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1.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 27(19): 115044, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443950

RESUMO

Platinum compounds are the first-line therapy for many types of cancer. However, drug resistance has frequently been reported for and is a major limitation of platinum-based chemotherapy in the clinic. In the current study, we examined the anti-tumor activity of phomoxanthone A (PXA), a tetrahydroxanthone dimer isolated from the endophytic fungus Phomopsis longicolla, in several solid cancer cell lines and their cisplatin-resistant sub-cell lines. PXA showed strong cytotoxic effects with IC50 values in the high nanomolar or low micromolar range in MTT assays. IC50 values of PXA were lower than those of cisplatin. Remarkably, equipotent anti-cancer activity was found in cisplatin-sensitive and respective cisplatin-resistant cells. Anticancer effects of PXA were studied in further detail in ovarian cancer (A2780) and bladder cancer (J82) cell pairs. PXA led to rapid depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential and strong activation of caspase 3 and 7, eventually resulting in strong induction of apoptosis. These effects occurred again both in sensitive and resistant cell lines. IC50 values of PXA from MTT and mitochondrial membrane depolarization assays were in good agreement. Configurational free energy computations indicate that both the neutral and singly negatively charged PXA show membrane partitioning and can penetrate the inner mitochondrial membrane. PXA treatment did not damage the plasma membranes of cancer cells, thus excluding unspecific membrane effects. Further, PXA had neither an effect on intracellular ROS nor on reduction of ROS after hydrogen peroxide treatment. In conclusion, our studies present PXA as a natural compound with strong apoptotic anticancer effects against platinum-resistant solid cancers. This may open new treatment options in clinically resistant malignancies.

2.
Int J Pharm ; 545(1-2): 215-228, 2018 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29684561

RESUMO

Epidermal powder immunization (EPI) is an alternative technique to the classical immunization route using needle and syringe. In this work, we present the results of an in vivo pilot study in piglets using a dried influenza model vaccine which was applied by EPI using a novel pyrotechnically driven applicator. A liquid influenza vaccine (Pandemrix®) was first concentrated by tangential flow filtration and hemagglutinin content was determined by RP-HPLC. The liquid formulation was then transformed into a dry powder by collapse freeze-drying and subsequent cryo-milling. The vaccine powder was attached to a membrane of a novel pyrotechnical applicator using oily adjuvant components. Upon actuation of the applicator, particles were accelerated to high speed as determined by a high-speed camera setup. Piglets were immunized twice using either the novel pyrotechnical applicator or classical intramuscular injection. Blood samples of the animals were collected at various time points and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our pilot study shows that acceleration of a dried vaccine powder to supersonic speed using the pyrotechnical applicator is possible and that the speed and impact of the particles is sufficient to breach the stratum corneum of piglet skin. Importantly, the administration of the dry vaccine powder resulted in measurable anti-H1N1 antibody titres in vivo.


Assuntos
Imunização/instrumentação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Composição de Medicamentos , Epiderme , Liofilização , Imunização/métodos , Esquemas de Imunização , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Vacinas contra Influenza/química , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/metabolismo , Injeções Intramusculares , Projetos Piloto , Pós , Sus scrofa , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/métodos , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 128: 119-130, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29660407

RESUMO

The intradermal delivery of biologics has long been recognized as attractive approach for cutaneous immunotherapy, particularly vaccination. Although intradermal (i.d.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) injection provide reproducible dosing and good cost- and delivery efficiency, the major objective to avoid sharps and the need for enhanced storage stability have renewed the interest in alternative needle-free delivery strategies. This study presents a new concept for the delivery of macromolecules and nanoparticles to viable skin layers with a high density of professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Stable polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer films as well as PVA blends with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) or cross-linked carbomer were prepared using an easily-scalable film casting technique. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and rhodamine B-labeled dextrane 70 kDa (RD70), used as small and macromolecular model substances, or polystyrene (PS)-nano- and microparticles with diameters of 0.5 µm and 5 µm were directly incorporated into the polymer formulations at varying concentrations. The assembly of the polymer films with an occlusive backing tape created a film patch that provided a fast drug release upon dissolution of the water-soluble film and facilitated an intradermal drug delivery on laser microporated skin. The minimally-invasive P.L.E.A.S.E.® laser poration system (Pantec Biosolutions, Ruggell, Liechtenstein) provided access to viable skin layers by thermally ablating the superficial tissue with a pulsed Er:YAG laser (λ = 2.94 µm). In our in vitro study using excised pig skin, laser microporation induced a 4- to 5-fold increase of water transport (TEWL) through excised skin in a Franz diffusion cell compared to intact skin. The TEWL values detected were comparable to in vivo human skin. The increased water transport facilitated the dissolution of all topically applied dry PVA-based film formulations within 6 h. No dissolution of the films was seen on intact skin. The incubation of the film patches on laser microporated skin for 24 h led to a considerable intradermal delivery of RD70 or PS-nanoparticles, which was superior for pure PVA films compared to PVA-CMC or PVA-carbomer blend formulations. No intradermal delivery was observed on intact skin or when larger PS-microparticles with a diameter of 5 µm were investigated. The presented concept provides a unique opportunity to exploit the improved storage stability of sensitive drug molecules in dry film formulations while providing protection and functionality.


Assuntos
Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Pele/metabolismo , Adesivo Transdérmico , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Dextranos/administração & dosagem , Dextranos/farmacocinética , Difusão , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Fluoresceína-5-Isotiocianato/administração & dosagem , Fluoresceína-5-Isotiocianato/farmacocinética , Lasers , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Modelos Animais , Álcool de Polivinil/química , Rodaminas/administração & dosagem , Rodaminas/farmacocinética , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Suínos , Água/química , Perda Insensível de Água/efeitos da radiação
4.
BMC Cancer ; 17(1): 711, 2017 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Widely established targeted therapies directed at triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) are missing. Classical chemotherapy remains the systemic treatment option. Cisplatin has been tested in TNBC but bears the disadvantage of resistance development. The purpose of this study was to identify resistance mechanisms in cisplatin-resistant TNBC cell lines and select targeted therapies based on these findings. METHODS: The TNBC cell lines HCC38 and MDA-MB231 were subjected to intermittent cisplatin treatment resulting in the 3.5-fold cisplatin-resistant subclone HCC38CisR and the 2.1-fold more resistant MDA-MB231CisR. Activation of pro-survival pathways was explored by immunostaining of phospho-receptor tyrosine kinases. Targeted therapies (NVP-AEW541, lapatinib and NVP-BEZ235) against activated pathways were investigated regarding cancer cell growth and cisplatin sensitivity. RESULTS: In HCC38CisR and MDA-MB231CisR, phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) was observed. In HCC38CisR, treatment with NVP-AEW541 increased potency of lapatinib almost seven-fold, but both compounds could not restore cisplatin sensitivity. However, the dual phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 acted synergistically with cisplatin in HCC38CisR and fully restored cisplatin sensitivity. Similarly, NVP-BEZ235 increased cisplatin potency in MDA-MB231CisR. Furthermore, NVP-AEW541 in combination with lapatinib restored cisplatin sensitivity in MDA-MB231CisR. CONCLUSION: Simultaneous inhibition of EGFR and IGF1R in cisplatin-resistant TNBC cell lines was synergistic regarding inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Co-treatment with NVP-BEZ235 or with a combination of NVP-AEW541 and lapatinib restored cisplatin sensitivity and may constitute a targeted treatment option for cisplatin-resistant TNBC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Lapatinib , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico
5.
J Cancer ; 7(4): 353-63, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26918049

RESUMO

Purpose. Several studies have shown that natural compounds like resveratrol or ellagic acid have anticancer and antioxidant properties and can stimulate apoptosis in many cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to elucidate if resveratrol or ellagic acid, respectively, could improve the efficacy of cisplatin in ovarian cancer. Methods. As a cellular resistance model, the epithelial ovarian cancer cell line A2780 and its cisplatin-resistant subclone A2780CisR were used. A2780CisR was obtained by intermittent treatment of A2780 with cisplatin for 26 weekly cycles and showed a 4-6-fold increased resistance towards cisplatin compared to A2780. Results. Pretreatment with resveratrol or ellagic acid 48 h prior to treatment with cisplatin showed a moderate enhancement of cisplatin cytotoxicity in A2780CisR cells (shift factors were 1.6 for ellagic acid and 2.5 for resveratrol). However, intermittent treatment of A2780 with cisplatin for 26 weekly cycles in permanent presence of resveratrol or ellagic acid, respectively, completely prevented the development of cisplatin resistance. The generated cell lines named A2780Resv and A2780Ellag displayed functional characteristics (migration, proliferation, apoptosis, activation of ErbB3, ROS generation) similar to the parental cell line A2780. Conclusion. In conclusion, weekly intermittent treatment cycles of cisplatin-sensitive ovarian cancer cells with cisplatin retain cisplatin chemosensitivity in permanent presence of ellagic acid or resveratrol, respectively, whereas clinically relevant cisplatin chemoresistance develops in the absence of ellagic acid or resveratrol. Use of natural phenolic compounds may thus be a promising approach to prevent cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer.

6.
Vaccine ; 33(37): 4663-74, 2015 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26006087

RESUMO

Technologies and strategies for cutaneous vaccination have been evolving significantly during the past decades. Today, there is evidence for increased efficacy of cutaneously delivered vaccines allowing for dose reduction and providing a minimally invasive alternative to traditional vaccination. Considerable progress has been made within the field of well-established cutaneous vaccination strategies: Jet and powder injection technologies, microneedles, microporation technologies, electroporation, sonoporation, and also transdermal and transfollicular vaccine delivery. Due to recent advances, the use of cutaneous vaccination can be expanded from prophylactic vaccination for infectious diseases into therapeutic vaccination for both infectious and non-infectious chronic conditions. This review will provide an insight into immunological processes occurring in the skin and introduce the key innovations of cutaneous vaccination technologies.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Administração Cutânea , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Humanos , Injeções Intradérmicas/efeitos adversos , Injeções Intradérmicas/métodos , Injeções Subcutâneas/efeitos adversos , Injeções Subcutâneas/métodos , Vacinas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas/imunologia
7.
J Org Chem ; 78(24): 12409-25, 2013 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24295452

RESUMO

Four tetrahydroxanthone dimers (1-4) and four biogenetically related monomers (5-8), including the new derivatives 4-6, were isolated from the endophyte Phomopsis longicolla. The absolute configurations of 2-4 were established for the first time by TDDFT electronic circular dichroism calculations, and that of phomoxanthone A (1) was revised by X-ray crystallography. Phomoxanthone A (1) showed the strongest pro-apoptotic activity when tested against a panel of human cancer cell lines, including cisplatin-resistant cells, whereas it was up to 100-fold less active against healthy blood cells. It was also the most potent activator of murine T lymphocytes, NK cells, and macrophages, suggesting an activation of the immune system in parallel to its pro-apoptotic activity. This dual effect in combating cancer cells could help in fighting resistance during chemotherapy. Preliminary structure-activity studies of isolated compounds and derivatives obtained by semisynthesis (9a-11) hinted at the location of the biaryl axis and the presence of acetyl groups as important structural elements for the biological activity of the studied tetrahydroxanthones.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascomicetos/química , Xantonas/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Apoptose/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Dimerização , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Teoria Quântica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Xantonas/química , Xantonas/isolamento & purificação
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