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1.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801005

RESUMO

Iron deficiency (ID), the leading cause of anemia and the most common nutritional deficiency globally, is not well reported among children in malaria-endemic settings, and little is known about its contribution to anemia in these settings. We aimed to assess the prevalence of anemia, the role of ID using multiple parameters, and the factors associated with anemia in a malaria-endemic rural area. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study of 432 children aged 1-5 years from the Popokabaka Health Zone, Democratic Republic of Congo. Sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, anthropometric parameters, and biochemical parameters were considered. Hemoglobin and malaria prevalence were assessed using rapid finger-prick capillary blood testing in the field. Venous blood samples were analyzed for serum ferritin, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in a laboratory. Anemia was found in 294 out of 432 (68%) patients. Malaria was found in 375 out of 432 (87%), and ID in 1.8% according to diagnosis by adjusted ferritin only and in 12.9% according to transferrin saturation. ID indicators were not significantly correlated with low hemoglobin levels. Malaria, fever, and CRP > 5 mg/L were major factors associated with anemia in Popokabaka. Anemia control should focus on treating inflammatory conditions and infectious diseases among children in such settings.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239192, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated iron-rich plant-based foods, such as amaranth grain, to reduce anemia and iron deficiency anemia. Amaranth is rich in nutrients, but with high level of phytate. The objective of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of home processed amaranth grain containing bread in the treatment of anemia, hemoglobin concentration and iron deficiency anemia among two-to-five year-old children in Southern Ethiopia. METHOD: Children with anemia (hemoglobin concentration <110.0g/L) (N = 100) were identified by random sampling and enrolled in a 1:1 cluster randomized controlled trial for six months in 2017. The amaranth group (N = 50), received 150g bread containing 70% amaranth and 30% chickpea, the amaranth grain was processed at home (soaking, germinating, and fermenting) to decrease the phytate level. The maize group (N = 50), received 150g bread, containing processed maize (roasted and fermented) to give a similar color and structure with amaranth bread. Hemoglobin, ferritin, and CRP were measured at baseline and at the end of intervention. Hemoglobin and ferritin values were adjusted for altitude and infection, respectively. Generalized estimating equation and generalized linear model were used to analyze the data. RESULT: In the last follow-up measure anemia prevalence was significantly lower in the amaranth group (32%) as compared with the maize group (56%) [adjusted risk ratios, aRR: 0.39 (95%CI: 0.16-0.77)]. Hemoglobin concentration estimate of beta coefficient was significantly higher in the amaranth group compared with the maize group [aß 8.9g/L (95%CI: 3.5-14.3)], p-value <0.01. The risk of iron deficiency anemia is significantly lower in the amaranth group [aRR: 0.44 (95%CI: 0.23-0.83)] in the intention to treat analysis but not significant in the complete case analysis. There was no significant difference between groups in iron deficiency [aRR: 0.81 (95%CI: 0.55-1.19)]. CONCLUSION: Processed amaranth bread had favorable effects on hemoglobin concentration and has the potential to minimize anemia prevalence. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registry number: PACTR201705002283263 https://pactr.samrc.ac.za/TrialDisplay.aspx?TrialID=2283.


Assuntos
Amaranthus , Anemia Ferropriva/dietoterapia , Pão , Ferro/metabolismo , Zea mays , Pré-Escolar , Suplementos Nutricionais , Etiópia , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Alimentos Fortificados , Alimento Funcional , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Ferro/deficiência , Masculino
3.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203436, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30183764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to study the effects of schooling on aspects of attention using the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) among children in rural Burkina Faso. METHODS: We re-enrolled children of a previously community-based cluster randomized exclusive breastfeeding trial in rural Burkina Faso. A total of 534 children (280 boys and 254 girls) aged 6 to 8 years were assessed using the TOVA. We examined the effect size difference using Cohen's d, ANOVA and conducted regression analyses. RESULTS: Forty nine percent of the children were in school. Children not in school performed poorly with a small effect size difference for 'Response Time', 'Errors of omission', and 'Errors of commission' compared to children in school. The effect size difference was moderate for 'Response Time Variability', and 'D prime score'. CONCLUSION: Schooling affects different aspects of attention in rural Burkina Faso. In settings where literacy and schooling rate is low, public sensitizations of the benefits of schooling need to be reinforced and advice on sending children to school need to be provided continuously.


Assuntos
Atenção , População Rural , Instituições Acadêmicas , Burkina Faso , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29930702

RESUMO

Background: In Burkina Faso, stunting affects children and is a public health problem. We studied the association between stunting and child's neuro-psychological outcomes at 6-8 years of age in rural Burkina Faso using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd edition (KABC-II), the Children's Category Test 1 (CCT-1) and the Test of Variable of Attention (TOVA). Methods: We re-enrolled children of a previously community-based Exclusive breastfeeding trial in Burkina Faso. We assessed a total of 532 children aged 6-8 years using KABC-II for memory (Atlantis and Number Recall subtests), spatial abilities (Conceptual Thinking, Face Recognition and Triangle subtests), reasoning (Block Counting subtest), general cognition and CCT-1 for cognitive flexibility. A total 513 children were assessed using the TOVA to measure attention and inhibition. We calculated the Cohen's d to examine the effect size and conducted a linear regression to examine the association. Results: The proportion of stunting was 15.6% (83/532). Stunted children performed significantly poorer for memory (Atlantis and Number Recall), spatial abilities (Conceptual Thinking, Face Recognition and Triangle), general cognition and attention with a small effect size compared to non-stunted children. Children who were exposed scored significantly higher errors for cognitive flexibility and inhibition with a small effect size compared to unexposed children. At standardized and unstandardized multivariable regression analysis, stunted children performed significantly poorer for Atlantis (p = 0.001), Number Recall (p = 0.02), Conceptual Thinking (p = 0.01), Triangle (p = 0.001), general cognition (p ≤ 0.0001) and attention (p = 0.04) compared to non-stunted children. Children who were exposed scored significantly higher errors for cognitive flexibility (p = 0.02) and for inhibition (p = 0.02) compared to unexposed children. We adjusted all the results for age, schooling, sex, playing, father education, mother employment and promotion of previous exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusion: Stunting is associated with poorer neuro-psychological outcomes among children in rural Burkina Faso. Initiatives related to prevention need to be established and advice on nutrition need to be provided.

5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 258, 2018 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29631632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early identification and management of mental illness in childhood and adolescence helps to avert debilitating mental illness in adulthood but the attention given to Child and Adolescent Mental Health (CAMH) has until recently been low. Traditional healers are often consulted by patients with mental illness and in Uganda, up to 60% of patients attending traditional healers have moderate to severe mental illness. Poor access to CAMH care in Uganda creates a treatment gap that could be met through enhanced collaboration between traditional healers and biomedical health systems. The aim of this study was to explore traditional healers' views on their collaboration with biomedical health systems so as to inform the implementation of strategies to improve access to CAMH services in Uganda. METHODS: In-depth interviews with 20 purposively selected traditional healers were conducted in November 2015. A semi-structured interview guide was used to explore: 1) The experiences of traditional healers with mental ill-health in children and adolescents; 2) their willingness to collaborate with the formal health system; and 3) their perception of clinicians' willingness to collaborate with them. Interviews were conducted in local languages and tape recorded. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Traditional healers described several experiences managing children and adolescents with mental illness, which they ascribed to spiritual and physical causes. The spiritual explanations were a consequence of unhappy ancestral spirits, modern religions and witchcraft, while physical causes mentioned included substance abuse and fevers. No traditional healer had received a patient referred to them from a medical clinic although all had referred patients to clinics for non-mental health reasons. Traditional healers expressed distrust in biomedical health systems and believed their treatments were superior to medical therapies in alleviating mental suffering. They expressed willingness to collaborate with biomedical providers. However, traditional healers believe clinicians disregard them and would not be willing to collaborate with them. CONCLUSION: Potential for collaboration between traditional healers and biomedical health systems for improving access to CAMH services in Uganda exists, but is undermined by mutual mistrust and competition between traditional healers and clinicians.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Uganda
6.
PeerJ ; 5: e3507, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28674660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Burkina Faso, it is not uncommon for mothers to drink alcohol, even during pregnancy. We aimed to study the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the child's cognitive performance using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd edition (KABC-II) and the Children's Category Test Level 1 (CCT-1) in rural Burkina Faso. METHODS: We conducted a follow-up study of a community cluster-randomised Exclusive breastfeeding trial, and re-enrolled the children in rural Burkina Faso. A total of 518 children (268 boys and 250 girls) aged 6-8 years were assessed using the KABC-II and the CCT-1. We examined the effect size difference using Cohen's d and conducted a linear regression analysis to examine the association. RESULTS: Self-reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy was 18.5% (96/518). Children whose mothers reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy performed significantly poorly for memory and spatial abilities tests from small effect size difference for 'Atlantis' (0.27) and 'Triangle' (0.29) to moderate effect size difference for 'Number recall' (0.72) compared to children whose mothers did not consume alcohol during pregnancy; the exposed children scored significantly higher errors with a small effect size (0.37) at problem solving (CCT-1) test compared to unexposed children. At unstandardized and standardized multivariable analysis, children whose mothers reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy performed significantly poorer for memory-'Atlantis' (p = 0.03) and 'Number recall' (p = 0.0001), and spatial ability tests-'Triangle' (p = 0.03); they scored significantly higher errors at problem solving CCT-1 test (p = 0.002); all the results were adjusted for age, sex, schooling, stunting, father's education, mother's employment and the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding. No statistical association was found for visual abilities-'Conceptual Thinking', 'Face recognition', 'Story completion', and reasoning tests-'Rover', 'Block counting', and 'Pattern Reasoning'. CONCLUSION: Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy is associated with poorer cognitive performance for memory, spatial ability, and problem solving tests in the offspring in rural Burkina Faso. Futures studies needs to assess in more detail the maternal alcohol consumption patterns in Burkina Faso and possible preventive strategies.

7.
Int Breastfeed J ; 9: 19, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25784955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immediate and exclusive initiation of breastfeeding after delivery has been associated with better neonatal survival and child health and are recommended by the WHO. We report its impact on early infant feeding practices from the PROMISE-EBF trial. METHODS: PROMISE-EBF was a cluster randomised behaviour change intervention trial of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) promotion by peer counsellors in Burkina Faso, Uganda and South Africa implemented during 2006-2008 among 2579 mother-infant pairs. Counselling started in the last pregnancy trimester and mothers were offered at least five postnatal visits. Early infant feeding practices: use of prelacteal feeds (any foods or drinks other than breast milk given within the first 3 days), expressing and discarding colostrum, and timing of initiation of breastfeeding are presented by trial arm in each country. Prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) are given. RESULTS: The proportion of women who gave prelacteal feeds in the intervention and control arms were, respectively: 11% and 36%, PR 0.3 (95% CI 0.2, 0.6) in Burkina Faso, 13% and 44%, PR 0.3 (95% CI 0.2, 0.5) in Uganda and 30% and 33%, PR 0.9 (95% CI 0.6, 1.3) in South Africa. While the majority gave colostrum, the proportion of those who expressed and discarded it in the intervention and control arms were: 8% and 12%, PR 0.7 (95% CI 0.3, 1.6) in Burkina Faso, 3% and 10%, PR 0.3 (95% CI 0.1, 0.6) in Uganda and 17% and 16%, PR 1.1 (95% CI 0.6, 2.1) in South Africa. Only a minority in Burkina Faso (<4%) and roughly half in South Africa initiated breastfeeding within the first hour with no large or statistically significant differences between the trial arms, whilst in Uganda the proportion of early initiation of breastfeeding in the intervention and control arms were: 55% and 41%, PR 0.8 (95% CI 0.7, 0.9). CONCLUSIONS: The PROMISE-EBF trial showed that the intervention led to less prelacteal feeding in Burkina Faso and Uganda. More children received colostrum and started breastfeeding early in the intervention arm in Uganda. Late breastfeeding initiation continues to be a challenge. No clear behaviour change was seen in South Africa. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00397150.

8.
Lancet ; 378(9789): 420-7, 2011 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21752462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is reported to be a life-saving intervention in low-income settings. The effect of breastfeeding counselling by peer counsellors was assessed in Africa. METHODS: 24 communities in Burkina Faso, 24 in Uganda, and 34 in South Africa were assigned in a 1:1 ratio, by use of a computer-generated randomisation sequence, to the control or intervention clusters. In the intervention group, we scheduled one antenatal breastfeeding peer counselling visit and four post-delivery visits by trained peers. The data gathering team were masked to the intervention allocation. The primary outcomes were prevalance of EBF and diarrhoea reported by mothers for infants aged 12 weeks and 24 weeks. Country-specific prevalence ratios were adjusted for cluster effects and sites. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00397150. FINDINGS: 2579 mother-infant pairs were assigned to the intervention or control clusters in Burkina Faso (n=392 and n=402, respectively), Uganda (n=396 and n=369, respectively), and South Africa (n=535 and 485, respectively). The EBF prevalences based on 24-h recall at 12 weeks in the intervention and control clusters were 310 (79%) of 392 and 139 (35%) of 402, respectively, in Burkina Faso (prevalence ratio 2·29, 95% CI 1·33-3·92); 323 (82%) of 396 and 161 (44%) of 369, respectively, in Uganda (1·89, 1·70-2·11); and 56 (10%) of 535 and 30 (6%) of 485, respectively, in South Africa (1·72, 1·12-2·63). The EBF prevalences based on 7-day recall in the intervention and control clusters were 300 (77%) and 94 (23%), respectively, in Burkina Faso (3·27, 2·13-5·03); 305 (77%) and 125 (34%), respectively, in Uganda (2·30, 2·00-2·65); and 41 (8%) and 19 (4%), respectively, in South Africa (1·98, 1·30-3·02). At 24 weeks, the prevalences based on 24-h recall were 286 (73%) in the intervention cluster and 88 (22%) in the control cluster in Burkina Faso (3·33, 1·74-6·38); 232 (59%) and 57 (15%), respectively, in Uganda (3·83, 2·97-4·95); and 12 (2%) and two (<1%), respectively, in South Africa (5·70, 1·33-24·26). The prevalences based on 7-day recall were 279 (71%) in the intervention cluster and 38 (9%) in the control cluster in Burkina Faso (7·53, 4·42-12·82); 203 (51%) and 41 (11%), respectively, in Uganda (4·66, 3·35-6·49); and ten (2%) and one (<1%), respectively, in South Africa (9·83, 1·40-69·14). Diarrhoea prevalence at age 12 weeks in the intervention and control clusters was 20 (5%) and 36 (9%), respectively, in Burkina Faso (0·57, 0·27-1·22); 39 (10%) and 32 (9%), respectively, in Uganda (1·13, 0·81-1·59); and 45 (8%) and 33 (7%), respectively, in South Africa (1·16, 0·78-1·75). The prevalence at age 24 weeks in the intervention and control clusters was 26 (7%) and 32 (8%), respectively, in Burkina Faso (0·83, 0·45-1·54); 52 (13%) and 59 (16%), respectively, in Uganda (0·82, 0·58-1·15); and 54 (10%) and 33 (7%), respectively, in South Africa (1·31, 0·89-1·93). INTERPRETATION: Low-intensity individual breastfeeding peer counselling is achievable and, although it does not affect the diarrhoea prevalence, can be used to effectively increase EBF prevalence in many sub-Saharan African settings. FUNDING: European Union Sixth Framework International Cooperation-Developing Countries, Research Council of Norway, Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, Norwegian Programme for Development, Research and Education, South African National Research Foundation, and Rockefeller Brothers Foundation.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Países em Desenvolvimento , Aconselhamento Diretivo , Promoção da Saúde , Grupo Associado , África ao Sul do Saara , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez
9.
PLoS One ; 6(7): e21862, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21760916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria is the second highest contributor to the disease burden in Africa and there is a need to identify low cost prevention strategies. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among infants and to measure the association between peer counselling for exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), vitamin A supplementation, anthropometric status (weight and length) and malaria parasitaemia. METHODS: A cluster randomized intervention trial was conducted between 2006 and 2008 where 12 of 24 clusters, each comprising one or two villages, in Eastern Uganda were allocated to receive peer counselling for EBF. Women in their third trimester of pregnancy (based on the last normal menstrual period) were recruited in all 24 clusters and followed up until their children's first birthday. Blood was drawn from 483 infants between 3 and 12 months of age, to test for malaria parasitaemia. RESULTS: The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia was 11% in the intervention areas and 10% in the control areas. The intervention did not seem to decrease the prevalence of malaria (PR 1.7; 95% CI: 0.9, 3.3). After controlling for potential confounders, infants not supplemented with Vitamin A had a higher prevalence for malaria compared to those who had been supplemented (PR 6.1; 95% CI: 2.1, 17.6). Among children supplemented with vitamin A, every unit increase in length-for-age Z (LAZ) scores was associated with a reduced prevalence in malaria (PR 0.5; 95% CI:0.4, 0.6). There was no association between LAZ scores and malaria among children that had not been supplemented. CONCLUSION: Peer counselling for exclusive breastfeeding did not decrease the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia. Children that had not received Vitamin A supplementation had a higher prevalence of malaria compared to children that had been supplemented. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00397150.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Aconselhamento , Malária/parasitologia , Parasitemia/tratamento farmacológico , Grupo Associado , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Vitamina A/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antropometria , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Demografia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Educação , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mosquiteiros , Parasitemia/parasitologia , Gravidez , Chuva , Características de Residência , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 10: 260, 2010 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20815932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health workers' counselling practices are essential to improve infant feeding practices. This paper will assess how infant feeding counselling was done and experienced by counsellors and mothers in Eastern Uganda in the context of previous guidelines. This has implications for implementation of the new infant feeding guidelines from 2009. METHODS: This paper combines qualitative and quantitative data from Mbale District in Eastern Uganda. Data was collected from 2003 to 2005 in a mixed methods approach. This includes: key-informant interviews among eighteen health workers in the public hospital, health clinics and non-governmental organisations working with people living with HIV, fifteen focus group discussions in the general population and among clients from an HIV clinic, two cross-sectional surveys including 727 mothers from the general population and 235 HIV-positive mothers. RESULTS: The counselling sessions were often improvised. Health workers frequently had pragmatic approaches to infant feeding as many clients struggled with poverty, stigma and non-disclosure of HIV. The feasibility of the infant feeding recommendations was perceived as challenging among health workers, both for HIV-positive mothers and in the general population. Group counselling with large groups was common in the public health service. Some extra infant feeding teaching capacities were mobilised for care-takers of undernourished children. A tendency to simplify messages giving one-sided information was seen. Different health workers presented contradicting simplified perspectives in some cases. Outdated training was a common concern with many health workers not being given courses or seminars on infant feeding since professional graduation. Other problems were minimal staffing, lack of resources, and programs being started and subsequently stopped abruptly. Many of the HIV-counsellors in the non-governmental organisations got extended training in counselling which seemed to be beneficial. CONCLUSIONS: Health workers were faced with challenges related to workload, resources, scientific updating, and also a need to adjust to frequent changes in programs, recommendations and guidelines. The clients were faced with difficult choices, poverty, lack of education and stigma. Feasibility of the recommendations was a major concern. Systematic approaches to update health workers should be a priority.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Aleitamento Materno , Aconselhamento/normas , Guias como Assunto , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Aconselhamento/tendências , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Escolaridade , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Educação em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Entrevistas como Assunto , Relações Mãe-Filho , Pobreza , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda
11.
Int J Paediatr Dent ; 19(4): 251-62, 2009 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19320910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of oral diseases on quality of life of children and their families has not been thoroughly investigated. AIM: Focusing on Ugandan infants aged 6-36 months and their caregivers, this study examined the degree to which clinical and psychosocial factors were associated with caregivers' overall evaluation of their children's oral health and health status. DESIGN: Eight hundred and sixteen children were examined for dental caries and anthropometric status in 2007. A questionnaire was completed by the caregivers. RESULTS: Poor child oral health was reported by 40.2% and 17.5% of caregivers who reported their children's health as, respectively, poor and good. Having the least family wealth [odds ratio (OR) = 1.9] and reporting distressed family activities (OR = 2.3) were associated with higher odds of reporting poor child oral health, whereas being a rural resident (OR = 0.4) and reporting no symptoms during tooth eruption (OR = 0.3) were associated with lower odds. Perception of poor child oral health (OR = 2.8) and having the least family wealth (OR = 1.7) were associated with higher odds of reporting poor child health status, whereas no stunting was associated with lower odds (OR = 0.5). CONCLUSION: The results support the growing recognition of oral health as a predictor of health and well-being in early childhood.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Saúde da Família , Nível de Saúde , Doenças da Boca/epidemiologia , Saúde Bucal , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Lactente , Doenças da Boca/psicologia , Psicometria , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Uganda/epidemiologia
12.
BMC Pediatr ; 7: 10, 2007 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17331251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended as the best feeding alternative for infants up to six months and has a protective effect against mortality and morbidity. It also seems to lower HIV-1 transmission compared to mixed feeding. We studied infant feeding practices comparing dietary recall since birth with 24-hour dietary recall. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey on infant feeding practices was performed in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda in 2003 and 727 mother-infant (0-11 months) pairs were analysed. Four feeding categories were made based on WHO's definitions: 1) exclusive breastfeeding, 2) predominant breastfeeding, 3) complementary feeding and 4) replacement feeding. We analyzed when the infant fell into another feeding category for the first time. This was based on the recall since birth. Life-table analysis was made for the different feeding categories and Cox regression analysis was done to control for potential associated factors with the different practices. Prelacteal feeding practices were also addressed. RESULTS: Breastfeeding was practiced by 99% of the mothers. Dietary recall since birth showed that 7% and 0% practiced exclusive breastfeeding by 3 and 6 months, respectively, while 30% and 3% practiced predominant breastfeeding and had not started complementary feeding at the same points in time. The difference between the 24-hour recall and the recall since birth for the introduction of complementary feeds was 46 percentage points at two months and 59 percentage points at four months. Prelacteal feeding was given to 57% of the children. High education and formal marriage were protective factors against prelacteal feeding (adjusted OR 0.5, 0.2-1.0 and 0.5, 0.3-0.8, respectively). CONCLUSION: Even if breastfeeding is practiced at a very high rate, the use of prelacteal feeding and early introduction of other food items is the norm. The 24-hour recall gives a higher estimate of exclusive breastfeeding and predominant breastfeeding than the recall since birth. The 24-hour recall also detected improper infant feeding practices especially in the second half year of life. The dietary recall since birth might be a feasible alternative to monitor infant feeding practices in resource-poor settings. Our study reemphasizes the need for improving infant feeding practices in Eastern Uganda.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/etnologia , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Cuidado do Lactente/estatística & dados numéricos , Alimentos Infantis , Fórmulas Infantis , Recém-Nascido , Rememoração Mental , Análise de Regressão , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Uganda/etnologia
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