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1.
Cereb Cortex ; 31(5): 2505-2522, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338212

RESUMO

Congenital blindness has been shown to result in behavioral adaptation and neuronal reorganization, but the underlying neuronal mechanisms are largely unknown. Brain rhythms are characteristic for anatomically defined brain regions and provide a putative mechanistic link to cognitive processes. In a novel approach, using magnetoencephalography resting state data of congenitally blind and sighted humans, deprivation-related changes in spectral profiles were mapped to the cortex using clustering and classification procedures. Altered spectral profiles in visual areas suggest changes in visual alpha-gamma band inhibitory-excitatory circuits. Remarkably, spectral profiles were also altered in auditory and right frontal areas showing increased power in theta-to-beta frequency bands in blind compared with sighted individuals, possibly related to adaptive auditory and higher cognitive processing. Moreover, occipital alpha correlated with microstructural white matter properties extending bilaterally across posterior parts of the brain. We provide evidence that visual deprivation selectively modulates spectral profiles, possibly reflecting structural and functional adaptation.

2.
Front Neurosci ; 14: 577574, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33240037

RESUMO

A large variety of methods exist to estimate brain coupling in the frequency domain from electrophysiological data measured, e.g., by EEG and MEG. Those data are to reasonable approximation, though certainly not perfectly, Gaussian distributed. This work is based on the well-known fact that for Gaussian distributed data, the cross-spectrum completely determines all statistical properties. In particular, for an infinite number of data, all normalized coupling measures at a given frequency are a function of complex coherency. However, it is largely unknown what the functional relations are. We here present those functional relations for six different measures: the weighted phase lag index, the phase lag index, the absolute value and imaginary part of the phase locking value (PLV), power envelope correlation, and power envelope correlation with correction for artifacts of volume conduction. With the exception of PLV, the final results are simple closed form formulas. In an excursion we also discuss differences between short time Fourier transformation and Hilbert transformation for estimations in the frequency domain. We tested in simulations of linear and non-linear dynamical systems and for empirical resting state EEG on sensor level to what extent a model, namely the respective function of coherency, can explain the observed couplings. For empirical data we found that for measures of phase-phase coupling deviations from the model are in general minor, while power envelope correlations systematically deviate from the model for all frequencies. For power envelope correlation with correction for artifacts of volume conduction the model cannot explain the observed couplings at all. We also analyzed power envelope correlation as a function of time and frequency in an event related experiment using a stroop reaction task and found significant event related deviations mostly in the alpha range.

3.
J Biol Chem ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154162

RESUMO

AAA+ proteases are degradation machines that use ATP hydrolysis to unfold protein substrates and translocate them through a central pore towards a degradation chamber. FtsH, a bacterial membrane-anchored AAA+ protease, plays a vital role in membrane protein quality control. How substrates reach the FtsH central pore is an open key question that is not resolved by the available atomic structures of cytoplasmic and periplasmic domains. In this work, we used both negative stain TEM and cryo-EM to determine 3D maps of the full-length Aquifex aeolicus FtsH protease. Unexpectedly, we observed that detergent solubilisation induces the formation of fully active FtsH dodecamers, which consist of two FtsH hexamers in a single detergent micelle. The striking tilted conformation of the cytosolic domain in the FtsH dodecamer visualized by negative stain TEM suggests a lateral substrate entrance between membrane and cytosolic domain. Such a substrate path was then resolved in the cryo-EM structure of the FtsH hexamer.  By mapping the available structural information and structure predictions for the transmembrane helices to the amino acid sequence we identified a linker of ~20 residues between the second transmembrane helix and the cytosolic domain.  This unique polypeptide appears to be highly flexible, and turned out to be essential for proper functioning of FtsH as its deletion fully eliminated the proteolytic activity of FtsH.

4.
Front Neurol ; 11: 915, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101160

RESUMO

Several studies have demonstrated the advantages of the bilateral vs. unilateral cochlear implantation in listeners with bilateral severe to profound hearing loss. However, it remains unclear to what extent bilaterally implanted listeners have access to binaural cues, e.g., accurate processing of interaural timing differences (ITDs) for low-frequency sounds (<1.5 kHz) and interaural level differences (ILDs) for high frequencies (>3 kHz). We tested 25 adult listeners, bilaterally implanted with MED-EL cochlear implant (CI) devices, with and without fine-structure (FS) temporal processing as encoding strategy in the low-frequency channels. In order to assess whether the ability to process binaural cues was affected by fine-structure processing, we performed psychophysical ILD and ITD sensitivity measurements and free-field sound localization experiments. We compared the results of the bilaterally implanted listeners with different numbers of FS channels. All CI listeners demonstrated good sensitivity to ILDs, but relatively poor to ITD cues. Although there was a large variability in performance, some bilateral CI users showed remarkably good localization skills. The FS coding strategy for bilateral CI hearing did not improve fine-structure ITD processing for spatial hearing on a group level. However, some CI listeners were able to exploit weakly informative temporal cues to improve their low-frequency spatial perception.

5.
J Comp Neurol ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009661

RESUMO

The current study provides an analysis of the cytoarchitecture, myeloarchitecture, and chemoarchitecture of the amygdaloid body of the banded mongoose (Mungos mungo) and domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Using architectural and immunohistochemical stains, we observe that the organization of the nuclear and cortical portions of the amygdaloid complex is very similar in both species. The one major difference is the presence of a cortex-amygdala transition zone observed in the domestic ferret that is absent in the banded mongoose. In addition, the chemoarchitecture is, for the most part, quite similar in the two species, but several variances, such as differing densities of neurons expressing the calcium-binding proteins in specific nuclei are noted. Despite this, certain aspects of the chemoarchitecture, such as the cholinergic innervation of the magnocellular division of the basal nuclear cluster and the presence of doublecortin expressing neurons in the shell division of the accessory basal nuclear cluster, appear to be consistent features of the Eutherian mammal amygdala. The domestic ferret presented with an overall lower myelin density throughout the amygdaloid body than the banded mongoose, a feature that may reflect artificial selection in the process of domestication for increased juvenile-like behavior in the adult domestic ferret, such as a muted fear response. The shared, but temporally distant, ancestry of the banded mongoose and domestic ferret allows us to generate observations relevant to understanding the relative influence that phylogenetic constraints, adaptive evolutionary plasticity, and the domestication process may play in the organization and chemoarchitecture of the amygdaloid body.

6.
Acta Physiol (Oxf) ; : e13564, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002334

RESUMO

AIM: There is an increasing awareness of the impact of age and sex on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Differences in physiology are suspected. Beta-adrenoceptors (beta-ARs) are an important drug target in CVD and potential differences might have significant impact on the treatment of many patients. To investigate whether age and sex affects beta-AR function, we analysed a large data set on beta-AR-induced inotropy in human atrial trabeculae. METHODS: We performed multivariable analysis of individual atrial contractility data from trabeculae obtained during heart surgery of patients in sinus rhythm (535 trabeculae from 165 patients). Noradrenaline or adrenaline were used in the presence of the beta2 -selective antagonist (ICI 118 551, 50 nmol/L) or the beta1 -selective antagonist (CGP 20712A, 300 nmol/L) to stimulate beta1 -AR or beta2 -AR respectively. Agonist concentration required to achieve half-maximum inotropic effects (EC50 ) was taken as a measure of beta-AR sensitivity. RESULTS: Impact of clinical variables was modelled using multivariable mixed model regression. As previously reported, chronic treatment with beta-blockers sensitized beta-AR. However, there was no significant interaction between basal force, maximum force and beta-AR sensitivity when age and sex were modelled continuously. In addition, there was no statistically significant effect of body mass index or diabetes on atrial contractility. CONCLUSION: Our large, multivariable analysis shows that neither age nor sex affects beta-AR-mediated inotropy or catecholamine sensitivity in human atrial trabeculae. These findings may have important clinical implications because beta-ARs, as a common drug target in CVD and heart failure, do not behave differently in women and men across age decades.

7.
J Comp Neurol ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016331

RESUMO

Employing cyto-, myelo-, and chemoarchitectural staining techniques, we analyzed the structure of the hippocampal formation in the banded mongoose and domestic ferret, species belonging to the two carnivoran superfamilies, which have had independent evolutionary trajectories for the past 55 million years. Our observations indicate that, despite the time since sharing a last common ancestor, these species show extensive similarities. The four major portions of the hippocampal formation (cornu Ammonis, dentate gyrus, subicular complex, and entorhinal cortex) were readily observed, contained the same internal subdivisions, and maintained the topological relationships of these subdivisions that could be considered typically mammalian. In addition, adult hippocampal neurogenesis was observed in both species, occurring at a rate similar to that observed in other mammals. Despite the overall similarities, several differences to each other, and to other mammalian species, were observed. We could not find evidence for the presence of the CA2 and CA4 fields of the cornu Ammonis region. In the banded mongoose the dentate gyrus appears to be comprised of up to seven lamina, through the sublamination of the molecular and granule cell layers, which is not observed in the domestic ferret. In addition, numerous subtle variations in chemoarchitecture between the two species were observed. These differences may contribute to an overall variation in the functionality of the hippocampal formation between the species, and in comparison to other mammalian species. These similarities and variations are important to understanding to what extent phylogenetic affinities and constraints affect potential adaptive evolutionary plasticity of the hippocampal formation.

8.
Neuroimage ; 224: 117452, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059050

RESUMO

Sleep spindles are crucial to memory consolidation. Cortical gamma oscillations (30-100 Hz) are considered to reflect processing of memory in local cortical networks. The temporal and regulatory relationship between spindles and gamma activity might therefore provide clues into how sleep strengthens cortical memory representations. Here, combining EEG with MEG recordings during sleep in healthy humans (n = 12), we investigated the temporal relationships of cortical gamma band activity, always measured by MEG, during fast (12-16 Hz) and slow (8-12 Hz) sleep spindles detected in the EEG or MEG. Time-frequency distributions did not show a consistent coupling of gamma to the spindle oscillation, although activity in the low gamma (30-40 Hz) and neighboring beta range (<30 Hz) was generally increased during spindles. However, more fine-grained analyses of cross-frequency interactions revealed that both low and high gamma power (30-100 Hz) was coupled to the phase of slow and fast EEG spindles, importantly, with this coupling at a fixed phase only for the oscillations within an individual spindle, but with variable phase across spindles. We did not observe any coupling of gamma activity for spindles detected solely in the MEG and not in parallel EEG recordings, raising the possibility that these are more local spindles of different quality. Similar to fast spindle activity, low gamma band power followed a ~0.025 Hz infraslow rhythm during sleep whose frequency, however, was significantly faster than that of spindle activity. Our findings suggest a general function of fast and slow spindles that by spanning larger cortical networks might serve to synchronize gamma band activity occurring in more local but distributed networks. Thereby, spindles might help linking local memory processing between distributed networks.

9.
Neuroimage ; 224: 117376, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949708

RESUMO

The phase of neural oscillatory signals aligns to the predicted onset of upcoming stimulation. Whether such phase alignments represent phase resets of underlying neural oscillations or just rhythmically evoked activity, and whether they can be observed in a rhythm-free visual context, however, remains unclear. Here, we recorded the magnetoencephalogram while participants were engaged in a temporal prediction task, judging the visual or tactile reappearance of a uniformly moving stimulus. The prediction conditions were contrasted with a control condition to dissociate phase adjustments of neural oscillations from stimulus-driven activity. We observed stronger delta band inter-trial phase consistency (ITPC) in a network of sensory, parietal and frontal brain areas, but no power increase reflecting stimulus-driven or prediction-related evoked activity. Delta ITPC further correlated with prediction performance in the cerebellum and visual cortex. Our results provide evidence that phase alignments of low-frequency neural oscillations underlie temporal predictions in a non-rhythmic visual and crossmodal context.

10.
Neurobiol Dis ; 146: 105119, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991998

RESUMO

Abnormally sustained beta-frequency synchronisation between the motor cortex and subthalamic nucleus (STN) is associated with motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). It is currently unclear whether STN neurons have a preference for beta-frequency input (12-35 Hz), rather than cortical input at other frequencies, and how such a preference would arise following dopamine depletion. To address this question, we combined analysis of cortical and STN recordings from awake human PD patients undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery with recordings of identified STN neurons in anaesthetised rats. In these patients, we demonstrate that a subset of putative STN neurons is strongly and selectively sensitive to magnitude fluctuations of cortical beta oscillations over time, linearly increasing their phase-locking strength with respect to the full range of instantaneous amplitude in the beta-frequency range. In rats, we probed the frequency response of STN neurons in the cortico-basal-ganglia-network more precisely, by recording spikes evoked by short bursts of cortical stimulation with variable frequency (4-40 Hz) and constant amplitude. In both healthy and dopamine-depleted rats, only beta-frequency stimulation led to a progressive reduction in the variability of spike timing through the stimulation train. This suggests, that the interval of beta-frequency input provides an optimal window for eliciting the next spike with high fidelity. We hypothesize, that abnormal activation of the indirect pathway, via dopamine depletion and/or cortical stimulation, could trigger an underlying sensitivity of the STN microcircuit to beta-frequency input.

11.
Phys Rev E ; 102(2-1): 022121, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942419

RESUMO

In the thermodynamics of nanoscopic systems, the relation between classical and quantum mechanical description is of particular importance. To scrutinize this correspondence we study an anharmonic oscillator driven by a periodic external force with slowly varying amplitude both classically and within the framework of quantum mechanics. The energy change of the oscillator induced by the driving is closely related to the probability distribution of work for the system. With the amplitude λ(t) of the drive increasing from zero to a maximum λ_{max} and then going back to zero again, the initial and final Hamiltonian coincide. The main quantity of interest is then the probability density P(E_{f}|E_{i}) for transitions from initial energy E_{i} to final energy E_{f}. In the classical case nondiagonal transitions with E_{f}≠E_{i} mainly arise due to the mechanism of separatrix crossing. We show that approximate analytical results within the pendulum approximation are in accordance with numerical simulations. In the quantum case numerically exact results are complemented with analytical arguments employing Floquet theory. For both the classical and quantum case we provide an intuitive explanation for the periodic variation of P(E_{f}|E_{i}) with the maximal amplitude λ_{max} of the driving.

12.
J Comp Neurol ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964417

RESUMO

This study provides an analysis of the cytoarchitecture, myeloarchitecture, and chemoarchitecture of the diencephalon (dorsal thalamus, ventral thalamus, and epithalamus) of the banded mongoose (Mungos mungo) and domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Using architectural and immunohistochemical stains, we observe that the nuclear organization of the diencephalon is very similar in the two species, and similar to that reported in other carnivores, such as the domestic cat and dog. The same complement of putatively homologous nuclei were identified in both species, with only one variance, that being the presence of the perireticular nucleus in the domestic ferret, that was not observed in the banded mongoose. The chemoarchitecture was also mostly consistent between species, although there were a number of minor variations across a range of nuclei in the density of structures expressing the calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin, calbindin, and calretinin. Thus, despite almost 53 million years since these two species of carnivores shared a common ancestor, strong phylogenetic constraints appear to limit the potential for adaptive evolutionary plasticity within the carnivore order. Apart from the presence of the perireticular nucleus, the most notable difference between the species studied was the physical inversion of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, as well as the lateral posterior and pulvinar nuclei in the domestic ferret compared to the banded mongoose and other carnivores, although this inversion appears to be a feature of the Mustelidae family. While no functional sequelae are suggested, this inversion is likely to result from the altricial birth of Mustelidae species.

13.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 14: 234, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32765234

RESUMO

Whereas the fundamental role of the body in social cognition seems to be generally accepted, elucidating the bodily mechanisms associated with non-verbal communication and cooperation between two or more persons is still a challenging endeavor. In this article we propose a fresh approach for investigating the function of the autonomic nervous system that is reflected in parameters of heart rate variability, respiration, and electrodermal activity in a social setting. We analyzed autonomic parameters of dyads solving a target-tracking task together with the partner or individually. A machine classifier was trained to predict the subjects' rating of performance and collaboration either from tracking error data or from the set of autonomic parameters. When subjects collaborated, this classifier could predict the subjective performance ratings better from the autonomic response than from the objective performance of the subjects. However, when they solved the task individually, predictability from autonomic parameters dropped to the level of objective performance, indicating that subjects were more rational in rating their performance in this condition. Moreover, the model captured general knowledge about the population that allows it to predict the performance ratings of an unseen subject significantly better than chance. Our results suggest that, in particular in situations that require collaboration with others, evaluation of performance is shaped by the bodily processes that are quantified by autonomic parameters. Therefore, subjective performance assessments appear to be modulated not only by the output of a rational or discriminative system that tracks the objective performance but to a significant extent also by interoceptive processes.

14.
FASEB J ; 34(10): 13918-13934, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860273

RESUMO

Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) is a highly expressed protein secreted by rod and cone photoreceptors that has major roles in photoreceptor homeostasis as well as retinoid and polyunsaturated fatty acid transport between the neural retina and retinal pigment epithelium. Despite two crystal structures reported on fragments of IRBP and decades of research, the overall structure of IRBP and function within the visual cycle remain unsolved. Here, we studied the structure of native bovine IRBP in complex with a monoclonal antibody (mAb5) by cryo-electron microscopy, revealing the tertiary and quaternary structure at sufficient resolution to clearly identify the complex components. Complementary mass spectrometry experiments revealed the structure and locations of N-linked carbohydrate post-translational modifications. This work provides insight into the structure of IRBP, displaying an elongated, flexible three-dimensional architecture not seen among other retinoid-binding proteins. This work is the first step in elucidation of the function of this enigmatic protein.

15.
Front Neurol ; 11: 776, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849228

RESUMO

Changes in personality are one of the main concerns Parkinson's disease (PD) patients raise when facing the decision to undergo neurosurgery for deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). While clinical instruments for monitoring functional changes following DBS surgery are well-established in the daily therapeutic routine, personality issues are far less systematically encompassed. Moreover, while sex disparities in the outcomes of STN-DBS therapy have been reported, little is known about the different effects that DBS treatment may have on mood and personality traits in female and male patients. To this aim, the effect of STN-DBS on personality traits was assessed in 46 PD patients (12 women and 34 men) by means of the Freiburg Personality Inventory. The Becks Depression Inventory (BDI-I) and the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire were used to evaluate patients' level of depression and quality of life (QoL). Patients completed the questionnaires a few days before, within the first year, and 2 years after surgery. The 12 personality traits defined by the FPI-R questionnaire did not change significantly after STN-DBS surgery (p = 0.198). Women declared higher depression scores through all study stages (p = 0.009), but also showed a stronger QoL amelioration after surgery than male patients (p = 0.022). The BDI-I scores of female patients clearly correlated with their levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD; r = 0.621, p = 0.008). Remarkably, in both male and female patients, higher pre-operative LEDDs were related to worse post-operative QoL scores (p = 0.034). These results mitigate the concerns about systematic personality changes due to STN-DBS treatment in PD patients and encourage an early DBS approach, before severe levodopa-induced sequelae may irreparably compromise the patients' QoL. In the future, more focus should lie on sex-related effects, since female patients seem to profit more than male patients from STN-DBS, in terms of reduced depressive symptoms associated with a reduction of the LEDD and amelioration of QoL. These aspects may help to redress the sex imbalance in PD patients treated with DBS, given that women are still strongly under-represented.

16.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 14: 255, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714172

RESUMO

Objectives: Evidence from animal studies suggests that aerobic exercise may promote neuroplasticity and could, therefore, provide therapeutic benefits for neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the effects of exercise in human CNS disorders on the topology of brain networks, which might serve as an outcome at the interface between biology and clinical performance, remain poorly understood. Methods: We investigated functional and structural networks in patients with relapsing-remitting MS in a clinical trial of standardized aerobic exercise. Fifty-seven patients were randomly assigned to moderate-intensity exercise for 3 months or a non-exercise control group. We reconstructed functional networks based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and used probabilistic tractography on diffusion-weighted imaging data for structural networks. Results: At baseline, compared to 30 healthy controls, patients exhibited decreased structural connectivity that was most pronounced in hub regions of the brain. Vice versa, functional connectivity was increased in hubs. After 3 months, we observed hub independent increased functional connectivity in the exercise group while the control group presented a loss of functional hub connectivity. On a structural level, the control group remained unchanged, while the exercise group had also increased connectivity. Increased clustering of hubs indicates a better structural integration and internal connectivity at the top of the network hierarchy. Conclusion: Increased functional connectivity of hubs contrasts a loss of structural connectivity in relapsing-remitting MS. Under an exercise condition, a further hub independent increase of functional connectivity seems to translate in higher structural connectivity of the whole brain.

17.
Front Neurol ; 11: 507, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670178

RESUMO

Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by impairments in basic cognitive functions such as information processing speed as well as in more complex, higher-order domains such as social cognition. However, as these deficits often co-occur, it has remained challenging to determine whether they have a specific pathological basis or are driven by shared biology. Methods: To identify neural signatures of social cognition deficits in MS, data were analyzed from n = 29 patients with relapsing-remitting MS and n = 29 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and education. We used neuropsychological assessments of information processing speed, attention, learning, working memory, and relevant aspects of social cognition (theory of mind, emotion recognition (ER), empathy) and employed neuroimaging of CNS networks using resting-state functional connectivity. Results: MS patients showed significant deficits in verbal learning and memory, as well as implicit ER. Performance in these domains was uncorrelated. Functional connectivity analysis identified a distinct network characterized by significant associations between poorer ER and lower connectivity of the fusiform gyrus (FFG) with the right lateral occipital cortex, which also showed lower connectivity in patients compared to controls. Moreover, while ER was correlated with MS symptoms such as fatigue and motor/sensory functioning on a behavioral level, FFG connectivity signatures of social cognition deficits showed no overlap with these symptoms. Conclusions: Our analyses identify distinct functional connectivity signatures of social cognition deficits in MS, indicating that these alterations may occur independently from those in other neuropsychological functions.

18.
Front Physiol ; 11: 728, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32695023

RESUMO

Xenopus oocytes expressing human aquaporin-7 (AQP7) exhibit greater osmotic water permeability and 3H-glycerol uptake vs. those expressing the bacterial glycerol facilitator GlpF. AQP7-expressing oocytes exposed to increasing extracellular [glycerol] under isosmolal conditions exhibit increasing swelling rates, whereas GlpF-expressing oocytes do not swell at all. To provide a structural basis for these observed physiological differences, we performed X-ray crystallographic structure determination of AQP7 and molecular-dynamics simulations on AQP7 and GlpF. The structure reveals AQP7 tetramers containing two monomers with 3 glycerols, and two monomers with 2 glycerols in the pore. In contrast to GlpF, no glycerol is bound at the AQP7 selectivity filter (SF), comprising residues F74, G222, Y223, and R229. The AQP7 SF is resolved in its closed state because F74 blocks the passage of small solutes. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that F74 undergoes large and rapid conformational changes, allowing glycerol molecules to permeate without orientational restriction. The more rigid GlpF imposes orientational constraints on glycerol molecules passing through the SF. Moreover, GlpF-W48 (analogous to AQP7-F74) undergoes rare but long-lasting conformational changes that block the pore to H2O and glycerol.

19.
Phys Rev E ; 101(6-1): 062119, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688468

RESUMO

Large systems of linear equations are ubiquitous in science. Quite often, e.g., when considering population dynamics or chemical networks, the solutions must be nonnegative. Recently, it has been shown that large systems of random linear equations exhibit a sharp transition from a phase, where a nonnegative solution exists with probability one, to one where typically no such solution may be found. The critical line separating the two phases was determined by combining Farkas' lemma with the replica method. Here we show that the same methods remain viable to characterize the two phases away from criticality. To this end we analytically determine the residual norm of the system in the unsolvable phase and a suitable measure of robustness of solutions in the solvable one. Our results are in very good agreement with numerical simulations.

20.
Brain Stimul ; 13(5): 1254-1262, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oscillatory phase has been proposed as a key parameter defining the spatiotemporal structure of neural activity. To enhance our understanding of brain rhythms and improve clinical outcomes in pathological conditions, modulation of neural activity by transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) emerged as a promising approach. However, the phase-specificity of tACS effects in humans is still critically debated. OBJECTIVE: Here, we investigated the phase-specificity of tACS on visually evoked steady state responses (SSRs) in 24 healthy human participants. METHODS: We used an intermittent electrical stimulation protocol and assessed the influence of tACS on SSR amplitude in the interval immediately following tACS. A neural network model served to validate the plausibility of experimental findings. RESULTS: We observed a modulation of SSR amplitudes dependent on the phase shift between flicker and tACS. The tACS effect size was negatively correlated with the strength of flicker-evoked activity. Supported by simulations, data suggest that strong network synchronization limits further neuromodulation by tACS. Neural sources of phase-specific effects were localized in the parieto-occipital cortex within flicker-entrained regions. Importantly, the optimal phase shift between flicker and tACS associated with strongest SSRs was correlated with SSR phase delays in the tACS target region. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our data provide electrophysiological evidence for phase-specific modulations of rhythmic brain activity by tACS in humans. As the optimal timing of tACS application was dependent on cortical SSR phase delays, our data suggest that tACS effects were not mediated by retinal co-stimulation. These findings highlight the potential of tACS for controlled, phase-specific modulations of neural activity.

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