 kg/m2 (0.2; 0.5) for each additional CD4 cell/µl, respectively. CONCLUSION: Breastfeeding was not negatively correlated with the BMI of HIV-1 infected Sub-Saharan African mothers. However, a higher baseline BMI and a CD4 count >500 cells/µl were associated with maternal BMI during the exclusive/ predominant breastfeeding period. Considering the benefits of breast milk for the infants and the recurrent results from different studies that breastfeeding is not harmful to the HIV-1-infected mothers, this study also supports the WHO 2016 guidelines on infant feeding that mothers living with HIV should breastfeed where formula is not safe for at least 12 months and up to 24 months, given that the right treatment or prophylaxis for the infection is administered. These findings and conclusions cannot be extrapolated to women who are immune-compromised or have AIDS.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Aleitamento Materno , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Burkina Faso , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , África do Sul , Uganda , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia
13.
Int Breastfeed J ; 12: 22, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28469697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV-1 transmission rates have been reduced over the last decade, an estimated 2 million new infections per year arise, including 220,000 paediatric cases. The main post-natal HIV exposure is through breastfeeding, where both its duration and modality (exclusive or not) are associated with postnatal transmission. The ANRS 12174 trial compared HIV-1 postnatal transmission of 2 prophylaxis drugs for infants during lactation (lamivudine and lopinavir-ritonavir). Our objective has been to examine the feeding practices and the determinants of exclusive/ predominant (EPBF) or any breastfeeding among the participants of this trial in Burkina Faso, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia. METHODS: Mothers infected with HIV-1 and their uninfected offspring were followed from day 7 after birth for 50 weeks, keeping monthly records of their feeding patterns. Feeding was classified into 3 categories: 1) exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months, only breast-milk being given to infant for 6 months, 2) predominant breastfeeding, breast-milk with liquid-based items being given, and 3) mixed feeding, other non-breast milk or solid food being given in addition to breast milk with or without liquid-based items. The categories were merged into 2 groups: EPBF applying to infants aged <6 months and mixed feeding applying to infants of any age. The feeding patterns have been given as Kaplan-Meier curves. A flexible parametric multiple regression model was used to identify the determinants of the mothers' feeding behaviour. RESULTS: A total of 1,225 mother-infant pairs provided feeding data from Burkina Faso (N = 204), South Africa (N = 213), Uganda (N = 274) and Zambia (N = 534) between November 2009 and March 2013. The mean maternal age was 27.4 years and the mean BMI was 24.5. 57.7 and 93.9% of mothers initiated breastfeeding within the first hour and first day, respectively. Overall, the median durations of any form of breastfeeding and EPBF were 40.6, and 20.9 weeks, respectively. Babies randomized to the lopinavir/ritonavir group in South Africa tended to do less EPBF than those in the lamivudine group. Overall the group of mothers aged between 25 and 30 years, those married, employed or multiparous tended to stop early EPBF. Mothers living in Uganda or Zambia, those aged between 25 -30 years, better educated (at least secondary school level), employed or having undergone C-section stopped any breastfeeding early. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to improve breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices of children, particularly those exposed to HIV and anti-retrovirals, taking into account context and socio-demographic factors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trial registration: NCT00640263.

14.
Lancet ; 387(10018): 566-573, 2016 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26603917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strategies to prevent postnatal mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Africa, including infant prophylaxis, have never been assessed past 6 months of breastfeeding, despite breastfeeding being recommended up to 12 months after birth. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of infant prophylaxis with the two drug regimens (lamivudine or lopinavir-ritonavir) to prevent postnatal HIV-1 transmission up to 50 weeks of breastfeeding. METHODS: We did a randomised controlled trial in four sites in Burkina Faso, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia in children born to HIV-1-infected mothers not eligible for antiretroviral therapy (CD4 count >350 cells per µL). An independent researcher electronically generated a randomisation schedule; we then used sequentially numbered envelopes to randomly assign (1:1) HIV-1-uninfected breastfed infants aged 7 days to either lopinavir-ritonavir or lamivudine (paediatric liquid formulations, twice a day) up to 1 week after complete cessation of breastfeeding or at the final visit at week 50. We stratified the randomisation by country and used permuted blocks of four and six. We used a study label on drug bottles to mask participants, study physicians, and assessors to the treatment allocation. The primary outcome was infant HIV-1 infection between age 7 days and 50 weeks, diagnosed every 3 months with HIV-1 DNA PCR, in the modified intention-to-treat population (all who attended at least one follow-up visit). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00640263. FINDINGS: Between Nov 16, 2009, and May 7, 2012, we enrolled and randomised 1273 infants and analysed 1236; 615 assigned to lopinavir-ritonavir or 621 assigned to lamivudine. 17 HIV-1 infections were diagnosed in the study period (eight in the lopinavir-ritonavir group and nine in the lamivudine group), resulting in cumulative HIV-1 infection of 1.4% (95% CI 0.4-2.5) and 1.5% (0.7-2.5), respectively. Infection rates did not differ between the two drug regimens (hazard ratio [HR] of lopinavir-ritonavir versus lamivudine of 0.90, 95% CI 0.35-2.34; p=0.83). Clinical and biological severe adverse events did not differ between groups; 251 (51%) infants had a grade 3-4 event in the lopinavir-ritonavir group compared with 246 (50%) in the lamivudine group. INTERPRETATION: Infant HIV-1 prophylaxis with lopinavir-ritonavir was not superior to lamivudine and both drugs led to very low rates of HIV-1 postnatal transmission for up to 50 weeks of breastfeeding. Infant pre-exposure prophylaxis should be extended until the end of HIV-1 exposure and mothers should be informed about the persistent risk of transmission throughout breastfeeding. FUNDING: INSERM/National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis (including funds from the Total Foundation), European Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership, Research Council of Norway.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Aleitamento Materno , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , HIV-1 , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , África ao Sul do Saara , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Lamivudina/administração & dosagem , Lopinavir/administração & dosagem , Ritonavir/administração & dosagem
15.
PLoS One ; 10(11): e0142718, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26619338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community based breastfeeding promotion programmes have been shown to be effective in increasing breastfeeding prevalence. However, there is limited data on the cost-effectiveness of these programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper evaluates the cost-effectiveness of a breastfeeding promotion intervention targeting mothers and their 0 to 6 month old children. METHODS: Data were obtained from a community randomized trial conducted in Uganda between 2006-2008, and supplemented with evidence from several studies in sub-Saharan Africa. In the trial, peer counselling was offered to women in intervention clusters. In the control and intervention clusters, women could access standard health facility breastfeeding promotion services (HFP). Thus, two methods of breastfeeding promotion were compared: community based peer counselling (in addition to HFP) and standard HFP alone. A Markov model was used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios between the two strategies. The model estimated changes in breastfeeding prevalence and disability adjusted life years. Costs were estimated from a provider perspective. Uncertainty around the results was characterized using one-way sensitivity analyses and a probabilistic sensitivity analysis. FINDINGS: Peer counselling more than doubled the breastfeeding prevalence as reported by mothers, but there was no observable impact on diarrhoea prevalence. Estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were US$68 per month of exclusive or predominant breastfeeding and U$11,353 per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted. The findings were robust to parameter variations in the sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our strategy to promote community based peer counselling is unlikely to be cost-effective in reducing diarrhoea prevalence and mortality in Uganda, because its cost per DALY averted far exceeds the commonly assumed willingness-to-pay threshold of three times Uganda's GDP per capita (US$1653). However, since the intervention significantly increases prevalence of exclusive or predominant breastfeeding, it could be adopted in Uganda if benefits other than reducing the occurrence of diarrhoea are believed to be important.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Aconselhamento/economia , Adulto , Aconselhamento/métodos , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães/educação , Grupo Associado , Uganda
16.
Trop Med Int Health ; 19(10): 1162-9, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25053420

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report on risk factors for severe events (hospitalisation or infant death) within the first half of infancy amongst HIV-unexposed infants in South Africa. METHODS: South African data from the multisite community-based cluster-randomised trial PROMISE EBF promoting exclusive breastfeeding in three sub-Saharan countries from 2006 to 2008 were used. The South African sites were Paarl in the Western Cape Province, and Umlazi and Rietvlei in KwaZulu-Natal. This analysis included 964 HIV-negative mother-infant pairs. Data on severe events and infant feeding practices were collected at 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks post-partum. We used a stratified extended Cox model to examine the association between the time to the severe event and covariates including birthweight, with breastfeeding status as a time-dependent covariate. RESULTS: Seventy infants (7%) experienced a severe event. The median age at first hospitalisation was 8 weeks, and the two main reasons for hospitalisation were cough and difficult breathing followed by diarrhoea. Stopping breastfeeding before 6 months (HR 2.4; 95% CI 1.2-5.1) and low birthweight (HR 2.4; 95% CI 1.3-4.3) were found to increase the risk of a severe event, whilst maternal completion of high school education was protective (HR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.7). CONCLUSIONS: A strengthened primary healthcare system incorporating promotion of breastfeeding and appropriate caring practices for low birthweight infants (such as kangaroo mother care) are critical. Given the leading reasons for hospitalisation, early administration of oral rehydration therapy and treatment of suspected pneumonia are key interventions needed to prevent hospitalisation in young infants.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Aleitamento Materno , Diarreia , Hospitalização , Transtornos Respiratórios , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Escolaridade , HIV , Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 14: 111, 2014 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24602169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies on vaccination coverage in developing countries focus on individual- and community-level barriers to routine vaccination mostly in rural settings. This paper examines health system barriers to childhood immunisation in urban Kampala Uganda. METHODS: Mixed methods were employed with a survey among child caretakers, 9 focus group discussions (FGDs), and 9 key informant interviews (KIIs). Survey data underwent descriptive statistical analysis. Latent content analysis was used for qualitative data. RESULTS: Of the 821 respondents in the survey, 96% (785/821) were mothers with a mean age of 26 years (95% CI 24-27). Poor geographical access to immunisation facilities was reported in this urban setting by FGDs, KIIs and survey respondents (24%, 95% CI 21-27). This coupled with reports of few health workers providing immunisation services led to long queues and long waiting times at facilities. Consumers reported waiting for 3-6 hours before receipt of services although this was more common at public facilities. Only 33% (95% CI 30-37) of survey respondents were willing to wait for three or more hours before receipt of services. Although private-for-profit facilities were engaged in immunisation service provision their participation was low as only 30% (95% CI 27-34) of the survey respondents utilised these facilities. The low participation could be due to lack of financial support for immunisation activities at these facilities. This in turn could explain the rampant informal charges for services in this setting. Charges ranged from US$ 0.2 to US$4 and these were more commonly reported at private (70%, 95% CI 65-76) than at public (58%, 95% CI 54-63) facilities. There were intermittent availability of vaccines and transport for immunisation services at both private and public facilities. CONCLUSIONS: Complex health system barriers to childhood immunisation still exist in this urban setting; emphasizing that even in urban areas with great physical access, there are hard to reach people. As the rate of urbanization increases especially in sub-Saharan Africa, governments should strengthen health systems to cater for increasing urban populations.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Serviços Urbanos de Saúde/organização & administração , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/normas , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Uganda/epidemiologia , Serviços Urbanos de Saúde/normas
18.
Am J Epidemiol ; 177(5): 453-62, 2013 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23384876

RESUMO

Infant feeding studies are typically presented as single-event models, without considering the dynamic nature of feeding. We analyzed the determinants of infant feeding duration using both single- and multiple-event Cox regression models. The Cox model was compared with parametric survival models, which were used to estimate feeding-state transition probabilities. Data were taken from a community randomized trial promoting exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in Uganda from 2005 to 2008. Peer counselors visited intervention mothers once antenatally and 4 times after birth. Results showed that children in the control group were more likely to be switched from exclusive breastfeeding (EBF)/predominant breastfeeding (PBF) to mixed feeding (MF)/replacement feeding (RF). Children in intervention clusters (hazard ratio = 0.33, 95% confidence interval: 0.26, 0.42) and rural areas (hazard ratio = 0.79, 95% confidence interval: 0.63, 0.99) had a lower risk of EBF/PBF cessation. Based on the Akaike Information Criterion, parametric models were better fitted than the Cox model. The analytical approach to assessing infant feeding duration used in this study takes into account transitions between feeding categories, allowing for multiple events. This will enhance understanding of infant feeding practices and give policy-makers a better picture of the versatility of infant feeding.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar/classificação , Cadeias de Markov , Análise de Sobrevida , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Uganda
19.
BMC Pediatr ; 12: 105, 2012 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22827969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is a critical component of interventions to reduce child mortality. Exclusive breastfeeding practice is extremely low in South Africa and there has been no improvement in this over the past ten years largely due to fears of HIV transmission. Early cessation of breastfeeding has been found to have negative effects on child morbidity and survival in several studies in Africa. This paper reports on determinants of early breastfeeding cessation among women in South Africa. METHODS: This is a sub group analysis of a community-based cluster-randomized trial (PROMISE EBF) promoting exclusive breastfeeding in three South African sites (Paarl in the Western Cape Province, and Umlazi and Rietvlei in KwaZulu-Natal) between 2006 and 2008 (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00397150). Infant feeding recall of 22 food and fluid items was collected at 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks postpartum. Women's experiences of breast health problems were also collected at the same time points. 999 women who ever breastfed were included in the analysis. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusting for site, arm and cluster, was performed to determine predictors of stopping breastfeeding by 12 weeks postpartum. RESULTS: By 12 weeks postpartum, 20% of HIV-negative women and 40% of HIV-positive women had stopped all breastfeeding. About a third of women introduced other fluids, most commonly formula milk, within the first 3 days after birth. Antenatal intention not to breastfeed and being undecided about how to feed were most strongly associated with stopping breastfeeding by 12 weeks (Adjusted odds ratio, AOR 5.6, 95% CI 3.4 - 9.5 and AOR 4.1, 95% CI 1.6 - 10.8, respectively). Also important was self-reported breast health problems associated with a 3-fold risk of stopping breastfeeding (AOR 3.1, 95%CI 1.7 - 5.7) and the mother having her own income doubled the risk of stopping breastfeeding (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3 - 2.8). CONCLUSION: Early cessation of breastfeeding is common amongst both HIV-negative and positive women in South Africa. There is an urgent need to improve antenatal breastfeeding counselling taking into account the challenges faced by working women as well as early postnatal lactation support to prevent breast health problems.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Bem-Estar da Criança , Bem-Estar do Lactente , Comportamento Materno , Adulto , Doenças Mamárias , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Análise Multivariada , Fatores Socioeconômicos , África do Sul , Fatores de Tempo
20.
PLoS One ; 7(4): e35432, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22539972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Child survival is dependent on several factors including high vaccination coverage. Timely receipt of vaccines ensures optimal immune response to the vaccines. Yet timeliness is not usually emphasized in estimating population immunity. In addition to examining timeliness of the recommended Expanded Programme for Immunisation (EPI) vaccines, this paper identifies predictors of untimely vaccination among children aged 10 to 23 months in Kampala. METHODS: In addition to the household survey interview questions, additional data sources for variables included data collection of child's weight and length. Vaccination dates were obtained from child health cards. Timeliness of vaccinations were assessed with Kaplan-Meier time-to-event analysis for each vaccine based on the following time ranges (lowest-highest target age): BCG (birth-8 weeks), polio 0 (birth-4 weeks), three polio and three pentavalent vaccines (4 weeks-2 months; 8 weeks-4 months; 12 weeks-6 months) and measles vaccine (38 weeks-12 months). Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with vaccination timeliness. RESULTS: About half of 821 children received all vaccines within the recommended time ranges (45.6%; 95% CI 39.8-51.2). Timely receipt of vaccinations was lowest for measles (67.5%; 95% CI 60.5-73.8) and highest for BCG vaccine (92.7%: 95% CI 88.1-95.6). For measles, 10.7% (95% CI 6.8-16.4) of the vaccinations were administered earlier than the recommended time. Vaccinations that were not received within the recommended age ranges were associated with increasing number of children per woman (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR); 1.84, 95% CI 1.29-2.64), non-delivery at health facilities (AHR 1.58, 95% CI 1.02-2.46), being unmarried (AHR 1.49, 95% CI 1.15-1.94) or being in the lowest wealth quintile (AHR 1.38, 95% CI 1.11-1.72). CONCLUSIONS: Strategies to improve vaccination practices among the poorest, single, multiparous women and among mothers who do not deliver at health facilities are necessary to improve timeliness of vaccinations.


Assuntos
Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Entrevistas como Assunto , Vacina contra Sarampo/imunologia , Mães/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Uganda
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