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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110445

RESUMO

Background: Alcohol, substance use, and mental health disorders constitute major public health issues worldwide, including in low income and lower middle-income countries, and early initiation of use is an important predictor for developing substance use disorders in later life. This study reports on the existence of childhood alcohol abuse and dependence in a sub-study of a trial cohort in Eastern Uganda. Methods: The project SeeTheChild-Mental Child Health in Uganda (STC) included a sub-study of the Ugandan site of the study PROMISE SB: Saving Brains in Uganda and Burkina Faso. PROMISE SB was a follow-up study of a trial birth cohort (PROMISE EBF) that estimated the effect that peer counselling for exclusive breast-feeding had on the children's cognitive functioning and mental health once they reached 5-8 years of age. The STC sub-study (N = 148) used the diagnostic tool MINI-KID to assess mental health conditions in children who scored medium and high (≥ 14) on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the PROMISE SB cohort N = (119/148; 80.4%). Another 29/148 (19.6%) were recruited from the PROMISE SB cohort as a comparator with low SDQ scores (< 14). Additionally, the open-ended questions in the diagnostic history were analysed. The MINI-KID comprised diagnostic questions on alcohol abuse and dependence, and descriptive data from the sub-study are presented in this paper. Results: A total of 11/148 (7.4%) children scored positive for alcohol abuse and dependence in this study, 10 of whom had high SDQ scores (≥ 14). The 10 children with SDQ-scores ≥ 14 had a variety of mental health comorbidities of which suicidality 3/10 (30.0%) and separation anxiety disorder 5/10 (50.0%) were the most common. The one child with an SDQ score below 14 did not have any comorbidities. Access to homemade brew, carer's knowledge of the drinking, and difficult household circumstances were issues expressed in the children's diagnostic histories. Conclusions: The discovery of alcohol abuse and dependence among 5-8 year olds in clinical interviews from a community based trial cohort was unexpected, and we recommend continued research and increased awareness of these conditions in this age group.Trial registration Trial registration for PROMISE SB: Saving Brains in Uganda and Burkina Faso: Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01882335), 20 June 2013. Regrettably, there was a 1 month delay in the registration compared to the commenced re-inclusion in the follow-up study: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01882335?term=saving+brains&draw=2&rank=1.

3.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 399, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2016, the Western Norway Regional Health Authority started to integrate more evidence-based psychosocial interventions into the existing mental health care, emphasizing the right for persons with psychosis to choose medication-free treatment. This change emerged from the debate on the effectiveness and adverse effects of the use of antipsychotic medication. Aspects beyond symptom reduction, such as interpersonal relationships, increased understanding of one's own pattern of suffering, hope and motivation, are all considered important for the personal recovery process. METHODS: This study explores whether these aspects were present in users' descriptions of their recovery processes within the medication-free treatment programme in Bergen, Western Norway. We interviewed ten patients diagnosed with psychosis who were eligible for medication-free services about their treatment experiences. Data were analysed using Attride-Stirling's thematic network approach. RESULTS: The findings show a global theme relating to personal recovery processes facilitated by the provision of more psychosocial treatment options, with three organizing subthemes: interpersonal relationships between patients and therapists, the patient's understanding of personal patterns of suffering, and personal motivation for self-agency in the recovery process. Participants described an improved relationship with therapists compared to previous experiences. Integrating more evidence-based psychosocial interventions into existing mental health services facilitated learning experiences regarding the choice of treatment, particularly the discontinuation of medication, and appeared to support participants' increased self-agency and motivation in their personal recovery processes. CONCLUSION: Health care in Norway is perhaps one step closer to optimizing care for people with psychosis, allowing for more patient choice and improving the dialogue and hence the interpersonal relationship between the patient and the therapist. Personal patterns of suffering can be explored within a system aiming to support and have a higher level of acceptance for the discontinuation of medication. Such a system requires personal agency in the treatment regimen, with more focus on personal coping strategies and more personal responsibility for the recovery process.

4.
Eur J Oral Sci ; 128(1): 46-54, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994250

RESUMO

Treatment programs to prevent perinatal and postnatal HIV-1 transmission have become available in sub-Saharan Africa, leading to an emerging population of HIV-1 exposed uninfected (HEU) children. Exposure to HIV-1 in utero and during breastfeeding may increase the risk of morbidity and mortality in HEU children. This study estimated the association of the severity of maternal HIV-1 infection as assessed by CD4 count and viral load at baseline (7 d postpartum), with  dmft count of their 5- to 7-yr-old HEU offspring. A follow-up study was conducted of HIV-1-infected mother-HEU children pairs (n = 164) from the Ugandan site of the ANRS 12341-PROMISE- PEP trial (ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00640263). HIV-1-infected mothers were interviewed and the HEU children were examined for caries using the World Health Organization's survey methods for field conditions and the dmft index. Directed acyclic graphs and negative binomial regression were used for analyses. The prevalence of 1 or more dmft was 48%. Negative binomial regression showed no association between the dmft count and maternal CD4 counts 7 d postpartum but a 10% lower dmft count with longer breastfeeding duration was found. Maternal CD4 count at birth was not associated with the dental caries experience in uninfected children born to women without severe immune suppression, while there appeared to be a protective effect of high viral load and breastfeeding duration.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Mães , Gravidez
5.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211411, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that Uganda has been a signatory to the global strategy for Infant and Young Children Feeding practices (IYCF) for nearly a decade, the prevalence of stunting among children under five years of age remains tragically high at 17% in Eastern Uganda and twofold higher countrywide. Only 6% of all children aged 6-23 months feed adequately. This study aimed to establish the covariates of complementary feeding (CF) and its effect on attained height among primary school-aged children in Mbale district (Eastern Uganda). METHODS: This was a community-based prospective cohort study using data from the PROMISE EBF trial. The main exposure variable was adequate complementary feeding (CF) measured in a parent questionnaire at 18-24 months of age. We defined adequate CF as having received animal food, cereals and fruit, juice and/or vegetables during the 24 hours preceding the interview. An adapted minimum acceptable diet was defined as having been given milk or milk products at least twice a day, an adapted meal frequency of two and solid or semi-solid food from at least four food groups on a 24-hour dietary recall based on modified IYCF criteria. The main outcome variable was attained height [(height-for-age Z score (HAZ)] measured between five and eight years of age using the WHO growth standards. Effects of CF on HAZ were estimated using linear regression analyses with cluster-robust standard errors. RESULTS: A total of 506 children were studied. The majority (85%) were from rural areas and the average age at the end of the study was 6.9 (standard deviation: 0.63) years. Of these, 23.9% were adequately fed and 2.3% received the adapted minimum acceptable diet. Adequate CF was not associated with HAZ (adjusted ß = -0.111; 95% CI: -0.363, 0.141; p = 0.374). Factors significantly associated with attained height were baseline HAZ (0.262; 0.152, 0.374; p<0.001) and WHZ (-0.147; -0.243, -0.051; p = 0.004), child's age (0.454; -0.592, -0.315; p<0.001) and maternal education (0.030; 95% CI: 0.003, 0.057; p = 0.034). CONCLUSION: Adequate CF at age 18-24 months was worryingly insufficient and not associated with attained HAZ at age 5-8 years. Further strategies need to be considered to improve child nutrition and linear growth in resource-constrained settings.


Assuntos
Estatura/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos , Uganda
6.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0191001, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29474479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The beneficial effects from exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) have been widely acknowledged. We assessed the effect of exclusive breastfeeding promotion by peer counsellors in Uganda and Burkina Faso, on cognitive abilities, social emotional development, school performance and linear growth among 5-8 years old children. METHODS: Children in the PROMISE EBF trial (2006-2008) were re-enrolled in the follow-up PROMISE Saving Brains (SB) study (2013-2015). Caretaker interviews captured sociodemographic characteristics and social emotional development using the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Overall cognition and working memory were assessed using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, second edition (KABC2), cognitive flexibility was measured with the Child Category Test (CCT), and attention with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A), while school performance was measured by a standardized test on arithmetic and reading. Country-pooled, age adjusted z-scores from each of the above outcomes were entered into a linear regression model controlling for confounders. RESULTS: The number of children re-enrolled in the intervention and control arms were: 274/396 (69.2%) and 256/369 (69.4%) in Uganda and 265/392 (67.6%) and 288/402 (71.6%) in Burkina Faso. Assessment of cognitive ability showed small and no significant differences, of which general cognition (z-scores, 95% CI) showed the largest mean difference: -0.17 (-0.40; 0.05). Social emotional symptoms were similar across arms. There were no differences in school performance or linear growth for age detected. CONCLUSION: Peer promotion for exclusive breastfeeding in Burkina Faso and Uganda was not associated with differences at 5-8 years of age in a range of measures of child development: cognitive abilities, emotion-behaviour-social symptoms or linear growth. This study from sub Saharan Africa did not reconfirm findings elsewhere that have shown an association between exclusive breastfeeding and cognitive performance. This might be due to a number of methodological limitations inherent in the current study. For example since the majority of the children were breastfed, the benefits of the intervention could have been diluted. Other factors such as the mental and HIV status of the mothers (which were not assessed in the current study) could have affected our results. Hence regarding the effect of exclusive breastfeeding on measures of child neurocognitive development in sub Saharan Africa, the jury is still out. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01882335.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Burkina Faso , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Grupo Associado , Mudança Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Uganda
7.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 11: 50, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28855962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early identification and management of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) disorders helps to avert mental illness in adulthood but a CAMH treatment gap exists in Uganda. CAMH integration into primary health care (PHC) through in-service training of non-specialist health workers (NSHW) using the World Health Organisation (WHO) Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) Intervention Guide (IG) is a strategy to address this gap. However, results of such training are not supported by information on training development or delivery; and are undifferentiated by NSHW cadre. We aim to describe an in-service CAMH training for NSHW in Uganda and assess cadre-differentiated learning outcomes. METHODS: Thirty-six clinical officers, nurses and midwives from 18 randomly selected PHC clinics in eastern Uganda were trained for 5 days on CAMH screening and referral using a curriculum based on the mhGAP-IG version 1.0 and PowerPoint slides from the International Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions (IACAPAP). The residential training was evaluated through pre- and post- training tests of CAMH knowledge and attitudes using the participants' post-test scores; and the difference between pre-test and post-test scores. Two-tailed t-tests assessed differences in mean pre-test and post-test scores between the cadres; hierarchical linear regression tested the association between cadre and post test scores; and logistic regression evaluated the relationship between cadre and knowledge gain at three pre-determined cut off points. RESULTS: Thirty-three participants completed both pre-and post-tests. Improved mean scores from pre- to post-test were observed for both clinical officers (20% change) and nurse/midwives (18% change). Clinical officers had significantly higher mean test scores than nurses and midwives (p < 0.05) but cadre was not significantly associated with improvement in CAMH knowledge at the 10% (AOR 0.08; 95 CI [0.01, 1.19]; p = 0.066), 15% (AOR 0.16; 95% CI [0.01, 2.21]; p = 0.170), or 25% (AOR 0.13; 95% CI [0.01, 1.74]; p = 0.122) levels. CONCLUSION: We aimed to examine CAMH learning outcomes by NSHW cadre. NSHW cadre does not influence knowledge gain from in-service CAMH training. Thus, an option for integrating CAMH into PHC in Uganda using the mhGAP-IG and IACAPAP PowerPoint slides is to proceed without cadre differentiation.

8.
Glob Health Action ; 9: 30578, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27473676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Undernutrition is highly prevalent among infants in Uganda. Optimal infant feeding practices may improve nutritional status, health, and survival among children. OBJECTIVE: Our study evaluates the socioeconomic distribution of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and growth outcomes among infants included in a trial, which promoted EBF by peer counselors in Uganda. DESIGN: Twenty-four clusters comprising one to two communities in Uganda were randomized into intervention and control arms, including 765 mother-infant pairs (PROMISE-EBF trial, 200608, ClinicalTrials.gov no. NCT00397150). Intervention clusters received the promotion of EBF by peer counselors in addition to standard care. Breastfeeding and growth outcomes were compared according to wealth quintiles and intervention/control arms. Socioeconomic inequality in breastfeeding and growth outcomes were measured using the concentration index 12 and 24 weeks postpartum. We used the decomposition of the concentration index to identify factors contributing to growth inequality at 24 weeks. RESULTS: EBF was significantly concentrated among the poorest in the intervention group at 24 weeks postpartum, concentration index -0.060. The control group showed a concentration of breastfeeding among the richest part of the population, although not statistically significant. Stunting, wasting, and underweight were similarly significantly concentrated among the poorest in the intervention group and the total population at 24 weeks, but showing non-significant concentrations for the control group. CONCLUSION: This study shows that EBF can be successfully promoted among the poor. In addition, socioeconomic inequality in growth outcomes starts early in infancy, but the breastfeeding intervention was not strong enough to counteract this influence.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26702296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Robust health systems are required for the promotion of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH). In low and middle income countries such as Uganda neuropsychiatric illness in childhood and adolescence represent 15-30 % of all loss in disability-adjusted life years. In spite of this burden, service systems in these countries are weak. The objective of our assessment was to explore strengths and weaknesses of CAMH systems at national and district level in Uganda from a management perspective. METHODS: Seven key informant interviews were conducted during July to October 2014 in Kampala and Mbale district, Eastern Uganda representing the national and district level, respectively. The key informants selected were all public officials responsible for supervision of CAMH services at the two levels. The interview guide included the following CAMH domains based on the WHO Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS): policy and legislation, financing, service delivery, health workforce, medicines and health information management. Inductive thematic analysis was applied in which the text in data transcripts was reduced to thematic codes. Patterns were then identified in the relations among the codes. RESULTS: Eleven themes emerged from the six domains of enquiry in the WHO-AIMS. A CAMH policy has been drafted to complement the national mental health policy, however district managers did not know about it. All managers at the district level cited inadequate national mental health policies. The existing laws were considered sufficient for the promotion of CAMH, however CAMH financing and services were noted by all as inadequate. CAMH services were noted to be absent at lower health centers and lacked integration with other health sector services. Insufficient CAMH workforce was widely reported, and was noted to affect medicines availability. Lastly, unlike national level managers, lower level managers considered the health management information system as being insufficient for service planning. CONCLUSION: Managers at national and district level agree that most components of the CAMH system in Uganda are weak; but perceptions about CAMH policy and health information systems were divergent.

10.
BMC Public Health ; 14: 633, 2014 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24950759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this multi-country cluster-randomized behavioural intervention trial promoting exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in Africa, we compared growth of infants up to 6 months of age living in communities where peer counsellors promoted EBF with growth in those infants living in control communities. METHODS: A total of 82 clusters in Burkina Faso, Uganda and South Africa were randomised to either the intervention or the control arm. Feeding data and anthropometric measurements were collected at visits scheduled 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks post-partum. We calculated weight-for-length (WLZ), length-for-age (LAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) z-scores. Country specific adjusted Least Squares Means with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on a longitudinal analysis are reported. Prevalence ratios (PR) for the association between peer counselling for EBF and wasting (WLZ < -2), stunting (LAZ < -2) and underweight (WAZ < -2) were calculated at each data collection point. RESULTS: The study included a total of 2,579 children. Adjusting for socio-economic status, the mean WLZ at 24 weeks were in Burkina Faso -0.20 (95% CI -0.39 to -0.01) and in Uganda -0.23 (95% CI -0.43 to -0.03) lower in the intervention than in the control arm. In South Africa the mean WLZ at 24 weeks was 0.23 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.43) greater in the intervention than in the control arm. Differences in LAZ between the study arms were small and not statistically significant. In Uganda, infants in the intervention arm were more likely to be wasted compared to those in the control arm at 24 weeks (PR 2.36; 95% CI 1.11 to 5.00). Differences in wasting in South Africa and Burkina Faso and stunting and underweight in all three countries were small and not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: There were small differences in mean anthropometric indicators between the intervention and control arms in the study, but in Uganda and Burkina Faso, a tendency to slightly lower ponderal growth (weight-for-length z-scores) was found in the intervention arms. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00397150.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Transtornos do Crescimento/prevenção & controle , Crescimento , Promoção da Saúde , Grupo Associado , Magreza/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Emaciação/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Período Pós-Parto , Prevalência , Características de Residência , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia , Ganho de Peso , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Public Health ; 8: 418, 2008 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19102755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Child under-nutrition is a leading factor underlying child mortality and morbidity in Sub-Saharan Africa. Several studies from Uganda have reported impaired growth, but there have been few if any community-based infant anthropometric studies from Eastern Uganda. The aim of this study was to describe current infant growth patterns using WHO Child Growth Standards and to determine the extent to which these patterns are associated with infant feeding practices, equity dimensions, morbidity and use of primary health care for the infants. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of infant feeding practices, socio-economic characteristics and anthropometric measurements was conducted in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda in 2003; 723 mother-infant (0-11 months) pairs were analysed. Infant anthropometric status was assessed using z-scores for weight-for-length (WLZ), length-for-age (LAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ). Dependent dichotomous variables were constructed using WLZ < -2 (wasting) and LAZ < -2 (stunting) as cut-off values. A conceptual hierarchical framework was used as the basis for controlling for the explanatory factors in multivariate analysis. Household wealth was assessed using principal components analysis. RESULTS: The prevalences of wasting and stunting were 4.2% and 16.7%, respectively. Diarrhoea during the previous 14 days was associated with wasting in the crude analysis, but no factors were significantly associated with wasting in the adjusted analysis. The adjusted analysis for stunting showed associations with age and gender. Stunting was more prevalent among boys than girls, 58.7% versus 41.3%. Having brothers and/or sisters was a protective factor against stunting (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8), but replacement or mixed feeding was not (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.0-7.1). Lowest household wealth was the most prominent factor associated with stunting with a more than three-fold increase in odds ratio (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.6-7.8). This pattern was also seen when the mean LAZ was investigated across household wealth categories: the adjusted mean difference between the top and the bottom wealth categories was 0.58 z-scores, p < 0.001. Those who had received pre-lacteal feeds had lower adjusted mean WLZ than those who had not: difference 0.20 z-scores, p = 0.023. CONCLUSION: Sub-optimal infant feeding practices after birth, poor household wealth, age, gender and family size were associated with growth among Ugandan infants.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia , Antropometria , Fenômenos Biológicos , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Aleitamento Materno , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Crescimento/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Alimentos Infantis/economia , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/complicações , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/economia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Desnutrição/complicações , Desnutrição/economia , Prevalência , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Uganda/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/economia , Síndrome de Emaciação/etiologia
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