Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 315
Filtrar
1.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554339

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is causally linked to several cancers but the evidence for stomach cancer is inconclusive. In our study, the association between long-term alcohol intake and risk of stomach cancer and its subtypes was evaluated. We performed a pooled analysis of data collected at baseline from 491 714 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition and the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for incident stomach cancer in relation to lifetime alcohol intake and group-based life course intake trajectories, adjusted for potential confounders including Helicobacter pylori infection. In all, 1225 incident stomach cancers (78% noncardia) were diagnosed over 7 094 637 person-years; 984 in 382 957 study participants with lifetime alcohol intake data (5 455 507 person-years). Although lifetime alcohol intake was not associated with overall stomach cancer risk, we observed a weak positive association with noncardia cancer (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00-1.06 per 10 g/d increment), with a HR of 1.50 (95% CI: 1.08-2.09) for ≥60 g/d compared to 0.1 to 4.9 g/d. A weak inverse association with cardia cancer (HR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87-1.00) was also observed. HRs of 1.48 (95% CI: 1.10-1.99) for noncardia and 0.51 (95% CI: 0.26-1.03) for cardia cancer were observed for a life course trajectory characterized by heavy decreasing intake compared to light stable intake (Phomogeneity = .02). These associations did not differ appreciably by smoking or H pylori infection status. Limiting alcohol use during lifetime, particularly avoiding heavy use during early adulthood, might help prevent noncardia stomach cancer. Heterogeneous associations observed for cardia and noncardia cancers may indicate etiologic differences.

2.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-13, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472714

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between diet and risk of developing gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD). DESIGN: Prospective cohort with a median follow-up of 15·8 years. Baseline diet was measured using a FFQ. GERD was defined as self-reported current or history of daily heartburn or acid regurgitation beginning at least 2 years after baseline. Sex-specific logistic regressions were performed to estimate OR for GERD associated with diet quality scores and intakes of nutrients, food groups and individual foods and beverages. The effect of substituting saturated fat for monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat on GERD risk was examined. SETTING: Melbourne, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: A cohort of 20 926 participants (62 % women) aged 40-59 years at recruitment between 1990 and 1994. RESULTS: For men, total fat intake was associated with increased risk of GERD (OR 1·05 per 5 g/d; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·09; P = 0·016), whereas total carbohydrate (OR 0·89 per 30 g/d; 95 % CI 0·82, 0·98; P = 0·010) and starch intakes (OR 0·84 per 30 g/d; 95 % CI 0·75, 0·94; P = 0·005) were associated with reduced risk. Nutrients were not associated with risk for women. For both sexes, substituting saturated fat for polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat did not change risk. For both sexes, fish, chicken, cruciferous vegetables and carbonated beverages were associated with increased risk, whereas total fruit and citrus were associated with reduced risk. No association was observed with diet quality scores. CONCLUSIONS: Diet is a possible risk factor for GERD, but food considered as triggers of GERD symptoms might not necessarily contribute to disease development. Potential differential associations for men and women warrant further investigation.

3.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(2): 69-81, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have linked vitamin D deficiency with acute respiratory tract infection, but results from randomised controlled trials are heterogeneous. We analysed data from the D-Health Trial to determine whether supplementing older Australian adults, recruited from the general population, with monthly doses of vitamin D reduced the risk, duration, and severity of acute respiratory tract infections. METHODS: We used data from the D-Health Trial, a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of monthly vitamin D supplementation, for which acute respiratory infection was a pre-specified trial outcome. Participants were supplemented and followed for up to 5 years. The trial was set within the Australian general population, using the Commonwealth Electoral Roll as the sampling frame, but also allowing some volunteers to participate. Participants were men and women aged 60 to 79 years (with volunteers up to age 84 years). Participants were randomly assigned to receive either vitamin D or placebo (1:1) using computer-generated permuted block randomisation, which was stratified by age, sex, and state. This was an automated process and the assignment list was not visible to study staff or investigators. Active and placebo gel capsules, identical in appearance to ensure masking, were labelled A and B and the code was not available to study staff or investigators. Participants were asked to report occurrence of acute respiratory symptoms over the previous month via annual surveys, and a subset of participants completed 8-week respiratory symptom diaries in winter. As part of our process to maintain blinding, a random sample of participants was selected for analysis of survey data and a separate sample selected for analysis of diary data. Blood samples were obtained from a random sample of participants (about 450 per group per year) and serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations were measured to monitor adherence. We used regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR), rate ratios, and rate differences. The trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12613000743763. FINDINGS: Between Jan 13, 2014, and May 26, 2015, 421 207 invitations were sent, 40 824 people were interested in participating, and 21 315 participants were recruited and randomised. Of the 16 000 participants selected for potential analysis of survey data, 15 373 were included in the analysis; 295 in the vitamin D group and 332 in the placebo group who were missing data for all five annual surveys were excluded from the analysis. Of the 3800 selected for potential analysis of diary data, 3070 were invited to complete the diaries because 730 had already withdrawn. 2598 people were included in the analysis; 218 people in the vitamin D group and 254 in the placebo group were missing data and were therefore excluded from the analysis. In blood samples collected from randomly sampled participants throughout the trial, the mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 114·8 (SD 30·3) nmol/L in the vitamin D group and 77·5 (25·2) nmol/L in the placebo group. Vitamin D supplementation did not reduce the risk of acute respiratory tract infection (survey OR 0·98, 95% CI 0·93 to 1·02; diary OR 0·98, 0·83 to 1·15). Analyses of diary data showed reductions in the overall duration of symptoms and of severe symptoms, but these were small and unlikely to be clinically significant. INTERPRETATION: Monthly bolus doses of 60 000 IU of vitamin D did not reduce the overall risk of acute respiratory tract infection, but could slightly reduce the duration of symptoms in the general population. These findings suggest that routine vitamin D supplementation of a population that is largely vitamin D replete is unlikely to have a clinically relevant effect on acute respiratory tract infection. FUNDING: National Health and Medical Research Council.


Assuntos
Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Austrália , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Infecções Respiratórias/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Addict Biol ; 26(1): e12855, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789449

RESUMO

DNA methylation may be one of the mechanisms by which alcohol consumption is associated with the risk of disease. We conducted a large-scale, cross-sectional, genome-wide DNA methylation association study of alcohol consumption and a longitudinal analysis of repeated measurements taken several years apart. Using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, DNA methylation was measured in blood samples from 5606 Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS) participants. For 1088 of them, these measures were repeated using blood samples collected a median of 11 years later. Associations between alcohol intake and blood DNA methylation were assessed using linear mixed-effects regression models. Independent data from the London Life Sciences Prospective Population (LOLIPOP) (N = 4042) and Cooperative Health Research in the Augsburg Region (KORA) (N = 1662) cohorts were used to replicate associations discovered in the MCCS. Cross-sectional analyses identified 1414 CpGs associated with alcohol intake at P < 10-7 , 1243 of which had not been reported previously. Of these novel associations, 1078 were replicated (P < .05) using LOLIPOP and KORA data. Using the MCCS data, we also replicated 403 of 518 previously reported associations. Interaction analyses suggested that associations were stronger for women, non-smokers, and participants genetically predisposed to consume less alcohol. Of the 1414 CpGs, 530 were differentially methylated (P < .05) in former compared with current drinkers. Longitudinal associations between the change in alcohol intake and the change in methylation were observed for 513 of the 1414 cross-sectional associations. Our study indicates that alcohol intake is associated with widespread changes in DNA methylation across the genome. Longitudinal analyses showed that the methylation status of alcohol-associated CpGs may change with alcohol consumption changes in adulthood.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity increases the risk of 13 cancer types. Given the long process of carcinogenesis, it is important to determine the impact of patterns of body mass over time. METHODS: Using data from 30,377 participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study, we identified body mass index (BMI) trajectories across adulthood and examined their association with the risk of obesity-related cancer. Participants completed interviews and questionnaires at baseline (1990-1994, age 40-69 years), follow-up 1 (1995-1998) and follow-up 2 (2003-2005). Body mass was recalled for age 18-21 years, measured at baseline, self-reported at follow-up 1 and measured at follow-up 2. Height was measured at baseline. Cancer diagnoses were ascertained from the Victorian Cancer Registry and the Australian Cancer Database. A latent class trajectory model was used to identify BMI trajectories which were not defined a priori. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of obesity-related cancer risks by BMI trajectory. RESULTS: Six distinct BMI trajectories were identified. Compared with people who maintained lower-normal BMI, higher risks of developing obesity-related cancer were observed for participants who transitioned from normal to overweight (HR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.47), normal to class I obesity (HR=1.50, 95% CI: 1.28, 1.75) or from overweight to class II obesity (HR=1.66, 95% CI: 1.32, 2.08). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that maintaining a healthy BMI across the adult lifespan is important for cancer prevention. IMPACT: Categorisation of BMI by trajectory allowed us to identify specific risk groups to target with public health interventions.

6.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to maternal smoking is detrimental to child health but its association with risk of cancer has seldom been investigated. Maternal smoking induces widespread and long-lasting DNA methylation changes, which we study here for association with risk of cancer in adulthood. METHODS: Eight prospective case-control studies nested within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study were used to assess associations between maternal-smoking-associated methylation marks in blood and risk of several cancers: breast (n = 406 cases), colorectal (n = 814), gastric (n = 166), kidney (n = 139), lung (n = 327), prostate (n = 847) and urothelial (n = 404) cancer and B-cell lymphoma (n = 426). We used conditional logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between cancer and five methylation scores calculated as weighted averages for 568, 19, 15, 28 and 17 CpG sites. Models were adjusted for confounders, including personal smoking history (smoking status, pack-years, age at starting and quitting) and methylation scores for personal smoking. RESULTS: All methylation scores for maternal smoking were strongly positively associated with risk of urothelial cancer. Risk estimates were only slightly attenuated after adjustment for smoking history, other potential confounders and methylation scores for personal smoking. Potential negative associations were observed with risk of lung cancer and B-cell lymphoma. No associations were observed for other cancers. CONCLUSIONS: We found that methylation marks of prenatal exposure to maternal smoking are associated with increased risk of urothelial cancer. Our study demonstrates the potential for using DNA methylation to investigate the impact of early-life, unmeasured exposures on later-life cancer risk.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adiposity increases endometrial cancer risk, possibly through inflammation, hyperinsulinemia, and increasing estrogens. We aimed to quantify the mediating effects of adiponectin (anti-inflammatory adipocytokine); IL6, IL1-receptor antagonist, TNF receptor 1 and 2, and C-reactive protein (inflammatory status biomarkers); C-peptide (hyperinsulinemia biomarker); and free estradiol and estrone (estrogen biomarkers) in the adiposity-endometrial cancer link in postmenopausal women. METHODS: We used data from a case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Eligible women did not have cancer, hysterectomy, and diabetes; did not use oral contraceptives or hormone therapy; and were postmenopausal at recruitment. Mediating pathways from adiposity to endometrial cancer were investigated by estimating natural indirect (NIE) and direct (NDE) effects using sequential mediation analysis. RESULTS: The study included 163 cases and 306 controls. The adjusted OR for endometrial cancer for body mass index (BMI) ≥30 versus ≥18.5-<25 kg/m2 was 2.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.26-5.02). The ORsNIE were 1.95 (1.01-3.74) through all biomarkers [72% proportion mediated (PM)] decomposed as: 1.35 (1.06-1.73) through pathways originating with adiponectin (33% PM); 1.13 (0.71-1.80) through inflammation beyond (the potential influence of) adiponectin (13% PM); 1.05 (0.88-1.24) through C-peptide beyond adiponectin and inflammation (5% PM); and 1.22 (0.89-1.67) through estrogens beyond preceding biomarkers (21% PM). The ORNDE not through biomarkers was 1.29 (0.54-3.09). Waist circumference gave similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced adiponectin and increased inflammatory biomarkers, C-peptide, and estrogens mediated approximately 70% of increased odds of endometrial cancer in women with obesity versus normal weight. IMPACT: If replicated, these results could have implications for identifying targets for intervention to reduce endometrial cancer risk in women with obesity.

8.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870614

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Long-term effects of physical activity and TV viewing on mortality have been inferred from observational studies. The associations observed do not allow inferences about the effects of population interventions and could be subject to bias due to time-varying confounding. METHODS: Using data from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study, collected in 1999-2000 (T0), 2004-05 (T1), and 2011-12 (T2), we applied the parametric g-formula to estimate cumulative risks of death under hypothetical interventions on physical activity and/or TV viewing determined from self-report, while adjusting for time-varying confounding. RESULTS: In the 6,377 participants followed for 13 years from 2004-05 to death or censoring in 2017, 781 participants died. The observed cumulative risk of death was 12.2%. The most effective hypothetical intervention was to increase weekly physical activity to >300 minutes (RR=0.66, 0.46 to 0.86 compared with a 'worst-case' scenario; and RR=0.83, 0.73 to 0.94 compared with no intervention). Reducing daily TV viewing to <2 hours in addition to physical activity interventions did not show added survival benefits. Reducing TV viewing alone was least effective in reducing mortality (RR=0.85, 0.60 to 1.10 compared with the worst-case scenario; and RR=1.06, 0.93 to 1.20 compared with no intervention). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggested that sustained interventions to increase physical activity could lower all-cause mortality over a 13-year period and there might be limited gain from intervening to reduce TV viewing time in a relatively healthy population.

9.
J Cancer Surviv ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875536

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Physical activity interventions can improve sleep quality in breast cancer survivors. This paper examines the effects of the ACTIVATE Trial, a wearable-based physical activity intervention (Garmin Vivofit2® coupled with behavioral feedback, goal setting, and health coaching) on sleep outcomes. METHODS: Post-primary treatment, inactive, postmenopausal breast cancer survivors were recruited and randomized to primary intervention or waitlist. Wrist-worn actigraphy (sleep onset latency, SOL; total sleep time, TST; sleep efficiency, SE; wake after sleep onset, WASO; and number of awakenings, NWAKE) and questionnaire-derived sleep measures (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) were assessed at baseline (T1), 12 weeks (end of primary intervention and start of waitlist intervention, T2), and at 24 weeks (T3). RESULTS: Eighty-three women (mean age = 62 years) were randomized; trial retention was 94% at T2 and 87% at T3. At T2, primary intervention participants had greater improvements in WASO (- 5.7 min, 95% CI - 11.7 to - 0.2) and NWAKE compared with the waitlist arm (- 2.0, 95% CI - 3.6 to - 0.4). At T3, within-group improvements were observed for SE (both groups), WASO (both groups), NWAKE (primary intervention group only), total PSQI score (primary intervention group), and sleep efficacy (primary intervention group). CONCLUSIONS: The intervention reduced actigraphy-measured sleep disturbances. Within-group analyses suggest that improvements in sleep quality are sustained over a longer duration, and there may be similar benefits from an abridged intervention (wearable device only). Actigraphy-measured effects appeared stronger in participants who were poor sleepers at study entry. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Wearable technology can increase physical activity and improve sleep for breast cancer survivors.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958588

RESUMO

DNA methylation in peripheral blood is a potential biomarker of gastric cancer risk which could be used for early detection. We conducted a prospective case-control study nested within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Genomic DNA was prepared from blood samples collected a median of 12 years before diagnosis for cases (N=168). Controls (N=163) were matched to cases on sex, year of birth, country of birth and blood sample type using incidence density sampling. Genome-wide DNA methylation was measured using the Infinium HumanMethylation450K Beadchip. Global measures of DNA methylation were defined as the median methylation M-value, calculated for each of 13 CpG subsets representing genomic function, mean methylation and location, and reliability of measurement. Conditional logistic regression was conducted to assess associations between these global measures of methylation and gastric cancer risk, adjusting for Helicobacter pylori and other potential confounders. We tested non-linear associations using quintiles of the global measure distribution. A genome-wide association study of DNA methylation and gastric cancer risk was also conducted (N=484,989 CpGs) using conditional logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were investigated using the R package DMRcate. We found no evidence of associations with gastric cancer risk for individual CpGs or DMRs (p> 7.6×10-6). No evidence of association was observed with global measures of methylation (Odds ratio (OR) 1.07 per SD of overall median methylation, 95% CI 0.80-1.44, p=0.65). We found no evidence that blood DNA methylation is prospectively associated with gastric cancer risk.

11.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 52(10): 2145-2151, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936592

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Using the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study, we examined the associations of occupation, household, transport, and leisure physical activity with pain interference with normal work and muscle pain after activity. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis included 7655 working and 11,766 nonworking participants. Physical activity was assessed using the long-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Pain interference was assessed with the Short-Form 12-Item Health Survey version 2.0, and muscle pain after activity was assessed using the 12-item Somatic and Psychological Health Report. Ordered logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), and restricted cubic splines were used to graphically represent the shape of associations. RESULTS: All physical activity domain-pain outcome associations were nonlinear. Compared with participants who reported the lowest level of activity, participants who reported the median level of transport physical activity (10 MET·h·wk) reported less pain interference (workers: OR, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.77-0.97]; nonworkers: OR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.79-0.97]) and muscle pain after activity (workers: OR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.70-0.95]; nonworkers: OR, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.77-0.95]). Higher levels of leisure time activity (20 MET·h·wk) were associated with less pain interference in nonworkers (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.77-0.98) and muscle pain after activity in workers (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.56-0.80). Workers who reported the median level of household activity (16 MET·h·wk) had increased pain interference (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07-1.32) and muscle pain after activity (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.06-1.42) than did those who reported the least household activity. CONCLUSIONS: Associations between domain-specific physical activity and pain outcomes were not uniform. Within the transport and leisure domains, physical activity was inversely associated with pain-related outcomes, whereas household physical activity was positively associated with pain scores within the working sample.

12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2026-2037, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age-related epigenetic dysregulations are associated with several diseases, including cancer. The number of stochastic epigenetic mutations (SEM) has been suggested as a biomarker of life-course accumulation of exposure-related DNA damage; however, the predictive role of SEMs in cancer has seldom been investigated. METHODS: A SEM, at a given CpG site, was defined as an extreme outlier of DNA methylation value distribution across individuals. We investigated the association of the total number of SEMs with the risk of eight cancers in 4,497 case-control pairs nested in three prospective cohorts. Furthermore, we investigated whether SEMs were randomly distributed across the genome or enriched in functional genomic regions. RESULTS: In the three-study meta-analysis, the estimated ORs per one-unit increase in log(SEM) from logistic regression models adjusted for age and cancer risk factors were 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.41 for breast cancer, and 1.23; 95% CI, 1.07-1.42 for lung cancer. In the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study, the OR for mature B-cell neoplasm was 1.46; 95% CI, 1.25-1.71. Enrichment analyses indicated that SEMs frequently occur in silenced genomic regions and in transcription factor binding sites regulated by EZH2 and SUZ12 (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0005, respectively): two components of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PCR2). Finally, we showed that PCR2-specific SEMs are generally more stable over time compared with SEMs occurring in the whole genome. CONCLUSIONS: The number of SEMs is associated with a higher risk of different cancers in prediagnostic blood samples. IMPACT: We identified a candidate biomarker for cancer early detection, and we described a carcinogenesis mechanism involving PCR2 complex proteins worthy of further investigations.

13.
BMJ Open ; 10(6): e033178, 2020 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32565446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to quantify the extent to which people's use of tobacco products varies by local areas (city ward and village) across India and the variation in this clustering by tobacco products. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Data on 73 954 adults across 2547 city wards and villages were available for analysis from 30 states and 2 union territories in India. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We included as primary outcomes self-reported any tobacco use, current cigarette smoking, current bidi smoking, current smokeless tobacco use and a derived variable for dual use describing respondents who engaged in both smoking and smokeless tobacco use. RESULTS: The median risk of an individual using tobacco was 1.64 times greater if a person hypothetically moved from an area of low to high risk of tobacco use (95% CI: 1.60 to 1.69). Area-level partitioning of variation differed by tobacco product used. Median ORs ranged from 1.77 for smokeless tobacco use to 2.53 for dual use. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco use is highly clustered geographically in India. To be effective in India, policy interventions should be directed to influence specific local contextual factors on adult tobacco use. Where people live in India influences their use of tobacco, and this association may be greater than has been observed in other settings. Tailoring tobacco control policies for local areas in India may, therefore, provide substantial public health benefits.

14.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(7): 617-629, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356140

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cancer survival is generally lower for rural compared with urban residents, but findings have been inconsistent. We aimed to assess inequalities in cancer survival by remoteness of residence in Victoria, Australia. METHODS: Incident cancer cases diagnosed in 2001-2015 with 30 cancer types (n = 331,302) were identified through the Victorian Cancer Registry and followed to the end of 2015 through death registries. Five-year net survival was estimated using the Pohar-Perme method and differences assessed by excess mortality rate ratios (EMRRs) using Poisson regression, adjusting for sex, age and year of diagnosis. EMRRs adjusted for socio-economic disadvantage were also estimated. RESULTS: People living outside major cities had lower survival for 11 cancers: esophagus, stomach, colorectum, liver, gallbladder/biliary tract, pancreas, lung, connective/soft tissue, ovary, prostate, kidney. No differences in survival were found for cancers of uterus, small intestine and mesothelioma. After adjusting for socio-economic disadvantage, the observed differences in survival decreased for most cancers and disappeared for colorectal cancer, but they remained largely unchanged for cancers of esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, lung, connective/soft tissue, ovary and kidney. CONCLUSION: People with cancer residing outside major cities had lower survival from some cancers, which is partly due to the greater socio-economic disadvantage of rural residents.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Gerenciamento de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Vitória/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Cancer ; 147(7): 1881-1894, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181888

RESUMO

Mechanisms underlying adiposity-colorectal cancer (CRC) association are incompletely understood. Using UK Biobank data, we investigated the role of C-reactive protein (CRP), hemoglobin-A1c (HbA1c) and (jointly) sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone, in explaining this association. Total effect of obesity versus normal-weight (based on waist circumference, body mass index, waist-hip ratio) on CRC risk was decomposed into natural direct (NDE) and indirect (NIE) effects using sequential mediation analysis. After a median follow-up of 7.1 years, 2070 incident CRC cases (men = 1,280; postmenopausal women = 790) were recorded. For men, the adjusted risk ratio (RR) for waist circumference (≥102 vs. ≤94 cm) was 1.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-1.58). The RRsNIE were 1.08 (95% CI: 1.01-1.16) through all biomarkers, 1.06 (95% CI: 1.01-1.11) through pathways influenced by CRP, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.01) through HbA1c beyond (the potential influence of) CRP and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.99-1.08) through SHBG and testosterone combined beyond CRP and HbA1c. The RRNDE was 1.26 (95% CI: 1.09-1.47). For women, the RR for waist circumference (≥88 vs. ≤80 cm) was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.07-1.50). The RRsNIE were 1.08 (95% CI: 0.94-1.22) through all biomarkers, 1.08 (95% CI: 0.99-1.17) through CRP, 1.00 (95% CI: 0.98-1.02) through HbA1c beyond CRP and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.92-1.09) through SHBG and testosterone combined beyond CRP and HbA1c. The RRNDE was 1.18 (95% CI: 0.96-1.45). For men and women, pathways influenced by CRP explained a small proportion of the adiposity-CRC association. Testosterone and SHBG also explained a small proportion of this association in men. These results suggest that pathways marked by these obesity-related factors may not explain a large proportion of the adiposity-CRC association.

16.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 198: 105612, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007563

RESUMO

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with higher all-cause mortality, but associations with specific causes of death are unclear. We investigated the association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration and cause-specific mortality using a case-cohort study within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS). Eligibility for the case-cohort study was restricted to participants with baseline dried blood spot samples and no pre-baseline diagnosis of cancer. These analyses included participants who died (n = 2307) during a mean follow-up of 14 years and a sex-stratified random sample of eligible cohort participants ('subcohort', n = 2923). Concentration of 25(OH)D was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Cox regression, with Barlow weights and robust standard errors to account for the case-cohort design, was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for cause-specific mortality in relation to 25(OH)D concentration with adjustment for confounders. Circulating 25(OH)D concentration was inversely associated with risk of death due to cancer (HR per 25 nmol/L increment = 0.88, 95 % CI 0.78-0.99), particularly colorectal cancer (HR = 0.75, 95 % CI 0.57-0.99). Higher 25(OH)D concentrations were also associated with a lower risk of death due to diseases of the respiratory system (HR = 0.62, 95 % CI 0.43-0.88), particularly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR = 0.53, 95 % CI 0.30-0.94), and diseases of the digestive system (HR = 0.44, 95 % CI 0.26-0.76). Estimates for diabetes mortality (HR = 0.64, 95 % CI 0.33-1.26) and cardiovascular disease mortality (HR = 0.90, 95 % CI 0.76-1.07) lacked precision. The findings suggest that vitamin D might be important for preventing death due to some cancers, respiratory diseases, and digestive diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Digestório/sangue , Neoplasias/sangue , Doenças Respiratórias/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Doenças do Sistema Digestório/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Vitamina D/sangue
17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(4): 860-870, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from epidemiologic studies examining polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and colorectal cancer risk are inconsistent. Mendelian randomization may strengthen causal inference from observational studies. Given their shared metabolic pathway, examining the combined effects of aspirin/NSAID use with PUFAs could help elucidate an association between PUFAs and colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: Information was leveraged from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) regarding PUFA-associated SNPs to create weighted genetic scores (wGS) representing genetically predicted circulating blood PUFAs for 11,016 non-Hispanic white colorectal cancer cases and 13,732 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Associations per SD increase in the wGS were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Interactions between PUFA wGSs and aspirin/NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk were also examined. RESULTS: Modest colorectal cancer risk reductions were observed per SD increase in circulating linoleic acid [ORLA = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93-0.98; P = 5.2 × 10-4] and α-linolenic acid (ORALA = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.92-0.97; P = 5.4 × 10-5), whereas modest increased risks were observed for arachidonic (ORAA = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.03-1.08; P = 3.3 × 10-5), eicosapentaenoic (OREPA = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.01-1.07; P = 2.5 × 10-3), and docosapentaenoic acids (ORDPA = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.01-1.06; P = 1.2 × 10-2). Each of these effects was stronger among aspirin/NSAID nonusers in the stratified analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that higher circulating shorter-chain PUFAs (i.e., LA and ALA) were associated with reduced colorectal cancer risk, whereas longer-chain PUFAs (i.e., AA, EPA, and DPA) were associated with an increased colorectal cancer risk. IMPACT: The interaction of PUFAs with aspirin/NSAID use indicates a shared colorectal cancer inflammatory pathway. Future research should continue to improve PUFA genetic instruments to elucidate the independent effects of PUFAs on colorectal cancer.

18.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228551, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999795

RESUMO

Despite overall improvements in cancer survival due to earlier diagnosis and better treatment, socio-economically disadvantaged people have lower cancer survival than more advantaged people. We aimed to examine differences in cancer survival by area-level socio-economic disadvantage in Victoria, Australia and assess whether these inequalities varied by year of diagnosis, age at diagnosis, time since diagnosis and sex. Cases diagnosed with a first primary cancer in 2001-2015 were identified using the Victorian Cancer Registry and followed to the end of 2016. Five-year net survival and the excess risk of death due to a cancer diagnosis were estimated. People living in more disadvantaged areas had lower five-year survival than residents of less disadvantaged regions for 21 of 29 cancer types: head and neck, oesophagus, stomach, colorectum, anus/anal canal, liver, gallbladder/biliary tract, pancreas, lung, melanoma, connective/soft tissue, female breast, ovary, prostate, kidney, bladder, brain and central nervous system, unknown primary, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma and leukemia. The observed lower survival in more deprived regions persisted over time, except head and neck cancer, for which the gap in survival has widened. Socio-economic inequalities in survival decreased with increasing age at diagnosis for cancers of connective/soft tissue, bladder and unknown primary. For colorectal cancer, the observed survival disadvantage in lower socio-economic regions was greater for men than for women, while for brain and central nervous system tumours, it was larger for women. Cancer survival is generally lower for residents of more socio-economically disadvantaged areas. Identifying the underlying reasons for these inequalities is important and may help to identify effective interventions to increase survival for underprivileged cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/classificação , Sistema de Registros , Projetos de Pesquisa , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Vitória/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Affect Disord ; 260: 426-431, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Depression is a significant public health issue for men, however men are less likely to use mental health services. Alternative interventions, such as physical activity, may be of value for this population. This study sought to determine what levels and intensity of physical activity are associated with lower depression prevalence in Australian men. METHODS: Using baseline data from 13,884 participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health we compared current depression in men who completed the recommended 150 min of physical activity in the past week with men who did not. Duration of activity was examined using logistic regression with restricted cubic splines. Intensity of physical activity was examined by isotemporal substitution of hours of moderate activity with hours of vigorous activity. RESULTS: Men who completed at least 150 min/week of activity had lower odds of moderate/severe depression symptoms. Duration of activity was inversely associated with moderate/severe depression symptoms. Among physically active men, each additional hour of moderate activity replaced with vigorous activity was associated with lower odds of depression. LIMITATIONS: This is a cross-sectional study and so cannot determine causal direction in the relationship between physical activity and depression symptoms observed. Self-report measures of physical activity are widely used but are not as accurate as biometric measurement. CONCLUSIONS: In adult men, meeting minimum recommendations is associated with lower current depression. Increased duration and greater intensity of activity were both associated with further reduction in prevalence. Promoting higher levels of physical activity is potentially an intervention for improving men's mental wellbeing.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA