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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e045123, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193487

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Embedding researchers within health systems results in more socially relevant research and more effective uptake of evidence into policy and practice. However, the practice of embedded health service research remains poorly understood. We explored and assessed the development of embedded participatory approaches to health service research by a health research team in Kenya highlighting the different ways multiple stakeholders were engaged in a neonatal research study. METHODS: We conducted semistructured qualitative interviews with key stakeholders. Data were analysed thematically using both inductive and deductive approaches. SETTING: Over recent years, the Health Services Unit within the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI)-Wellcome Trust Research Programme in Nairobi Kenya, has been working closely with organisations and technical stakeholders including, but not limited to, medical and nursing schools, frontline health workers, senior paediatricians, policymakers and county officials, in developing and conducting embedded health research. This involves researchers embedding themselves in the contexts in which they carry out their research (mainly in county hospitals, local universities and other training institutions), creating and sustaining social networks. Researchers collaboratively worked with stakeholders to identify clinical, operational and behavioural issues related to routine service delivery, formulating and exploring research questions to bring change in practice PARTICIPANTS: We purposively selected 14 relevant stakeholders spanning policy, training institutions, healthcare workers, regulatory councils and professional associations. RESULTS: The value of embeddedness is highlighted through the description of a recently completed project, Health Services that Deliver for Newborns (HSD-N). We describe how the HSD-N research process contributed to and further strengthened a collaborative research platform and illustrating this project's role in identifying and generating ideas about how to tackle health service delivery problems CONCLUSIONS: We conclude with a discussion about the experiences, challenges and lessons learned regarding engaging stakeholders in the coproduction of research.

2.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e042079, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145005

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of dehydration without diarrhoea among admitted children aged 1-59 months and to describe fluid management practices in such cases. DESIGN: A multisite observational study that used routine in-patient data collected prospectively between October 2013 and December 2018. SETTINGS: Study conducted in 13 county referral hospitals in Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged 1-59 months with admission or discharge diagnosis of dehydration but had no diarrhoea as a symptom or diagnosis. Children aged <28 days and those with severe acute malnutrition were excluded. RESULTS: The prevalence of dehydration in children without diarrhoea was 3.0% (2019/68 204) and comprised 15.9% (2019/12 702) of all dehydration cases. Only 55.8% (1127/2019) of affected children received either oral or intravenous fluid therapy. Where fluid treatment was given, the volumes, type of fluid, duration of fluid therapy and route of administration were similar to those used in the treatment of dehydration secondary to diarrhoea. Pneumonia (1021/2019, 50.6%) and malaria (715/2019, 35.4%) were the two most common comorbid diagnoses. Overall case fatality in the study population was 12.9% (260/2019). CONCLUSION: Sixteen per cent of children hospitalised with dehydration do not have diarrhoea but other common illnesses. Two-fifths do not receive fluid therapy; a regimen similar to that used in diarrhoeal cases is used in cases where fluid is administered. Efforts to promote compliance with guidance in routine clinical settings should recognise special circumstances where guidelines do not apply, and further studies on appropriate management for dehydration in the absence of diarrhoea are required.


Assuntos
Desidratação , Diarreia , Criança , Desidratação/epidemiologia , Desidratação/terapia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/terapia , Hidratação , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Quênia/epidemiologia , Prevalência
3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(5)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most of the deaths among neonates in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) can be prevented through universal access to basic high-quality health services including essential facility-based inpatient care. However, poor routine data undermines data-informed efforts to monitor and promote improvements in the quality of newborn care across hospitals. METHODS: Continuously collected routine patients' data from structured paper record forms for all admissions to newborn units (NBUs) from 16 purposively selected Kenyan public hospitals that are part of a clinical information network were analysed together with data from all paediatric admissions ages 0-13 years from 14 of these hospitals. Data are used to show the proportion of all admissions and deaths in the neonatal age group and examine morbidity and mortality patterns, stratified by birth weight, and their variation across hospitals. FINDINGS: During the 354 hospital months study period, 90 222 patients were admitted to the 14 hospitals contributing NBU and general paediatric ward data. 46% of all the admissions were neonates (aged 0-28 days), but they accounted for 66% of the deaths in the age group 0-13 years. 41 657 inborn neonates were admitted in the NBUs across the 16 hospitals during the study period. 4266/41 657 died giving a crude mortality rate of 10.2% (95% CI 9.97% to 10.55%), with 60% of these deaths occurring on the first-day of admission. Intrapartum-related complications was the single most common diagnosis among the neonates with birth weight of 2000 g or more who died. A threefold variation in mortality across hospitals was observed for birth weight categories 1000-1499 g and 1500-1999 g. INTERPRETATION: The high proportion of neonatal deaths in hospitals may reflect changing patterns of childhood mortality. Majority of newborns died of preventable causes (>95%). Despite availability of high-impact low-cost interventions, hospitals have high and very variable mortality proportions after stratification by birth weight.


Assuntos
Hospitais , Mortalidade Infantil , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Quênia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Am J Perinatol ; 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126646

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by ischemic necrosis of the intestinal mucosa, mostly affecting premature neonates. Management of NEC includes medical care and surgical approaches, with supportive care and empirical antibiotic therapy recommended to avoid any disease progression. However, there is still no clear evidence-based consensus on empiric antibiotic strategies or surgical timing. This study was aimed to review the available evidence on the effectiveness and safety of different antibiotic regimens for NEC. STUDY DESIGN: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, and CINAHL databases were systematically searched through May 31, 2020. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized interventions reporting data on predefined outcomes related to NEC treatments were included. Clinical trials were assessed using the criteria and standard methods of the Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomized trials, while the risk of bias in nonrandomized studies of interventions was evaluated using the ROBINS-I tool. The certainty in evidence of each outcome's effects was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. RESULTS: Five studies were included in this review, two RCTs and three observational studies, for a total amount of 3,161 patients. One RCT compared the outcomes of parenteral (ampicillin plus gentamicin) and oral (gentamicin) treatment with parenteral only. Three studies (one RCT and two observational) evaluated adding anaerobic coverage to different parenteral regimens. The last observational study compared two different parenteral antibiotic combinations (ampicillin and gentamicin vs. cefotaxime and vancomycin). CONCLUSION: No antimicrobial regimen has been shown to be superior to ampicillin and gentamicin in decreasing mortality and preventing clinical deterioration in NEC. The use of additional antibiotics providing anaerobic coverage, typically metronidazole, or use of other broad-spectrum regimens as first-line empiric therapy is not supported by the very limited current evidence. Well-conducted, appropriately sized comparative trials are needed to make evidence-based recommendations. KEY POINTS: · Ampicillin and gentamicin are effective in decreasing mortality and preventing clinical deterioration in NEC.. · Metronidazole could be added in patients with surgical NEC.. · No study with high-quality evidence was found..

5.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(5): e25281, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042590

RESUMO

In this paper, we describe techniques for predictive modeling of human-computer interaction (HCI) and discuss how they could be used in the development and evaluation of user interfaces for digital health systems such as electronic health record systems. Predictive HCI modeling has the potential to improve the generalizability of usability evaluations of digital health interventions beyond specific contexts, especially when integrated with models of distributed cognition and higher-level sociotechnical frameworks. Evidence generated from building and testing HCI models of the user interface (UI) components for different types of digital health interventions could be valuable for informing evidence-based UI design guidelines to support the development of safer and more effective UIs for digital health interventions.

6.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(3)2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758014

RESUMO

We have worked to develop a Clinical Information Network (CIN) in Kenya as an early form of learning health systems (LHS) focused on paediatric and neonatal care that now spans 22 hospitals. CIN's aim was to examine important outcomes of hospitalisation at scale, identify and ultimately solve practical problems of service delivery, drive improvements in quality and test interventions. By including multiple routine settings in research, we aimed to promote generalisability of findings and demonstrate potential efficiencies derived from LHS. We illustrate the nature and range of research CIN has supported over the past 7 years as a form of LHS. Clinically, this has largely focused on common, serious paediatric illnesses such as pneumonia, malaria and diarrhoea with dehydration with recent extensions to neonatal illnesses. CIN also enables examination of the quality of care, for example that provided to children with severe malnutrition and the challenges encountered in routine settings in adopting simple technologies (pulse oximetry) and more advanced diagnostics (eg, Xpert MTB/RIF). Although regular feedback to hospitals has been associated with some improvements in quality data continue to highlight system challenges that undermine provision of basic, quality care (eg, poor access to blood glucose testing and routine microbiology). These challenges include those associated with increased mortality risk (eg, delays in blood transfusion). Using the same data the CIN platform has enabled conduct of randomised trials and supports malaria vaccine and most recently COVID-19 surveillance. Employing LHS principles has meant engaging front-line workers, clinical managers and national stakeholders throughout. Our experience suggests LHS can be developed in low and middle-income countries that efficiently enable contextually appropriate research and contribute to strengthening of health services and research systems.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança/normas , Atenção à Saúde/normas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Melhoria de Qualidade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Países em Desenvolvimento , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Quênia/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Arch Dis Child ; 106(4): 333-337, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574028

RESUMO

In a companion paper, we showed how local hospital leaders could assess systems and identify key safety concerns and targets for system improvement. In the present paper, we consider how these leaders might implement practical, low-cost interventions to improve safety. Our focus is on making immediate safety improvements both to directly improve patient care and as a foundation for advancing care in the longer-term. We describe a 'portfolio' approach to safety improvement in four broad categories: prioritising critical processes, such as checking drug doses; strengthening the overall system of care, for example, by introducing multiprofessional handovers; control of known risks, such as only using continuous positive airway pressure when appropriate conditions are met; and enhancing detection and response to hazardous situations, such as introducing brief team meetings to identify and respond to immediate threats and challenges. Local clinical leaders and managers face numerous challenges in delivering safe care but, if given sufficient support, they are nevertheless in a position to bring about major improvements. Skills in improving safety and quality should be recognised as equivalent to any other form of (sub)specialty training and as an essential element of any senior clinical or management role. National professional organisations need to promote appropriate education and provide coaching, mentorship and support to local leaders.


Assuntos
Recursos em Saúde/economia , Neonatologia/organização & administração , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Recursos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Quênia/epidemiologia , Liderança , Tutoria/métodos , Mães/educação , Mães/psicologia , Neonatologia/normas , Segurança do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Melhoria de Qualidade
9.
Hum Resour Health ; 19(1): 10, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Appropriate and well-resourced medical internship training is important to ensure psychological health and well-being of doctors in training and also to recruit and retain these doctors. However, most reviews focused on clinical competency of medical interns instead of the non-clinical aspects of training. In this scoping review, we aim to review what tools exist to measure medical internship experience and summarize the major domains assessed. METHOD: The authors searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, ERIC, and the Cochrane Library for peer-reviewed studies that provided quantitative data on medical intern's (house officer, foundation year doctor, etc.) internship experience and published between 2000 and 2019. Three reviewers screened studies for eligibility with inclusion criteria. Data including tools used, key themes examined, and psychometric properties within the study population were charted, collated, and summarized. Tools that were used in multiple studies, and tools with internal validity or reliability assessed directed in their intern population were reported. RESULTS: The authors identified 92 studies that were included in the analysis. The majority of studies were conducted in the US (n = 30, 32.6%) and the UK (n = 20, 21.7%), and only 14 studies (15.2%) were conducted in low- and middle-income countries. Major themes examined for internship experience included well-being, educational environment, and work condition and environment. For measuring well-being, standardized tools like the Maslach Burnout Inventory (for measuring burnout), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (depression), General Health Questionnaire-12 or 30 (psychological distress) and Perceived Stress Scale (stress) were used multiple times. For educational environment and work condition and environment, there is a lack of widely used tools for interns that have undergone psychometric testing in this population other than the Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure, which has been used in four different countries. CONCLUSIONS: There are a large number of tools designed for measuring medical internship experience. International comparability of results from future studies would benefit if tools that have been more widely used are employed in studies on medical interns with further testing of their psychometric properties in different contexts.

10.
J Clin Nurs ; 30(1-2): 56-71, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inpatient nursing documentation facilitates multi-disciplinary team care and tracking of patient progress. In both high- and low- and middle-income settings, it is largely paper-based and may be used as a template for electronic medical records. However, there is limited evidence on how they have been developed. OBJECTIVE: To synthesise evidence on how paper-based nursing records have been developed and implemented in inpatient settings to support documentation of nursing care. DESIGN: A scoping review guided by the Arksey and O'Malley framework and reported using PRISMA-ScR guidelines. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: We included studies that described the process of designing paper-based inpatient records and excluded those focussing on electronic records. Included studies were published in English up to October 2019. SOURCES OF EVIDENCE: PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science and Cochrane supplemented by free-text searches on Google Scholar and snowballing the reference sections of included papers. RESULTS: 12 studies met the eligibility criteria. We extracted data on study characteristics, the development process and outcomes related to documentation of inpatient care. Studies reviewed followed a process of problem identification, literature review, chart (re)design, piloting, implementation and evaluation but varied in their execution of each step. All studies except one reported a positive change in inpatient documentation or the adoption of charts amid various challenges. CONCLUSIONS: The approaches used seemed to work for each of the studies but could be strengthened by following a systematic process. Human-centred Design provides a clear process that prioritises the healthcare professional's needs and their context to deliver a usable product. Problems with the chart could be addressed during the design phase rather than during implementation, thereby promoting chart ownership and uptake since users are involved throughout the design. This will translate to better documentation of inpatient care thus facilitating better patient tracking, improved team communication and better patient outcomes. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Paper-based charts should be designed in a systematic and clear process that considers patient's and healthcare professional's needs contributing to improved uptake of charts and therefore better documentation.


Assuntos
Documentação , Registros de Enfermagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Criança , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
11.
Arch Dis Child ; 106(4): 326-332, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361068

RESUMO

Healthcare systems across the world and especially those in low-resource settings (LRS) are under pressure and one of the first priorities must be to prevent any harm done while trying to deliver care. Health care workers, especially department leaders, need the diagnostic abilities to identify local safety concerns and design actions that benefit their patients. We draw on concepts from the safety sciences that are less well-known than mainstream quality improvement techniques in LRS. We use these to illustrate how to analyse the complex interactions between resources and tools, the organisation of tasks and the norms that may govern behaviours, together with the strengths and vulnerabilities of systems. All interact to influence care and outcomes. To employ these techniques leaders will need to focus on the best attainable standards of care, build trust and shift away from the blame culture that undermines improvement. Health worker education should include development of the technical and relational skills needed to perform these system diagnostic roles. Some safety challenges need leadership from professional associations to provide important resources, peer support and mentorship to sustain safety work.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/tendências , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Atenção à Saúde/economia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Liderança , Mães/psicologia , Neonatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Segurança do Paciente , Melhoria de Qualidade
12.
Wellcome Open Res ; 5: 265, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274301

RESUMO

In low and middle-income countries (LMIC) general hospitals are important for delivering some key acute care services. Neonatal care is emblematic of these acute services as averting deaths requires skilled care over many days from multiple professionals with at least basic equipment. However, hospital care is often of poor quality and large-scale change is needed to improve outcomes. However, achieving large scale change in health systems remains challenging. To set the scene we first characterise the problems of hospital newborn units (NBU) in Kenya. We then combine our understanding of theory and context with reflection on our own position as an embedded research group with no formal authority to help us propose a feasible intervention strategy linked to in initial programme theory. We explain this programme theory and suggest how within a multi-level clinical professional network leaders at the ward or mid-level of hospital hierarchies are key potential change agents. In support of our programme theory we briefly outline and seek to integrate key ideas drawn from a wider set of theories. We propose how an intervention might be developed and employed in a phased approach to create the ownership, relationships and momentum that will be needed to achieve change at scale. Finally, we discuss the implications of such a strategy for our research design that is based on a prospective, in-depth case study that includes quantitative and qualitative data collection linked to specific sub-studies. We suggest using Realistic Evaluation to integrate our findings and develop an updated programme theory that should inform future large-scale change efforts before briefly discussing some of the challenges of evaluating a network as an intervention.

14.
Implement Sci ; 15(1): 102, 2020 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The true burden of tuberculosis in children remains unknown, but approximately 65% go undetected each year. Guidelines for tuberculosis clinical decision-making are in place in Kenya, and the National Tuberculosis programme conducts several trainings on them yearly. By 2018, there were 183 GeneXpert® machines in Kenyan public hospitals. Despite these efforts, diagnostic tests are underused and there is observed under detection of tuberculosis in children. We describe the process of designing a contextually appropriate, theory-informed intervention to improve case detection of TB in children and implementation guided by the Behaviour Change Wheel. METHODS: We used an iterative process, going back and forth from quantitative and qualitative empiric data to reviewing literature, and applying the Behaviour Change Wheel guide. The key questions reflected on included (i) what is the problem we are trying to solve; (ii) what behaviours are we trying to change and in what way; (iii) what will it take to bring about desired change; (iv) what types of interventions are likely to bring about desired change; (v) what should be the specific intervention content and how should this be implemented? RESULTS: The following behaviour change intervention functions were identified as follows: (i) training: imparting practical skills; (ii) modelling: providing an example for people to aspire/imitate; (iii) persuasion: using communication to induce positive or negative feelings or stimulate action; (iv) environmental restructuring: changing the physical or social context; and (v) education: increasing knowledge or understanding. The process resulted in a multi-faceted intervention package composed of redesigning of child tuberculosis training; careful selection of champions; use of audit and feedback linked to group problem solving; and workflow restructuring with role specification. CONCLUSION: The intervention components were selected for their effectiveness (from literature), affordability, acceptability, and practicability and designed so that TB programme officers and hospital managers can be supported to implement them with relative ease, alongside their daily duties. This work contributes to the field of implementation science by utilising clear definitions and descriptions of underlying mechanisms of interventions that will guide others to do likewise in their settings for similar problems.

15.
Wellcome Open Res ; 5: 211, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33204846

RESUMO

Background: Infection prevention and control, and water sanitation and hygiene have an essential role in ensuring the quality of care and patient outcomes in hospitals. Using a modification of the World Health Organization's water sanitation and hygiene facility improvement tool, we undertook assessments in 14 public hospitals in Kenya in 2018. The hospitals received written feedback on areas where they could make improvements. Following the first confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Kenya, we were drawn to ask whether the results of our pre-pandemic survey had led to action, and whether or not the threat of COVID-19 had focused more attention on infection prevention and control and water sanitation and hygiene. Methods: Using a semi-structured interview guide, we carried out phone interviews with key hospital leaders in 11 of the 14 hospitals. The data were transcribed and coded into thematic areas. We draw on these interviews to describe the status and awareness of infection prevention and control. Results: The infection prevention and control committee members are training health workers on infection prevention and control procedures and proper use of personal protective equipment and in addition, providing technical support to hospital managers. While some hospitals have also accessed additional funds to improve infection prevention and control, they tended to be small amounts of money.  Long-standing challenges with supplies of infection prevention and control materials and low staff morale persist.  Crucially, the reduced supply of personal protective equipment has led to fear and anxiety among health care personnel. Conclusions: As funds are mobilised to support care for COVID-19, we ask that funds prioritise infection prevention and control measures. This would have a profoundly positive effect on within hospital virus transmission, patient and staff safety but also lasting benefits beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.

16.
Arch Dis Child ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prognostic models aid clinical decision making and evaluation of hospital performance. Existing neonatal prognostic models typically use physiological measures that are often not available, such as pulse oximetry values, in routine practice in low-resource settings. We aimed to develop and validate two novel models to predict all cause in-hospital mortality following neonatal unit admission in a low-resource, high-mortality setting. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We used basic, routine clinical data recorded by duty clinicians at the time of admission to derive (n=5427) and validate (n=1627) two novel models to predict in-hospital mortality. The Neonatal Essential Treatment Score (NETS) included treatments prescribed at the time of admission while the Score for Essential Neonatal Symptoms and Signs (SENSS) used basic clinical signs. Logistic regression was used, and performance was evaluated using discrimination and calibration. RESULTS: At derivation, c-statistic (discrimination) for NETS was 0.92 (95% CI 0.90 to 0.93) and that for SENSS was 0.91 (95% CI 0.89 to 0.93). At external (temporal) validation, NETS had a c-statistic of 0.89 (95% CI 0.86 to 0.92) and SENSS 0.89 (95% CI 0.84 to 0.93). The calibration intercept for NETS was -0.72 (95% CI -0.96 to -0.49) and that for SENSS was -0.33 (95% CI -0.56 to -0.11). CONCLUSION: Using routine neonatal data in a low-resource setting, we found that it is possible to predict in-hospital mortality using either treatments or signs and symptoms. Further validation of these models may support their use in treatment decisions and for case-mix adjustment to help understand performance variation across hospitals.

17.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e035045, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077558

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify and appraise the methodological rigour of multivariable prognostic models predicting in-hospital paediatric mortality in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). DESIGN: Systematic review of peer-reviewed journals. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, CINAHL, Google Scholar and Web of Science electronic databases since inception to August 2019. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: We included model development studies predicting in-hospital paediatric mortality in LMIC. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: This systematic review followed the Checklist for critical Appraisal and data extraction for systematic Reviews of prediction Modelling Studies framework. The risk of bias assessment was conducted using Prediction model Risk of Bias Assessment Tool (PROBAST). No quantitative summary was conducted due to substantial heterogeneity that was observed after assessing the studies included. RESULTS: Our search strategy identified a total of 4054 unique articles. Among these, 3545 articles were excluded after review of titles and abstracts as they covered non-relevant topics. Full texts of 509 articles were screened for eligibility, of which 15 studies reporting 21 models met the eligibility criteria. Based on the PROBAST tool, risk of bias was assessed in four domains; participant, predictors, outcome and analyses. The domain of statistical analyses was the main area of concern where none of the included models was judged to be of low risk of bias. CONCLUSION: This review identified 21 models predicting in-hospital paediatric mortality in LMIC. However, most reports characterising these models are of poor quality when judged against recent reporting standards due to a high risk of bias. Future studies should adhere to standardised methodological criteria and progress from identifying new risk scores to validating or adapting existing scores. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018088599.


Assuntos
Hospitais , Viés , Criança , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Prognóstico , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
18.
Hum Resour Health ; 18(1): 79, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081790

RESUMO

This commentary article addresses a critical issue facing Kenya and other Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC): how to remedy deficits in hospitals' nursing workforce. Would employing health care assistants (HCAs) provide a partial solution? This article first gives a brief introduction to the Kenyan context and then explores the development of workforce roles to support nurses in Europe to highlight the diversity of these roles. Our introduction pinpoints that pressures to maintain or restrict costs have led to a wide variety of formal and informal task shifting from nurses to some form of HCA in the EU with differences noted in issues of appropriate skill mix, training, accountability, and regulation of HCA. Next, we draw from a suite of recent studies in hospitals in Kenya which illustrate nursing practices in a highly pressurized context. The studies took place in neo-natal wards in Kenyan hospitals between 2015 and 2018 and in a system with no legal or regulatory basis for task shifting to HCAs. We proffer data on why and how nurses informally delegate tasks to others in the public sector and the decision-making processes of nurses and frame this evidence in the specific contextual conditions. In the conclusion, the paper aims to deepen the debates on developing human resources for health. We argue that despite the urgent pressures to address glaring workforce deficits in Kenya and other LMIC, caution needs to be exercised in implementing changes to nursing practices through the introduction of HCAs. The evidence from EU suggests that the rapid growth in the employment of HCA has created crucial issues which need addressing. These include clearly defining the scope of practice and developing the appropriate skill mix between nurses and HCAs to match the specific health system context. Moreover, we suggest efforts to develop and implement such roles should be carefully designed and rigorously evaluated to inform continuing policy development.

20.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 4(10): 750-760, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735783

RESUMO

Background Increasing numbers of neonates are undergoing painful procedures in low-income and middle-income countries, with adequate analgesia seldom used. In collaboration with a multi-disciplinary team in Kenya, we aimed to establish the first evidence-based guidelines for the management of routine procedure-related neonatal pain that consider low-resource hospital settings. METHODS: We did a systematic review by searching MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and CENTRAL databases for studies published from Jan 1, 1953, to March 31, 2019. We included data from randomised controlled trials using heart rate, oxygen saturation (SpO2), premature infant pain profile (PIPP) score, neonatal infant pain scale (NIPS) score, neonatal facial coding system score, and douleur aiguë du nouveau-né scale score as pain outcome measures. We excluded studies in which neonates were undergoing circumcision or were intubated, studies from which data were unextractable, or when pain was scored by non-trained individuals. We did a narrative synthesis of all studies, and meta-analysis when data were available from multiple studies comparing the same analgesics and controls and using the same outcome measures. 17 Kenyan health-care professionals formed our clinical guideline development panel, and we used the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework and the panel's knowledge of the local health-care context to guide the guideline development process. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42019126620. FINDINGS: Of 2782 studies assessed for eligibility, data from 149 (5%) were analysed, with 80 (3%) of these further contributing to our meta-analysis. We found a high level of certainty for the superiority of breastfeeding over placebo or no intervention (standardised mean differences [SMDs] were -1·40 [95% CI -1·96 to -0·84] in PIPP score and -2·20 [-2·91 to -1·48] in NIPS score), and the superiority of oral sugar solutions over placebo or no intervention (SMDs were -0·38 [-0·61 to -0·16] in heart rate and 0·23 [0·04 to 0·42] in SpO2). We found a moderate level of certainty for the superiority for expressed breastmilk over placebo or no intervention (SMDs were -0·46 [95% CI -0·87 to -0·05] in heart rate and 0·48 [0·20 to 0·75] in SpO2). Therefore, the panel recommended that breastfeeding should be given as first-line analgesic treatment, initiated at least 2 min pre-procedure. Given contextual factors, for neonates who are unable to breastfeed, 1-2 mL of expressed breastmilk should be given as first-line analgesic, or 1-2 mL of oral sugar (≥10% concentration) as second-line analgesic. The panel also recommended parental presence during procedures with adjunctive provision of skin-to-skin care, or non-nutritive sucking when possible. INTERPRETATION: We have generated Kenya's first neonatal analgesic guidelines for routine procedures, which have been adopted by the Kenyan Ministry of Health, and have shown a framework for clinical guideline development that is applicable to other low-income and middle-income health-care settings. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust Research Programme, and the Africa-Oxford Initiative.


Assuntos
Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Método Canguru/métodos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor/prevenção & controle , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Quênia , Masculino , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Flebotomia/efeitos adversos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Punções/efeitos adversos
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