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1.
Neurology ; 93(23): e2133-e2143, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719133

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively determine the potential of diffusion MRI (dMRI) of the cervical spinal cord and the corticospinal tracts in brain as surrogate outcome measure for progression of myelopathy in men with adrenoleukodystrophy, as better outcome measures to quantify progression of myelopathy would enable clinical trials with fewer patients and shorter follow-up. METHODS: Clinical assessment of myelopathy included Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Severity Scoring System for Progressive Myelopathy (SSPROM), Timed Up-and-Go, and 6-Minute Walk Test. Applied dMRI metrics included fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity. RESULTS: Data were available for 33 controls and 52 patients. First, cross-sectionally, differences between groups (controls vs patients; controls vs asymptomatic patients vs symptomatic patients) were statistically significant for fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and radial diffusivity in spinal cord and brain corticospinal tracts (effect size 0.31-0.68). Correlations between dMRI metrics and clinical measures were moderate to strong (correlation coefficient 0.35-0.60). Second, longitudinally (n = 36), change on clinical measures was significant after 2-year follow-up for EDSS, SSPROM, and Timed Up-and-Go (p ≤ 0.021, effect size ≤0.14). Change on brain fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity was slightly larger (p ≤ 0.002, effect sizes 0.16-0.28). In addition, a statistically significant change was detectable in asymptomatic patients using brain dMRI and not using the clinical measures. Change on clinical measures did not correlate to change on dMRI metrics. CONCLUSION: Although effect sizes were small, our prospective data illustrate the potential of dMRI as surrogate outcome measure for progression of myelopathy in men with adrenoleukodystrophy.

2.
J Neurol ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progressive myelopathy is the main cause of disability in adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD). Development of therapies is hampered by a lack of quantitative outcome measures. In this study, we investigated whether myelopathy in ALD is associated with retinal neurodegeneration on optical coherence tomography (OCT), which could serve as a surrogate outcome measure. METHODS: Sixty-two patients (29 men and 33 women) and 70 age-matched and sex-matched controls (33 men and 37 women) were included in this cross-sectional study. We compared retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness between ALD patients and controls. In addition, we correlated these OCT measurements with clinical parameters of severity of myelopathy. RESULTS: Patients had significantly thinner RNFL (male group, p < 0.05) and pRNFL superior and temporal quadrant [both male (p < 0.005) and female (p < 0.05) groups] compared to controls. Comparing three groups (symptomatic patients, asymptomatic patients and controls), there were significant differences in RNFL thickness (total grid and peripheral ring) in the male group (p ≤ 0.002) and in pRNFL thickness (superior and temporal quadrant) in both male (p ≤ 0.02) and the female (p ≤ 0.02) groups. Neuroretinal layer thickness correlated moderately with severity of myelopathy in men (correlation coefficients between 0.29-0.55, p < 0.02), but not in women. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that neurodegeneration of the spinal cord in ALD is reflected in the retina of patients with ALD. Therefore, OCT could be valuable as an outcome measure for the myelopathy of ALD. Additional longitudinal studies are ongoing.

3.
Brain ; 142(11): 3382-3397, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637422

RESUMO

CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase (ET), encoded by PCYT2, is the rate-limiting enzyme for phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis via the CDP-ethanolamine pathway. Phosphatidylethanolamine is one of the most abundant membrane lipids and is particularly enriched in the brain. We identified five individuals with biallelic PCYT2 variants clinically characterized by global developmental delay with regression, spastic para- or tetraparesis, epilepsy and progressive cerebral and cerebellar atrophy. Using patient fibroblasts we demonstrated that these variants are hypomorphic, result in altered but residual ET protein levels and concomitant reduced enzyme activity without affecting mRNA levels. The significantly better survival of hypomorphic CRISPR-Cas9 generated pcyt2 zebrafish knockout compared to a complete knockout, in conjunction with previously described data on the Pcyt2 mouse model, indicates that complete loss of ET function may be incompatible with life in vertebrates. Lipidomic analysis revealed profound lipid abnormalities in patient fibroblasts impacting both neutral etherlipid and etherphospholipid metabolism. Plasma lipidomics studies also identified changes in etherlipids that have the potential to be used as biomarkers for ET deficiency. In conclusion, our data establish PCYT2 as a disease gene for a new complex hereditary spastic paraplegia and confirm that etherlipid homeostasis is important for the development and function of the brain.

4.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 217, 2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men with the hereditary peroxisomal disorder X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) are at risk of developing inflammatory demyelinating lesions in the brain. In the absence of inflammatory (post-contrast enhancing) lesions on MRI cognitive function is considered spared, but some form of cognitive dysfunction may nevertheless be present. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to characterize cognitive functioning of ALD men with no or minimal MRI abnormalities, which will define cognitive functioning in this category of patients. METHODS: A neuropsychological battery covering a broad range of cognitive domains, including language, verbal and non-verbal memory, visuoconstruction, executive functioning, and psychomotor speed, was used. Means and proportions of borderline and impaired T scores ≤36 were compared to the standardized norm group and a qualitative case-by-case analysis was performed for participants with T scores ≤36 within ≥2 domains. Patients with MRI abnormalities that were extensive (Loes score > 3) or showed enhancement post-contrast were excluded. RESULTS: Thirty-three men participated (median age 44 years, range 19-71). Mean performance on verbal fluency was poorer in patients (45.70 ± 8.85 patients vs. 50 ± 10 standardized norm group, p = 0.009), as was the percentage of borderline and impaired scores on visuoconstruction (Beery VMI: 19% patients vs. 8% standardized norm group, p = 0.02; RCFT copy: 81% patients vs. 2% standardized norm group, p < 0.0005) and mental reaction time during a complex decision task (18% patients vs. 8% standardized norm group, p = 0.055). Moreover, 9/33 (27.3%) patients had T scores ≤36 within ≥2 domains. CONCLUSIONS: Given the heterogeneous pattern of mostly borderline scores cognitive functioning seems not impaired in the vast majority of adult ALD males with no or minimal MRI abnormalities. However, borderline to impaired cognitive dysfunction was present in 27.3%, with the majority being borderline scores. Longitudinal studies will have to determine if this reflects early cerebral disease under the detection limit of MRI.

5.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(5): 955-965, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150129

RESUMO

Patients with a Zellweger spectrum disorder (ZSD) have a defect in the assembly or maintenance of peroxisomes, leading to a multisystem disease with variable outcome. Liver disease is an important feature in patients with severe and milder phenotypes and a frequent cause of death. However, the course and histology of liver disease in ZSD patients are ill-defined. We reviewed the hepatic symptoms and histological findings of 13 patients with a ZSD in which one or several liver biopsies have been performed (patient age 0.2-39 years). All patients had at least some histological liver abnormalities, ranging from minor fibrosis to cirrhosis. Five patients demonstrated significant disease progression with liver failure and early death. In others, liver-related symptoms were absent, although some still silently developed cirrhosis. Patients with peroxisomal mosaicism had a better prognosis. In addition, we show that patients are at risk to develop a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as one patient developed a HCC at the age of 36 years and one patient a precancerous lesion at the age of 18 years. Thus, regular examination to detect fibrosis or cirrhosis should be included in the standard care of ZSD patients. In case of advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis expert consultation and HCC screening should be initiated. This study further delineates the spectrum and significance of liver involvement in ZSDs.

8.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(2): 303-312, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793331

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Currently, no therapies are available for Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs), a group of genetic metabolic disorders characterised by a deficiency of functional peroxisomes. In a previous study, we showed that oral cholic acid (CA) treatment can suppress bile acid synthesis in ZSD patients and, thereby, decrease plasma levels of toxic C27 -bile acid intermediates, one of the biochemical abnormalities in these patients. However, no effect on clinically relevant outcome measures could be observed after 9 months of CA treatment. It was noted that, in patients with advanced liver disease, caution is needed because of possible hepatotoxicity. METHODS: An extension study of the previously conducted pretest-posttest design study was conducted including 17 patients with a ZSD. All patients received oral CA for an additional period of 12 months, encompassing a total of 21 months of treatment. Multiple clinically relevant parameters and markers for bile acid synthesis were assessed after 15 and 21 months of treatment. RESULTS: Bile acid synthesis was still suppressed after 21 months of CA treatment, accompanied with reduced levels of C27 -bile acid intermediates in plasma. These levels significantly increased again after discontinuation of CA. No significant changes were found in liver tests, liver elasticity, coagulation parameters, fat-soluble vitamin levels or body weight. CONCLUSIONS: Although CA treatment did lead to reduced levels of toxic C27 -bile acid intermediates in ZSD patients without severe liver fibrosis or cirrhosis, no improvement of clinically relevant parameters was observed after 21 months of treatment. We discuss the implications for CA therapy in ZSD based on these results.

9.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 30, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over 80% of women with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) develop spinal cord disease in adulthood for which treatment is supportive only. For future clinical trials quantitative data on disease progression rates are essential. Moreover, diagnosis can be challenging in ALD women, as the most important diagnostic biomarker is normal in 15-20%. Better biomarkers are needed. The purpose of this single centre cross-sectional follow-up study in women with ALD was to assess whether Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), AMC Linear Disability Scale (ALDS) and Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36) can detect disease progression and to model the effect of age and duration of symptoms on the rate of progression. Moreover, we performed a pilot study to assess if a semi-targeted lipidomics approach can identify possible new diagnostic biomarkers. RESULTS: In this study 46 women (baseline clinical data published by our group previously) were invited for a follow-up visit. Newly identified women at our center were also recruited. We analysed 65 baseline and 34 follow-up assessments. Median time between baseline and follow-up was 7.8 years (range 6.4-8.7). Mean age at baseline was 49.2 ± 14.2 years, at follow-up 55.4 ± 10.1. EDSS increased significantly (+ 0.08 points/year), but the other outcome measures did not. Increasing age and duration of symptoms were associated with more disability. For the pilot study we analysed plasma of 20 ALD women and 10 controls with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry, which identified 100 potential biomarker ratios with strong differentiating properties and non-overlapping data distributions between ALD women and controls. CONCLUSIONS: Progression of spinal cord disease can be detected with EDSS, but not with ALDS or SF-36 after a follow-up period of almost 8 years. Moreover, age and the duration of symptoms seem positively associated with the rate of progression. Although a significant progression was measurable, it was below the rate generally conceived as clinically relevant. Therefore, EDSS, ALDS and SF-36 are not suitable as primary outcome measures in clinical trials for spinal cord disease in ALD women. In addition, a semi-targeted lipidomics approach can identify possible new diagnostic biomarkers for women with ALD.


Assuntos
Adrenoleucodistrofia/patologia , Adrenoleucodistrofia/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biologia Computacional , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças da Medula Espinal/patologia
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(1): e0006356, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30650071

RESUMO

The Onchocerca ochengi adult implant and Brugia malayi microfilariemic Severe-Combined Immunodeficient (SCID) mouse models are validated screens to measure macrofilaricidal and microfilaricidal activities of candidate onchocerciasis drugs. The purpose of this study was to assess whether 5 daily sub-cutaneous (s.c.) injections of standard flubendazole (FBZ) suspension (10mg/kg), a single s.c. injection (10mg/kg) or 5 daily repeated oral doses of FBZ amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) formulation (0.2, 1.5 or 15mg/kg) mediated macrofilaricidal efficacy against O. ochengi male worms implanted into SCID mice. The direct microfilaricidal activity against circulating B. malayi microfilariae of single dose FBZ ASD formulation (2 or 40 mg/kg) was also evaluated and compared against the standard microfilaricide, ivermectin (IVM). Systemic exposures of FBZ/FBZ metabolites achieved following dosing were measured by pharmacokinetic (PK) bioanalysis. At necropsy, five weeks following start of FBZ SC injections, there were significant reductions in burdens of motile O. ochengi worms following multiple injections (93%) or single injection (82%). Further, significant proportions of mice dosed following multiple injections (5/6; 83%) or single injection (6/10; 60%) were infection negative (drug-cured). In comparison, no significant reduction in recovery of motile adult O. ochengi adult worms was obtained in any multiple-oral dosage group. Single oral-dosed FBZ did not mediate any significant microfilaricidal activity against circulating B. malayi mf at 2 or 7 days compared with >80% efficacy of single dose IVM. In conclusion, multiple oral FBZ formulation doses, whilst achieving substantial bioavailability, do not emulate the efficacy delivered by the parenteral route in vivo against adult O. ochengi. PK analysis determined FBZ efficacy was related to sustained systemic drug levels rather than achievable Cmax. PK modelling predicted that oral FBZ would have to be given at low dose for up to 5 weeks in the mouse model to achieve a matching efficacious exposure profile.


Assuntos
Brugia Malayi/efeitos dos fármacos , Filaricidas/farmacologia , Mebendazol/análogos & derivados , Microfilárias/efeitos dos fármacos , Onchocerca/efeitos dos fármacos , Oncocercose/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Filaricidas/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Masculino , Mebendazol/administração & dosagem , Mebendazol/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos SCID , Carga Parasitária
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(1): e0007026, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30650076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flubendazole, originally developed to treat infections with intestinal nematodes, has been shown to be efficacious in animal models of filarial infections. For treatment of filarial nematodes, systemic exposure is needed. For this purpose, an orally bioavailable amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) formulation of flubendazole was developed. As this formulation results in improved systemic absorption, the pharmacokinetic and toxicological profile of the flubendazole ASD formulation have been assessed to ensure human safety before clinical trials could be initiated. METHODS & FINDINGS: Safety pharmacology, toxicity and genotoxicity studies have been conducted with the flubendazole ASD formulation. In animals, flubendazole has good oral bioavailability from an ASD formulation ranging from 15% in dogs, 27% in rats to more than 100% in jirds. In in vivo toxicity studies with the ASD formulation, high systemic exposure to flubendazole and its main metabolites was reached. Flubendazole, up to high peak plasma concentrations, does not induce Cmax related effects in CNS or cardiovascular system. In repeated dose toxicity studies in rats and dogs, flubendazole-induced changes were observed in haematological, lymphoid and gastrointestinal systems and in testes. In dogs, the liver was an additional target organ. Upon treatment cessation, at least partial recovery was observed for these changes in dogs. In rats, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) was 5 mg (as base)/kg body weight/day (mg eq./kg/day) in males and 2.5 mg eq./kg/day in females. In dogs, the NOAEL was lower than 20 mg eq./kg/day. Regarding genotoxicity, flubendazole was negative in the Ames test, but positive in the in vivo micronucleus test. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these results, in combination with previously described genotoxicity and reproductive toxicity data and the outcome of the preclinical efficacy studies, it was concluded that no flubendazole treatment regimen can be selected that would provide efficacy in humans at safe exposure.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/efeitos adversos , Antinematódeos/farmacocinética , Mebendazol/análogos & derivados , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Administração Oral , Animais , Antinematódeos/administração & dosagem , Cães , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Feminino , Gerbillinae , Masculino , Mebendazol/administração & dosagem , Mebendazol/efeitos adversos , Mebendazol/farmacocinética , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(1): e0006787, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30650084

RESUMO

River blindness and lymphatic filariasis are two filarial diseases that globally affect millions of people mostly in impoverished countries. Current mass drug administration programs rely on drugs that primarily target the microfilariae, which are released from adult female worms. The female worms can live for several years, releasing millions of microfilariae throughout the course of infection. Thus, to stop transmission of infection and shorten the time to elimination of these diseases, a safe and effective drug that kills the adult stage is needed. The benzimidazole anthelmintic flubendazole (FBZ) is 100% efficacious as a macrofilaricide in experimental filarial rodent models but it must be administered subcutaneously (SC) due to its low oral bioavailability. Studies were undertaken to assess the efficacy of a new oral amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) formulation of FBZ on Brugia pahangi infected jirds (Meriones unguiculatus) and compare it to a single or multiple doses of FBZ given subcutaneously. Results showed that worm burden was not significantly decreased in animals given oral doses of ASD FBZ (0.2-15 mg/kg). Regardless, doses as low as 1.5 mg/kg caused extensive ultrastructural damage to developing embryos and microfilariae (mf). SC injections of FBZ in suspension (10 mg/kg) given for 5 days however, eliminated all worms in all animals, and a single SC injection reduced worm burden by 63% compared to the control group. In summary, oral doses of ASD formulated FBZ did not significantly reduce total worm burden but longer treatments, extended takedown times or a second dosing regimen, may decrease female fecundity and the number of mf shed by female worms.


Assuntos
Brugia pahangi/efeitos dos fármacos , Filariose , Filaricidas/uso terapêutico , Mebendazol/análogos & derivados , Microfilárias/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Filariose/tratamento farmacológico , Filariose/prevenção & controle , Filariose/transmissão , Filaricidas/administração & dosagem , Gerbillinae/parasitologia , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Mebendazol/administração & dosagem , Mebendazol/uso terapêutico , Carga Parasitária
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(1): e0006320, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30650105

RESUMO

Flubendazole (FBZ) is highly efficacious against filarial nematodes after parenteral administration and presents a promising macrofilaricidal drug candidate for the elimination of onchocerciasis and other filariae. In the present study the efficacy of a newly developed bioavailable amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) oral formulation of FBZ was investigated in the Litomosoides sigmodontis jird model. FBZ was administered to chronically infected, microfilariae-positive jirds by single (40mg/kg), repeated (2, 6 or 15mg/kg for 5 or 10 days) oral (OR) doses or single subcutaneous (SC) injections (2 or 10mg/kg). Jirds treated with 5 SC injections at 10mg/kg served as positive controls, with untreated animals used as negative controls. After OR doses, FBZ is rapidly absorbed and cleared and the exposures increased dose proportionally. SC administered FBZ was slowly released from the injection site and plasma levels remained constant up to necropsy eight weeks after treatment end. Increasing single SC doses caused less than dose-proportional exposures. At necropsy, all animals receiving 1x or 5x 10mg/kg SC FBZ had cleared all adult worms and the 1x 2mg/kg SC treatment had reduced the adult worm burden by 98%. 10x 15mg/kg OR FBZ reduced the adult worm burden by 95%, whereas 1x 40mg/kg and 5x 15mg/kg OR reduced the worm burden by 85 and 84%, respectively. Microfilaremia was completely cleared at necropsy in all animals of the SC treatment regimens, while all oral FBZ treatment regimens reduced the microfilaremia by >90% in a dose and duration dependent manner. In accordance, embryograms from female worms revealed a FBZ dose and duration dependent inhibition of embryogenesis. Histological analysis of the remaining female adult worms showed that FBZ had damaged the body wall, intestine and most prominently the uterus and uterine content. Results of this study demonstrate that single and repeated SC injections and repeated oral administrations of FBZ have an excellent macrofilaricidal effect.


Assuntos
Filariose/tratamento farmacológico , Filaricidas/farmacologia , Filaricidas/farmacocinética , Filarioidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Mebendazol/análogos & derivados , Administração Oral , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Filariose/parasitologia , Filaricidas/administração & dosagem , Filarioidea/embriologia , Gerbillinae/parasitologia , Mebendazol/administração & dosagem , Mebendazol/farmacocinética , Mebendazol/farmacologia , Carga Parasitária
14.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(1): 118-126, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30252065

RESUMO

Context: Primary adrenal insufficiency is an important clinical manifestation of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD). Other manifestations include spinal cord disease and/or inflammatory demyelinating cerebral disease. Implementation of newborn screening requires natural history data to develop follow-up recommendations. Objective: To delineate the natural history of adrenal insufficiency in male patients with ALD and to assess associations between the risk for developing adrenal insufficiency, spinal cord disease, or cerebral disease and plasma C26:0/C22:0 and C24:0/C22:0 ratios, which are diagnostic biomarkers for ALD. Design: Retrospective review of medical records. Setting: Two international tertiary referral centers of expertise for ALD. Patients: Male patients with ALD followed at the centers between 2002 and 2016. Main Outcome Measures: The primary endpoint was adrenal insufficiency; secondary endpoints were spinal cord and cerebral disease. Results: Data on 159 male patients was available. The probability of developing adrenal insufficiency was described with survival analysis. Median time until adrenal insufficiency was 14 years (95% CI, 9.70 to 18.30 years). The cumulative proportion of patients who developed adrenal insufficiency was age-dependent and highest in early childhood [0 to 10 years, 46.8% (SEM 0.041%); 11 to 40 years, 28.6% (SEM, 0.037%); >40 years, 5.6% (SEM, 0.038%)]. No association between clinical manifestations and plasma ratios was detected with Cox model or Spearman correlation. Conclusions: Lifetime prevalence of adrenal insufficiency in male patients with ALD is ~80%. Adrenal insufficiency risk is time-dependent and warrants age-dependent follow-up. Besides on-demand testing if symptoms manifest, we suggest a minimum of adrenal testing every 4 to 6 months for patients age ≤10 years, annual testing for those age 11 to 40 years, and solely on-demand testing for those age >40 years.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal/etiologia , Insuficiência Adrenal/patologia , Adrenoleucodistrofia/complicações , Adrenoleucodistrofia/patologia , Adolescente , Insuficiência Adrenal/epidemiologia , Adrenoleucodistrofia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Encefalopatias/epidemiologia , Encefalopatias/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Determinação de Ponto Final , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Doenças da Medula Espinal/etiologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
15.
Brain ; 142(2): 334-343, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535170

RESUMO

Males with adrenoleukodystrophy develop progressive myelopathy causing severe disability later in life. No treatment is currently available, but new disease-modifying therapies are under development. Knowledge of the natural history of the myelopathy is of paramount importance for evaluation of these therapies in clinical trials, but prospective data on disease progression are lacking. We performed a prospective observational cohort study to quantify disease progression over 2 years of follow-up. Signs and symptoms, functional outcome measures and patient-reported outcomes were assessed at baseline, 1 and 2 years of follow-up. We included 46 male adrenoleukodystrophy patients (median age 45.5 years, range 16-71). Frequency of myelopathy at baseline increased with age from 30.8% (<30 years) to 94.7% (>50 years). Disease progression was measured in the patients who were symptomatic at baseline (n = 24) or became symptomatic during follow-up (n = 1). Significant progression was detected with the functional outcome measures and quantitative vibration measurements. Over 2 years of follow-up, Expanded Disability Status Score increased by 0.34 points (P = 0.034), Severity Scoring system for Progressive Myelopathy decreased by 2.78 points (P = 0.013), timed up-and-go increased by 0.82 s (P = 0.032) and quantitative vibration measurement at the hallux decreased by 0.57 points (P = 0.040). Changes over 1-year follow-up were not significant, except for the 6-minute walk test that decreased by 19.67 meters over 1 year (P = 0.019). None of the patient-reported outcomes were able to detect disease progression. Our data show that progression of myelopathy in adrenoleukodystrophy can be quantified using practical and clinically relevant outcome measures. These results will help in the design of clinical trials and the development of new biomarkers for the myelopathy of adrenoleukodystrophy.10.1093/brain/awy299_video1awy299media15995811923001.


Assuntos
Adrenoleucodistrofia/diagnóstico por imagem , Adrenoleucodistrofia/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Doenças da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adrenoleucodistrofia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças da Medula Espinal/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Med Genet ; 55(2): 104-113, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29097605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: De novo mutations in PURA have recently been described to cause PURA syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by severe intellectual disability (ID), epilepsy, feeding difficulties and neonatal hypotonia. OBJECTIVES: To delineate the clinical spectrum of PURA syndrome and study genotype-phenotype correlations. METHODS: Diagnostic or research-based exome or Sanger sequencing was performed in individuals with ID. We systematically collected clinical and mutation data on newly ascertained PURA syndrome individuals, evaluated data of previously reported individuals and performed a computational analysis of photographs. We classified mutations based on predicted effect using 3D in silico models of crystal structures of Drosophila-derived Pur-alpha homologues. Finally, we explored genotype-phenotype correlations by analysis of both recurrent mutations as well as mutation classes. RESULTS: We report mutations in PURA (purine-rich element binding protein A) in 32 individuals, the largest cohort described so far. Evaluation of clinical data, including 22 previously published cases, revealed that all have moderate to severe ID and neonatal-onset symptoms, including hypotonia (96%), respiratory problems (57%), feeding difficulties (77%), exaggerated startle response (44%), hypersomnolence (66%) and hypothermia (35%). Epilepsy (54%) and gastrointestinal (69%), ophthalmological (51%) and endocrine problems (42%) were observed frequently. Computational analysis of facial photographs showed subtle facial dysmorphism. No strong genotype-phenotype correlation was identified by subgrouping mutations into functional classes. CONCLUSION: We delineate the clinical spectrum of PURA syndrome with the identification of 32 additional individuals. The identification of one individual through targeted Sanger sequencing points towards the clinical recognisability of the syndrome. Genotype-phenotype analysis showed no significant correlation between mutation classes and disease severity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Face/anormalidades , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Proteínas de Drosophila/química , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Anormalidades do Olho/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Hipotonia Muscular/etiologia , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Gravidez , Homologia Estrutural de Proteína , Síndrome , Fatores de Transcrição/química
18.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 41(2): 249-255, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29139025

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs) are caused by an impairment of peroxisome biogenesis, resulting in multiple metabolic abnormalities. This leads to a range of symptoms, including hepatic dysfunction and coagulopathy. This study evaluated the incidence and severity of coagulopathy and the effect of vitamin K supplementation orally and IV in ZSD. METHODS: Data were retrospectively retrieved from the medical records of 30 ZSD patients to study coagulopathy and the effect of vitamin K orally on proteins induced by vitamin K absence (PIVKA-II) levels. Five patients from the cohort with a prolonged prothrombin time, low factor VII, and elevated PIVKA-II levels received 10 mg of vitamin K IV. Laboratory results, including thrombin generation, at baseline and 72 h after vitamin K administration were examined. RESULTS: In the retrospective cohort, four patients (13.3%) experienced intracranial bleedings and 14 (46.7%) reported minor bleeding. No thrombotic events occurred. PIVKA-II levels decreased 38% after start of vitamin K therapy orally. In the five patients with a coagulopathy, despite treatment with oral administration of vitamin K, vitamin K IV caused an additional decrease (23%) of PIVKA-II levels and increased thrombin generation. CONCLUSION: Bleeding complications frequently occur in ZSD patients due to liver disease and vitamin K deficiency. Vitamin K deficiency is partly corrected by vitamin K supplementation orally, and vitamin K administered IV additionally improves vitamin K status, as shown by further decrease of PIVKA-II and improved thrombin generation.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/tratamento farmacológico , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência de Vitamina K/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina K/administração & dosagem , Síndrome de Zellweger/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Projetos Piloto , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Estudos Prospectivos , Precursores de Proteínas/sangue , Protrombina , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Deficiência de Vitamina K/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina K/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina K/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Síndrome de Zellweger/sangue , Síndrome de Zellweger/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Zellweger/epidemiologia
20.
Mol Genet Metab ; 122(4): 209-215, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29089175

RESUMO

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is the most common leukodystrophy with a birth incidence of 1:14,700 live births. The disease is caused by mutations in ABCD1 and characterized by very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) accumulation. In childhood, male patients are at high-risk to develop adrenal insufficiency and/or cerebral demyelination. Timely diagnosis is essential. Untreated adrenal insufficiency can be life-threatening and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is curative for cerebral ALD provided the procedure is performed in an early stage of the disease. For this reason, ALD is being added to an increasing number of newborn screening programs. ALD newborn screening involves the quantification of C26:0-lysoPC in dried blood spots which requires a dedicated method. C26:0-carnitine, that was recently identified as a potential new biomarker for ALD, has the advantage that it can be added as one more analyte to the routine analysis of amino acids and acylcarnitines already in use. The first objective of this study was a comparison of the sensitivity of C26:0-carnitine and C26:0-lysoPC in dried blood spots from control and ALD newborns both in a case-control study and in newborns included in the New York State screening program. While C26:0-lysoPC was elevated in all ALD newborns, C26:0-carnitine was elevated only in 83%. Therefore, C26:0-carnitine is not a suitable biomarker to use in ALD newborn screen. In women with ALD, plasma VLCFA analysis results in a false negative result in approximately 15-20% of cases. The second objective of this study was to compare plasma VLCFA analysis with C26:0-carnitine and C26:0-lysoPC in dried blood spots of women with ALD. Our results show that C26:0-lysoPC was elevated in dried blood spots from all women with ALD, including from those with normal plasma C26:0 levels. This shows that C26:0-lysoPC is a better and more accurate biomarker for ALD than plasma VLCFA levels. We recommend that C26:0-lysoPC be added to the routine biochemical array of diagnostic tests for peroxisomal disorders.


Assuntos
Adrenoleucodistrofia/diagnóstico , Carnitina/análise , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Lisofosfatidilcolinas/análise , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Membro 1 da Subfamília D de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Adrenoleucodistrofia/complicações , Adrenoleucodistrofia/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Países Baixos , New York , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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