Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 53
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(11): 2252-2256, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373173

RESUMO

A male patient with mosaic paternal uniparental diploidy (PUD) is presented. After birth, the patient presented with hypoglycemia, hemihypertrophy, umbilical hernia, and hepatomegaly. Afterward pancreatic hypertrophy, liver hemangiomas, and cysts were detected sonographically. At the age of 3.5 months, hepatoblastoma was diagnosed. To investigate suspected Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), extensive genetic analyses were performed using DNA from chorionic villus sampling, amniocentesis, and peripheral blood lymphocytes (chromosome analysis, methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assays, microsatellite analyses, and single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis). These analyses led to the detection of mosaic PUD. In peripheral blood lymphocytes, a male cell line (46,XY[27]/46,XX[5]) predominated, suggesting a mixture of uniparental isodisomy and heterodisomy. The genetic analyses suggest that the mosaic PUD status was attributable to fertilization of an oocyte by two sperms, with subsequent triploidy rescue giving rise to haploidy, which in turn was rescued. Notably, in the majority of the 28 mosaic PUD patients reported to date, BWS was initially suspected. Mosaic PUD status is associated with a higher risk for a broad range of malignant and benign tumors than in BWS. As tumors can also occur after childhood surveillance into adolescence is indicated. Mosaic PUD must therefore be considered in patients with suspected BWS.

2.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(7): 1319-1326, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353862

RESUMO

A recurrent de novo missense variant in KCNC1, encoding a voltage-gated potassium channel expressed in inhibitory neurons, causes progressive myoclonus epilepsy and ataxia, and a nonsense variant is associated with intellectual disability. We identified three new de novo missense variants in KCNC1 in five unrelated individuals causing different phenotypes featuring either isolated nonprogressive myoclonus (p.Cys208Tyr), intellectual disability (p.Thr399Met), or epilepsy with myoclonic, absence and generalized tonic-clonic seizures, ataxia, and developmental delay (p.Ala421Val, three patients). Functional analyses demonstrated no measurable currents for all identified variants and dominant-negative effects for p.Thr399Met and p.Ala421Val predicting neuronal disinhibition as the underlying disease mechanism.

3.
Clin Case Rep ; 6(9): 1786-1790, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30214764

RESUMO

Our findings extend the phenotypic spectrum of Cat eye syndrome, a disorder with wide clinical variability. The potentially life-threatening complications of congenital diaphragmatic hernia should be considered in genetic counseling and prenatal diagnostic.

4.
Hum Genet ; 137(9): 753-768, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30167850

RESUMO

NALCN is a conserved cation channel, which conducts a permanent sodium leak current and regulates resting membrane potential and neuronal excitability. It is part of a large ion channel complex, the "NALCN channelosome", consisting of multiple proteins including UNC80 and UNC79. The predominant neuronal expression pattern and its function suggest an important role in neuronal function and disease. So far, biallelic NALCN and UNC80 variants have been described in a small number of individuals leading to infantile hypotonia, psychomotor retardation, and characteristic facies 1 (IHPRF1, OMIM 615419) and 2 (IHPRF2, OMIM 616801), respectively. Heterozygous de novo NALCN missense variants in the S5/S6 pore-forming segments lead to congenital contractures of the limbs and face, hypotonia, and developmental delay (CLIFAHDD, OMIM 616266) with some clinical overlap. In this study, we present detailed clinical information of 16 novel individuals with biallelic NALCN variants, 1 individual with a heterozygous de novo NALCN missense variant and an interesting clinical phenotype without contractures, and 12 individuals with biallelic UNC80 variants. We report for the first time a missense NALCN variant located in the predicted S6 pore-forming unit inherited in an autosomal-recessive manner leading to mild IHPRF1. We show evidence of clinical variability, especially among IHPRF1-affected individuals, and discuss differences between the IHPRF1- and IHPRF2 phenotypes. In summary, we provide a comprehensive overview of IHPRF1 and IHPRF2 phenotypes based on the largest cohort of individuals reported so far and provide additional insights into the clinical phenotypes of these neurodevelopmental diseases to help improve counseling of affected families.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Canalopatias/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Canais de Sódio/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Canalopatias/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Front Pediatr ; 6: 116, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29922638

RESUMO

Background: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a rare defect of the diaphragm commonly associated with high morbidity and mortality due to lung hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension. Although in 70% of patients the etiology of a CDH remains unknown, a multitude of causative chromosomal aberrations has been identified. Case presentation: We describe the first case of isolated 11p15 duplication with CDH. The 18.6 Mb large duplication affected 285 RefSeq genes and included the Beckwith-Wiedemann (BWS)-associated imprinting control region 2 (ICR2, KCNQ1OT1 TSS DMR), whereas the ICR1 (H19 TSS DMR) was not affected. We were able to demonstrate de novo occurrence of the duplication. The paternal origin of the chromosomal material was detected by methylation testing the ICR2. Corresponding to other patients with duplications of the paternal ICR2 copy, a BWS phenotype is not present. Conclusions: The patient presented here together with the review of four other cases from the literature indicate an association between duplications of the chromosomal region 11p15 and developmental defects of the diaphragm. Thus, we suggest duplications of 11p15 as a rare cause of CDH. This association may or may not appear in the context of BWS depending on the extent of the duplication and the imprinting status. Hence, a genetic workup should be performed in patients with CDH, particularly when other abnormalities are noted.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(6): 1195-1203, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861108

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing is a powerful tool for the discovery of genes related to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Here, we report the identification of a distinct syndrome due to de novo or inherited heterozygous mutations in Tousled-like kinase 2 (TLK2) in 38 unrelated individuals and two affected mothers, using whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing technologies, matchmaker databases, and international collaborations. Affected individuals had a consistent phenotype, characterized by mild-borderline neurodevelopmental delay (86%), behavioral disorders (68%), severe gastro-intestinal problems (63%), and facial dysmorphism including blepharophimosis (82%), telecanthus (74%), prominent nasal bridge (68%), broad nasal tip (66%), thin vermilion of the upper lip (62%), and upslanting palpebral fissures (55%). Analysis of cell lines from three affected individuals showed that mutations act through a loss-of-function mechanism in at least two case subjects. Genotype-phenotype analysis and comparison of computationally modeled faces showed that phenotypes of these and other individuals with loss-of-function variants significantly overlapped with phenotypes of individuals with other variant types (missense and C-terminal truncating). This suggests that haploinsufficiency of TLK2 is the most likely underlying disease mechanism, leading to a consistent neurodevelopmental phenotype. This work illustrates the power of international data sharing, by the identification of 40 individuals from 26 different centers in 7 different countries, allowing the identification, clinical delineation, and genotype-phenotype evaluation of a distinct NDD caused by mutations in TLK2.

7.
Hum Genet ; 137(5): 401-411, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29796876

RESUMO

Intellectual disability (ID) has an estimated prevalence of 1.5-2%. In most affected individuals, its genetic basis remains unclear. Whole exome sequencing (WES) studies have identified a multitude of novel causative gene defects and have shown that a large proportion of sporadic ID cases results from de novo mutations. Here, we present two unrelated individuals with similar clinical features and deleterious de novo variants in FBXO11 detected by WES. Individual 1, a 14-year-old boy, has mild ID as well as mild microcephaly, corrected cleft lip and alveolus, hyperkinetic disorder, mild brain atrophy and minor facial dysmorphism. WES detected a heterozygous de novo 1 bp insertion in the splice donor site of exon 3. Individual 2, a 3-year-old boy, showed ID and pre- and postnatal growth retardation, postnatal mild microcephaly, hyperkinetic and restless behaviour, as well as mild dysmorphism. WES detected a heterozygous de novo frameshift mutation. While ten individuals with ID and de novo variants in FBXO11 have been reported as part of larger studies, only one of the reports has some additional clinical data. Interestingly, the latter individual carries the identical mutation as our individual 2 and also displays ID, intrauterine growth retardation, microcephaly, behavioural anomalies, and dysmorphisms. Thus, we confirm deleterious de novo mutations in FBXO11 as a cause of ID and start the delineation of the associated clinical picture which may also comprise postnatal microcephaly or borderline small head size and behavioural anomalies.

8.
Hum Genet ; 136(7): 821-834, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28393272

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in genes encoding subunits of the spliceosome are the cause of several human diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases. The RNA splicing process is facilitated by the spliceosome, a large RNA-protein complex consisting of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), and many other proteins, such as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs). The HNRNPU gene (OMIM *602869) encodes the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U, which plays a crucial role in mammalian development. HNRNPU is expressed in the fetal brain and adult heart, kidney, liver, brain, and cerebellum. Microdeletions in the 1q44 region encompassing HNRNPU have been described in patients with intellectual disability (ID) and other clinical features, such as seizures, corpus callosum abnormalities (CCA), and microcephaly. Recently, pathogenic HNRNPU variants were identified in large ID and epileptic encephalopathy cohorts. In this study, we provide detailed clinical information of five novels and review two of the previously published individuals with (likely) pathogenic de novo variants in the HNRNPU gene including three non-sense and two missense variants, one small intragenic deletion, and one duplication. The phenotype in individuals with variants in HNRNPU is characterized by early onset seizures (6/7), severe ID (6/6), severe speech impairment (6/6), hypotonia (6/7), and central nervous system (CNS) (5/6), cardiac (4/6), and renal abnormalities (3/4). In this study, we broaden the clinical and mutational HNRNPU-associated spectrum, and demonstrate that heterozygous HNRNPU variants cause epilepsy, severe ID with striking speech impairment and variable CNS, cardiac, and renal anomalies.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas Grupo U/genética , Heterozigoto , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Idade de Início , Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/genética , Sistema Nervoso Central/anormalidades , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1 , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Rim/anormalidades , Masculino , Microcefalia/diagnóstico , Microcefalia/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/diagnóstico , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Fenótipo , Processamento de RNA , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Pequenas/genética , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/genética
9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(7): 889-893, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28422131

RESUMO

For a large number of individuals with intellectual disability (ID), the molecular basis of the disorder is still unknown. However, whole-exome sequencing (WES) is providing more and more insights into the genetic landscape of ID. In the present study, we performed trio-based WES in 311 patients with unsolved ID and additional clinical features, and identified homozygous CPLX1 variants in three patients with ID from two unrelated families. All displayed marked developmental delay and migrating myoclonic epilepsy, and one showed a cerebellar cleft in addition. The encoded protein, complexin 1, is crucially involved in neuronal synaptic regulation, and homozygous Cplx1 knockout mice have the earliest known onset of ataxia seen in a mouse model. Recently, a homozygous truncating variant in CPLX1 was suggested to be causative for migrating epilepsy and structural brain abnormalities. ID was not reported although it cannot be completely ruled out. However, the currently limited knowledge on CPLX1 suggests that loss of complexin 1 function may lead to a complex but variable clinical phenotype, and our findings encourage further investigations of CPLX1 in patients with ID, developmental delay and myoclonic epilepsy to unravel the phenotypic spectrum of carriers of CPLX1 variants.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/diagnóstico , Feminino , Genes Recessivos , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino , Fenótipo , Síndrome
10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(2): 257-266, 2017 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28132689

RESUMO

Phenylketonuria (PKU, phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency), an inborn error of metabolism, can be detected through newborn screening for hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA). Most individuals with HPA harbor mutations in the gene encoding phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), and a small proportion (2%) exhibit tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficiency with additional neurotransmitter (dopamine and serotonin) deficiency. Here we report six individuals from four unrelated families with HPA who exhibited progressive neurodevelopmental delay, dystonia, and a unique profile of neurotransmitter deficiencies without mutations in PAH or BH4 metabolism disorder-related genes. In these six affected individuals, whole-exome sequencing (WES) identified biallelic mutations in DNAJC12, which encodes a heat shock co-chaperone family member that interacts with phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan hydroxylases catalyzing the BH4-activated conversion of phenylalanine into tyrosine, tyrosine into L-dopa (the precursor of dopamine), and tryptophan into 5-hydroxytryptophan (the precursor of serotonin), respectively. DNAJC12 was undetectable in fibroblasts from the individuals with null mutations. PAH enzyme activity was reduced in the presence of DNAJC12 mutations. Early treatment with BH4 and/or neurotransmitter precursors had dramatic beneficial effects and resulted in the prevention of neurodevelopmental delay in the one individual treated before symptom onset. Thus, DNAJC12 deficiency is a preventable and treatable cause of intellectual disability that should be considered in the early differential diagnosis when screening results are positive for HPA. Sequencing of DNAJC12 may resolve any uncertainty and should be considered in all children with unresolved HPA.


Assuntos
Distonia/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Fenilcetonúrias/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Biopterina/análogos & derivados , Biopterina/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dopamina/deficiência , Dopamina/metabolismo , Éxons , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Fenilalanina Hidroxilase/genética , Serotonina/deficiência , Serotonina/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , Triptofano Hidroxilase/genética , Triptofano Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Tirosina/metabolismo , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(2): 281-296, 2017 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28132690

RESUMO

EXTL3 regulates the biosynthesis of heparan sulfate (HS), important for both skeletal development and hematopoiesis, through the formation of HS proteoglycans (HSPGs). By whole-exome sequencing, we identified homozygous missense mutations c.1382C>T, c.1537C>T, c.1970A>G, and c.2008T>G in EXTL3 in nine affected individuals from five unrelated families. Notably, we found the identical homozygous missense mutation c.1382C>T (p.Pro461Leu) in four affected individuals from two unrelated families. Affected individuals presented with variable skeletal abnormalities and neurodevelopmental defects. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) with a complete absence of T cells was observed in three families. EXTL3 was most abundant in hematopoietic stem cells and early progenitor T cells, which is in line with a SCID phenotype at the level of early T cell development in the thymus. To provide further support for the hypothesis that mutations in EXTL3 cause a neuro-immuno-skeletal dysplasia syndrome, and to gain insight into the pathogenesis of the disorder, we analyzed the localization of EXTL3 in fibroblasts derived from affected individuals and determined glycosaminoglycan concentrations in these cells as well as in urine and blood. We observed abnormal glycosaminoglycan concentrations and increased concentrations of the non-sulfated chondroitin disaccharide D0a0 and the disaccharide D0a4 in serum and urine of all analyzed affected individuals. In summary, we show that biallelic mutations in EXTL3 disturb glycosaminoglycan synthesis and thus lead to a recognizable syndrome characterized by variable expression of skeletal, neurological, and immunological abnormalities.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas/genética , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Alelos , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Condroitina/sangue , Condroitina/urina , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glicosaminoglicanos/metabolismo , Humanos , Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas/diagnóstico , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Osteocondrodisplasias/diagnóstico , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética
12.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(2): 183-191, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27901041

RESUMO

Truncating ASXL3 mutations were first identified in 2013 by Bainbridge et al. as a cause of syndromic intellectual disability in four children with similar phenotypes using whole-exome sequencing. The clinical features - postulated by Bainbridge et al. to be overlapping with Bohring-Opitz syndrome - were developmental delay, severe feeding difficulties, failure to thrive and neurological abnormalities. This condition was included in OMIM as 'Bainbridge-Ropers syndrome' (BRPS, #615485). To date, a total of nine individuals with BRPS have been published in the literature in four reports (Bainbridge et al., Dinwiddie et al, Srivastava et al. and Hori et al.). In this report, we describe six unrelated patients with newly diagnosed heterozygous de novo loss-of-function variants in ASXL3 and concordant clinical features: severe muscular hypotonia with feeding difficulties in infancy, significant motor delay, profound speech impairment, intellectual disability and a characteristic craniofacial phenotype (long face, arched eyebrows with mild synophrys, downslanting palpebral fissures, prominent columella, small alae nasi, high, narrow palate and relatively little facial expression). The majority of key features characteristic for Bohring-Opitz syndrome were absent in our patients (eg, the typical posture of arms, intrauterine growth retardation, microcephaly, trigonocephaly, typical facial gestalt with nevus flammeus of the forehead and exophthalmos). Therefore we emphasize that BRPS syndrome, caused by ASXL3 loss-of-function variants, is a clinically distinct intellectual disability syndrome with a recognizable phenotype distinguishable from that of Bohring-Opitz syndrome.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Insuficiência de Crescimento/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Insuficiência de Crescimento/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , Síndrome
13.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(2): 435-443, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27862890

RESUMO

Loss-of-function mutations and deletions of the SOX2 gene are known to cause uni- and bilateral anophthalmia and microphthalmia as well as related disorders such as anophthalmia-esophageal-genital syndrome. Thus, anophthalmia/microphthalmia is the primary indication for targeted, "phenotype first" analyses of SOX2. However, SOX2 mutations are also associated with a wide range of non-ocular abnormalities, such as postnatal growth retardation, structural brain anomalies, hypogenitalism, and developmental delay. The present report describes three patients without anophthalmia/microphthalmia and loss-of-function mutations or microdeletions of SOX2 who had been investigated in a "genotype first" manner due to intellectual disability/developmental delay using whole exome sequencing or chromosomal microarray analyses. This result prompted us to perform SOX2 Sanger sequencing in 192 developmental delay/intellectual disability patients without anophthalmia or microphthalmia. No additional SOX2 loss-of-function mutations were detected in this cohort, showing that SOX2 is clearly not a major cause of intellectual disability without anophthalmia/microphthalmia. In our three patients and four further, reported "genotype first" SOX2 microdeletion patients, anophthalmia/microphthalmia was present in less than half of the patients. Thus, SOX2 is another example of a gene whose clinical spectrum is broadened by the generation of "genotype first" findings using hypothesis-free, genome-wide methods. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Fenótipo , Mutação Puntual , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Pré-Escolar , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Exoma , Anormalidades do Olho/diagnóstico , Anormalidades do Olho/genética , Facies , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sistema de Registros
14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(12): 1739-1745, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27436265

RESUMO

Recently, germline variants of the transcriptional co-regulator gene TCF20 have been implicated in the aetiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the knowledge about the associated clinical picture remains fragmentary. In this study, two individuals with de novo TCF20 sequence variants were identified in a cohort of 313 individuals with intellectual disability of unknown aetiology, which was analysed by whole exome sequencing using a child-parent trio design. Both detected variants - one nonsense and one frameshift variant - were truncating. A comprehensive clinical characterisation of the patients yielded mild intellectual disability, postnatal tall stature and macrocephaly, obesity and muscular hypotonia as common clinical signs while ASD was only present in one proband. The present report begins to establish the clinical picture of individuals with de novo nonsense and frameshift variants of TCF20 which includes features such as proportionate overgrowth and muscular hypotonia. Furthermore, intellectual disability/developmental delay seems to be fully penetrant amongst known individuals with de novo nonsense and frameshift variants of TCF20, whereas ASD is shown to be incompletely penetrant. The transcriptional co-regulator gene TCF20 is hereby added to the growing number of genes implicated in the aetiology of both ASD and intellectual disability. Furthermore, such de novo variants of TCF20 may represent a novel differential diagnosis in the overgrowth syndrome spectrum.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Códon sem Sentido , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Gigantismo/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Megalencefalia/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Exoma , Gigantismo/diagnóstico , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino , Megalencefalia/diagnóstico , Penetrância , Síndrome
15.
Nat Genet ; 48(8): 877-87, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27399968

RESUMO

Numerous genes are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but their dysfunction is often poorly characterized. Here we identified dominant mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional repressor and MeCP2 interactor switch-insensitive 3 family member A (SIN3A; chromosome 15q24.2) in individuals who, in addition to mild intellectual disability and ASD, share striking features, including facial dysmorphisms, microcephaly and short stature. This phenotype is highly related to that of individuals with atypical 15q24 microdeletions, linking SIN3A to this microdeletion syndrome. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed subtle abnormalities, including corpus callosum hypoplasia and ventriculomegaly. Intriguingly, in vivo functional knockdown of Sin3a led to reduced cortical neurogenesis, altered neuronal identity and aberrant corticocortical projections in the developing mouse brain. Together, our data establish that haploinsufficiency of SIN3A is associated with mild syndromic intellectual disability and that SIN3A can be considered to be a key transcriptional regulator of cortical brain development.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas , Adolescente , Adulto , Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/genética , Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/patologia , Animais , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
16.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(4): 556-61, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26153216

RESUMO

Intellectual disability (ID) affects 2-3% of the population. In the past, many genetic causes of ID remained unidentified due to its vast heterogeneity. Recently, whole exome sequencing (WES) studies have shown that de novo variants underlie a significant portion of sporadic cases of ID. Applying WES to patients with ID or global developmental delay at different centers, we identified three individuals with distinct de novo variants in HIVEP2 (human immunodeficiency virus type I enhancer binding protein), which belongs to a family of zinc-finger-containing transcriptional proteins involved in growth and development. Two of the variants were nonsense changes, and one was a 1 bp deletion resulting in a premature stop codon that was reported previously without clinical detail. In silico prediction programs suggest loss-of-function in the mutated allele leading to haploinsufficiency as a putative mechanism in all three individuals. All three patients presented with moderate-to-severe ID, minimal structural brain anomalies, hypotonia, and mild dysmorphic features. Growth parameters were in the normal range except for borderline microcephaly at birth in one patient. Two of the patients exhibited behavioral anomalies including hyperactivity and aggression. Published functional data suggest a neurodevelopmental role for HIVEP2, and several of the genes regulated by HIVEP2 are implicated in brain development, for example, SSTR-2, c-Myc, and genes of the NF-κB pathway. In addition, HIVEP2-knockout mice exhibit several working memory deficits, increased anxiety, and hyperactivity. On the basis of the genotype-phenotype correlation and existing functional data, we propose HIVEP2 as a causative ID gene.


Assuntos
Códon sem Sentido , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Pré-Escolar , Exoma , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
17.
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol ; 106(1): 16-26, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26680650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For the majority of congenital brain malformations, the underlying cause remains unknown. Recent studies have implicated rare copy number variations (CNVs) in their etiology. METHODS: Here, we used array-based molecular karyotyping to search for causative CNVs in 33 fetuses of terminated pregnancies with prenatally detected brain malformations and additional extracerebral anomalies. RESULTS: In 11 fetuses, we identified 15 CNVs (0.08 Mb to 29.59 Mb), comprising four duplications and eleven deletions. All larger CNVs (> 5 Mb) had also been detected by prenatal conventional karyotyping. None of these CNVs was present in our 1307 healthy in-house controls (frequency < 0.0008). Among these CNVs, we prioritized six chromosomal regions (1q25.1, 5q35.1, 6q25.3-qter, 11p14.3, 15q11.2-q13.1, 18q21.1) due to their previous association with human brain malformations or owing to the presence of a single gene expressed in human brain. Prioritized genes within these regions were UBTD2, SKA1, SVIP, and, most convincingly, GPR52. However, re-sequencing of GPR52 in 100 samples from fetuses with brain malformations or patients with intellectual disability and brain malformations revealed no disease-causing mutation. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests chromosomal regions 1q25.1, 5q35.1, 6q25.3-qter, 11p14.3, 15q11.2-q13.1, and 18q21.1 to be involved in human brain development. Within three of these regions, we suggest UBTD2, GPR52, and SKA1 as possible candidate genes. Because the overall detection rate of array-based molecular karyotyping was slightly higher (23%) than that of conventional prenatal karyotyping (20%), we suggest it's use for prenatal diagnostic testing in fetuses with nonisolated brain malformations.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Adulto , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Feminino , Feto , Dosagem de Genes , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Cariotipagem/instrumentação , Cariotipagem/métodos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Ubiquitinas/genética , Ubiquitinas/metabolismo
18.
Mol Cytogenet ; 8: 72, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26421060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most microdeletions involving chromosome sub-bands 9q33.3-9q34.11 to this point have been detected by analyses focused on STXBP1, a gene known to cause early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 4 and other seizure phenotypes. Loss-of-function mutations of STXBP1 have also been identified in some patients with intellectual disability without epilepsy. Consequently, STXBP1 is widely assumed to be the gene causing both seizures and intellectual disability in patients with 9q33.3-q34.11 microdeletions. RESULTS: We report five patients with overlapping microdeletions of chromosome 9q33.3-q34.11, four of them previously unreported. Their common clinical features include intellectual disability, psychomotor developmental delay with delayed or absent speech, muscular hypotonia, and strabismus. Microcephaly and short stature are each present in four of the patients. Two of the patients had seizures. De novo deletions range from 1.23 to 4.13 Mb, whereas the smallest deletion of 432 kb in patient 3 was inherited from her mother who is reported to have mild intellectual disability. The smallest region of overlap (SRO) of these deletions in 9q33.3 does not encompass STXBP1, but includes two genes that have not been previously associated with disease, RALGPS1 and GARNL3. Sequencing of the two SRO genes RALGPS1 and GARNL3 in at least 156 unrelated patients with mild to severe idiopathic intellectual disability detected no causative mutations. Gene expression analyses in our patients demonstrated significantly reduced expression levels of GARNL3, RALGPS1 and STXBP1 only in patients with deletions of the corresponding genes. Thus, reduced expression of STXBP1 was ruled out as a cause for seizures in our patient whose deletion did not encompass STXBP1. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that microdeletions of this region on chromosome 9q cause a clinical spectrum including intellectual disability, developmental delay especially concerning speech, microcephaly, short stature, mild dysmorphisms, strabismus, and seizures of incomplete penetrance, and may constitute a new contiguous gene deletion syndrome which cannot completely be explained by deletion of STXBP1.

19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 97(3): 445-56, 2015 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26340334

RESUMO

The link of chromatin remodeling to both neurodevelopment and cancer has recently been highlighted by the identification of mutations affecting BAF chromatin-remodeling components, such as ARID1B, in individuals with intellectual disability and cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) remains unknown. Here, we show that ARID1B is a repressor of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling. Through whole-transcriptome analysis, we find that in individuals with intellectual disability and ARID1B loss-of-function mutations, Wnt/ß-catenin target genes are upregulated. Using cellular models of low and high Wnt/ß-catenin activity, we demonstrate that knockdown of ARID1B activates Wnt/ß-catenin target genes and Wnt/ß-catenin-dependent transcriptional reporters in a ß-catenin-dependent manner. Reciprocally, forced expression of ARID1B inhibits Wnt/ß-catenin signaling downstream of the ß-catenin destruction complex. Both endogenous and exogenous ARID1B associate with ß-catenin and repress Wnt/ß-catenin-mediated transcription through the BAF core subunit BRG1. Accordingly, mutations in ARID1B leading to partial or complete deletion of its BRG1-binding domain, as is often observed in intellectual disability and cancers, compromise association with ß-catenin, and the resultant ARID1B mutant proteins fail to suppress Wnt/ß-catenin signaling. Finally, knockdown of ARID1B in mouse neuroblastoma cells leads to neurite outgrowth through ß-catenin. The data suggest that aberrations in chromatin-remodeling factors, such as ARID1B, might contribute to neurodevelopmental abnormalities and cancer through deregulation of developmental and oncogenic pathways, such as the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Western Blotting , Biologia Computacional , DNA Complementar/biossíntese , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Luciferases , Microscopia de Fluorescência , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 97(3): 493-500, 2015 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26340335

RESUMO

CHAMP1 encodes a protein with a function in kinetochore-microtubule attachment and in the regulation of chromosome segregation, both of which are known to be important for neurodevelopment. By trio whole-exome sequencing, we have identified de novo deleterious mutations in CHAMP1 in five unrelated individuals affected by intellectual disability with severe speech impairment, motor developmental delay, muscular hypotonia, and similar dysmorphic features including short philtrum and a tented upper and everted lover lip. In addition to two frameshift and one nonsense mutations, we found an identical nonsense mutation, c.1192C>T (p.Arg398*), in two affected individuals. All mutations, if resulting in a stable protein, are predicted to lead to the loss of the functionally important zinc-finger domains in the C terminus of the protein, which regulate CHAMP1 localization to chromosomes and the mitotic spindle, thereby providing a mechanistic understanding for their pathogenicity. We thus establish deleterious de novo mutations in CHAMP1 as a cause of intellectual disability.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Códon sem Sentido/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Distúrbios da Fala/genética , Sequência de Bases , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA