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3.
Hum Resour Health ; 18(1): 34, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of appropriate and relevant nurse-sensitive indicators provides an opportunity to demonstrate the unique contributions of nurses to patient outcomes. The aim of this work was to develop relevant metrics to assess the quality of nursing care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where they are scarce. MAIN BODY: We conducted a scoping review using EMBASE, CINAHL and MEDLINE databases of studies published in English focused on quality nursing care and with identified measurement methods. Indicators identified were reviewed by a diverse panel of nursing stakeholders in Kenya to develop a contextually appropriate set of nurse-sensitive indicators for Kenyan hospitals specific to the five major inpatient disciplines. We extracted data on study characteristics, nursing indicators reported, location and the tools used. A total of 23 articles quantifying the quality of nursing care services met the inclusion criteria. All studies identified were from high-income countries. Pooled together, 159 indicators were reported in the reviewed studies with 25 identified as the most commonly reported. Through the stakeholder consultative process, 52 nurse-sensitive indicators were recommended for Kenyan hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Although nurse-sensitive indicators are increasingly used in high-income countries to improve quality of care, there is a wide heterogeneity in the way indicators are defined and interpreted. Whilst some indicators were regarded as useful by a Kenyan expert panel, contextual differences prompted them to recommend additional new indicators to improve the evaluations of nursing care provision in Kenyan hospitals and potentially similar LMIC settings. Taken forward through implementation, refinement and adaptation, the proposed indicators could be more standardised and may provide a common base to establish national or regional professional learning networks with the common goal of achieving high-quality care through quality improvement and learning.

4.
Stat Methods Med Res ; : 962280220918279, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390503

RESUMO

Missing information is a major drawback in analyzing data collected in many routine health care settings. Multiple imputation assuming a missing at random mechanism is a popular method to handle missing data. The missing at random assumption cannot be confirmed from the observed data alone, hence the need for sensitivity analysis to assess robustness of inference. However, sensitivity analysis is rarely conducted and reported in practice. We analyzed routine paediatric data collected during a cluster randomized trial conducted in Kenyan hospitals. We imputed missing patient and clinician-level variables assuming the missing at random mechanism. We also imputed missing clinician-level variables assuming a missing not at random mechanism. We incorporated opinions from 15 clinical experts in the form of prior distributions and shift parameters in the delta adjustment method. An interaction between trial intervention arm and follow-up time, hospital, clinician and patient-level factors were included in a proportional odds random-effects analysis model. We performed these analyses using R functions derived from the jomo package. Parameter estimates from multiple imputation under the missing at random mechanism were similar to multiple imputation estimates assuming the missing not at random mechanism. Our inferences were insensitive to departures from the missing at random assumption using either the prior distributions or shift parameters sensitivity analysis approach.

5.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(3): e002108, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337080

RESUMO

Background: Target 3.2 of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is to reduce neonatal mortality. In low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), the District Health Information Software, V.2 (DHIS2) is widely used to help improve indicator data reporting. There are few reports on its use for collecting neonatal hospital data that are of increasing importance as births within facilities increase. To address this gap, we investigated implementation experiences of DHIS2 in LMICs and mapped the information flow relevant for neonatal data reporting in Kenyan hospitals. Methods: A narrative review of published literature and policy documents from LMICs was conducted. Information gathered was used to identify the challenges around DHIS2 and to map information flows from healthcare facilities to the national level. Two use cases explore how newborn data collection and reporting happens in hospitals. The results were validated, adjusted and system challenges identified. Results: Literature and policy documents report that DHIS2 is a useful tool with strong technical capabilities, but significant challenges can emerge with the implementation. Visualisations of information flows highlight how a complex, people-based and paper-based subsystem for inpatient information capture precedes digitisation. Use cases point to major challenges in these subsystems in accurately identifying newborn deaths and appropriate data for the calculation of mortality even in hospitals. Conclusions: DHIS2 is a tool with potential to improve availability of health information that is key to health systems, but it critically depends on people-based and paper-based subsystems. In hospitals, the subsystems are subject to multiple micro level challenges. Work is needed to design and implement better standardised information processes, recording and reporting tools, and to strengthen the information system workforce. If the challenges are addressed and data quality improved, DHIS2 can support countries to track progress towards the SDG target of improving neonatal mortality.

6.
Arch Dis Child ; 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We explored who actually provides most admission care in hospitals offering supervised experiential training to graduating clinicians in a high mortality setting where practices deviate from guideline recommendations. METHODS: We used a large observational data set from 13 Kenyan county hospitals from November 2015 through November 2018 where patients were linked to admitting clinicians. We explored guideline adherence after creating a cumulative correctness of Paediatric Admission Quality of Care (cPAQC) score on a 5-point scale (0-4) in which points represent correct, sequential progress in providing care perfectly adherent to guidelines comprising admission assessment, diagnosis and treatment. At the point where guideline adherence declined the most we dichotomised the cPAQC score and used multilevel logistic regression models to explore whether clinician and patient-level factors influence adherence. RESULTS: There were 1489 clinicians who could be linked to 53 003 patients over a period of 3 years. Patients were rarely admitted by fully qualified clinicians and predominantly by preregistration medical officer interns (MOI, 46%) and diploma level clinical officer interns (COI, 41%) with a median of 28 MOI (range 11-68) and 52 COI (range 5-160) offering care per study hospital. The cPAQC scores suggest that perfect guideline adherence is found in ≤12% of children with malaria, pneumonia or diarrhoea with dehydration. MOIs were more adherent to guidelines than COI (adjusted OR 1.19 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.34)) but multimorbidity was significantly associated with lower guideline adherence. CONCLUSION: Over 85% of admissions to hospitals in high mortality settings that offer experiential training in Kenya are conducted by preregistration clinicians. Clinical assessment is good but classifying severity of illness in accordance with guideline recommendations is a challenge. Adherence by MOI with 6 years' training is better than COI with 3 years' training, performance does not seem to improve during their 3 months of paediatric rotations.

7.
BMJ Open ; 10(3): e034891, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the extent to which different categories of anaesthesia provider are used in humanitarian surgical projects and to explore the volume and nature of their surgical workload. DESIGN: Descriptive analysis using 10 years (2008-2017) of routine case-level data linked with routine programme-level data from surgical projects run exclusively by Médecins Sans Frontières-Operational Centre Brussels (MSF-OCB). SETTING: Projects were in contexts of natural disaster (ND, entire expatriate team deployed by MSF-OCB), active conflict (AC) and stable healthcare gaps (HG). In AC and HG settings, MSF-OCB support pre-existing local facilities. Hospital facilities ranged from basic health centres with surgical capabilities to tertiary referral centres. PARTICIPANTS: The full dataset included 178 814 surgical cases. These were categorised by most senior anaesthetic provider for the project, according to qualification: specialist physician anaesthesiologists, qualified nurse anaesthetists and uncertified anaesthesia providers. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Volume and nature of surgical workload of different anaesthesia providers. RESULTS: Full routine data were available for 173 084 cases (96.8%): 2518 in ND, 42 225 in AC, 126 936 in HG. Anaesthesia was predominantly led by physician anaesthesiologists (100% in ND, 66% in AC and HG), then nurse anaesthetists (19% in AC and HG) or uncertified anaesthesia providers (15% in AC and HG). Across all settings and provider groups, patients were mostly healthy young adults (median age range 24-27 years), with predominantly females in HG contexts, and males in AC contexts. Overall intra-operative mortality was 0.2%. CONCLUSION: Our findings contribute to existing knowledge of the nature of anaesthetic provision in humanitarian settings, while demonstrating the value of high-quality, routine data collection at scale in this sector. Further evaluation of perioperative outcomes associated with different models of humanitarian anaesthetic provision is required.

8.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(1): e001937, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133169

RESUMO

There are global calls for research to support health system strengthening in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). To examine the nature and magnitude of gaps in access and quality of inpatient neonatal care provided to a largely poor urban population, we combined multiple epidemiological and health services methodologies. Conducting this work and generating findings was made possible through extensive formal and informal stakeholder engagement linked to flexibility in the research approach while keeping overall goals in mind. We learnt that 45% of sick newborns requiring hospital care in Nairobi probably do not access a suitable facility and that public hospitals provide 70% of care accessed with private sector care either poor quality or very expensive. Direct observations of care and ethnographic work show that critical nursing workforce shortages prevent delivery of high-quality care in high volume, low-cost facilities and likely threaten patient safety and nurses' well-being. In these challenging settings, routines and norms have evolved as collective coping strategies so health professionals maintain some sense of achievement in the face of impossible demands. Thus, the health system sustains a functional veneer that belies the stresses undermining quality, compassionate care. No one intervention will dramatically reduce neonatal mortality in this urban setting. In the short term, a substantial increase in the number of health workers, especially nurses, is required. This must be combined with longer term investment to address coverage gaps through redesign of services around functional tiers with improved information systems that support effective governance of public, private and not-for-profit sectors.

9.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 20(1): 2, 2020 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As healthcare facilities in Low- and Middle-Income Countries adopt digital health systems to improve hospital administration and patient care, it is important to understand the adoption process and assess the systems' capabilities. This survey aimed to provide decision-makers with information on the digital health systems landscape and to support the rapidly developing digital health community in Kenya and the region by sharing knowledge. METHODS: We conducted a survey of County Health Records Information Officers (CHRIOs) to determine the extent to which digital health systems in public hospitals that serve as internship training centres in Kenya are adopted. We conducted site visits and interviewed hospital administrators and end users who were at the facility on the day of the visit. We also interviewed digital health system vendors to understand the adoption process from their perspective. Semi-structured interview guides adapted from the literature were used. We identified emergent themes using a thematic analysis from the data. RESULTS: We obtained information from 39 CHRIOs, 58 hospital managers and system users, and 9 digital health system vendors through semi-structured interviews and completed questionnaires. From the survey, all facilities mentioned purchased a digital health system primarily for administrative purposes. Radiology and laboratory management systems were commonly standalone systems and there were varying levels of interoperability within facilities that had multiple systems. We only saw one in-patient clinical module in use. Users reported on issues such as system usability, inadequate training, infrastructure and system support. Vendors reported the availability of a wide range of modules, but implementation was constrained by funding, prioritisation of services, users' lack of confidence in new technologies and lack of appropriate data sharing policies. CONCLUSION: Public hospitals in Kenya are increasingly purchasing systems to support administrative functions and this study highlights challenges faced by hospital users and vendors. Significant work is required to ensure interoperability of systems within hospitals and with other government services. Additional studies on clinical usability and the workflow fit of digital health systems are required to ensure efficient system implementation. However, this requires support from key stakeholders including the government, international donors and regional health informatics organisations.

10.
Soc Sci Med ; 245: 112698, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811960

RESUMO

Kenyan neonatal nurses are asked to do the impossible: to bridge the gap between international standards of nursing and the circumstances they face each day. They work long hours with little supervision in ill-designed wards, staffed by far too few nurses given the pressing need. Despite these conditions, a single neonatal nurse can be tasked with looking after forty sick babies for whom very close care is a necessity. Our 18-month ethnography explores this uniquely stressful environment in order to understand how nurses operate under such pressures and what techniques they use to organise work and cope. Beginning in January 2015, we conducted 250 h of non-participant observation and 32 semi-structured interviews in three newborn units in Nairobi to describe how nurses categorise babies, balance work across shifts, use routinised care, and demonstrate pragmatism and flexibility in their dealings with each other in order to reduce stress. In so doing, we present an empirically based model of the ways in which nurses cope in a lower-middle income setting and develop early work in nursing studies that highlighted collective strategies for reducing anxiety. This allows us to address the gap left by prevalent theories of nursing stress that have focused on the personal characteristics of individual nurses. Finally, we extend outwards from our ethnographic findings to consider how a deeper understanding of these collective strategies to reduce stress might inform policy, and why, even when the forces that create stress are alleviated, the underlying model of nursing work may prevail.

11.
BMJ Qual Saf ; 29(1): 19-30, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improved hospital care is needed to reduce newborn mortality in low/middle-income countries (LMIC). Nurses are essential to the delivery of safe and effective care, but nurse shortages and high patient workloads may result in missed care. We aimed to examine nursing care delivered to sick newborns and identify missed care using direct observational methods. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using direct-observational methods for 216 newborns admitted in six health facilities in Nairobi, Kenya, was used to determine which tasks were completed. We report the frequency of tasks done and develop a nursing care index (NCI), an unweighted summary score of nursing tasks done for each baby, to explore how task completion is related to organisational and newborn characteristics. RESULTS: Nursing tasks most commonly completed were handing over between shifts (97%), checking and where necessary changing diapers (96%). Tasks with lowest completion rates included nursing review of newborns (38%) and assessment of babies on phototherapy (15%). Overall the mean NCI was 60% (95% CI 58% to 62%), at least 80% of tasks were completed for only 14% of babies. Private sector facilities had a median ratio of babies to nurses of 3, with a maximum of 7 babies per nurse. In the public sector, the median ratio was 19 babies and a maximum exceeding 25 babies per nurse. In exploratory multivariable analyses, ratios of ≥12 babies per nurse were associated with a 24-point reduction in the mean NCI compared with ratios of ≤3 babies per nurse. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of nursing care is missed with potentially serious effects on patient safety and outcomes in this LMIC setting. Given that nurses caring for fewer babies on average performed more of the expected tasks, addressing nursing is key to ensuring delivery of essential aspects of care as part of improving quality and safety.

12.
Trop Med Int Health ; 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although substantial progress has been made in increasing access to care during childbirth, reductions in maternal and neonatal mortality have been slower. Poor-quality care may be to blame. In this study, we measure the quality of labour and delivery services in Kenya and Malawi using data from observations of deliveries and explore factors associated with levels of competent and respectful care. METHODS: We used data from nationally representative health facility assessment surveys. A total of 1100 deliveries in 392 facilities across Kenya and Malawi were observed and quality was assessed using two indices: the quality of the process of intrapartum and immediate postpartum care (QoPIIPC) index and a previously validated index of respectful maternity care. Data from standardised observations of care were analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariable random-intercept regression models to examine factors associated with variation in quality of care. We also quantified the variance in quality explained by each domain of covariates (patient-, provider- and facility-level and subnational divisions). RESULTS: Only 61-66% of basic elements of competent and respectful care were performed. In adjusted models, better-staffed facilities, private hospitals and morning deliveries were associated with higher levels of competent and respectful care. In Malawi, younger, primipara and HIV-positive women received higher-quality care. Quality also differed substantially across regions in Kenya, with a 25 percentage-point gap between Nairobi and the Coast region. Quality was also higher in higher-volume facilities and those with caesarean section capacity. Most of the explained variance in quality was due to regions in Kenya and to facility, and patient-level characteristics in Malawi. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest considerable scope for improvement in quality. Increasing staffing and shifting births to higher-volume facilities - along with promotion of respectful care in these facilities - should be considered in sub-Saharan Africa to improve outcomes for mothers and newborns.

13.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226548, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor water sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in health care facilities increases hospital-associated infections, and the resulting greater use of second-line antibiotics drives antimicrobial resistance. Recognising the existing gaps, the World Health Organisations' Water and Sanitation for Health Facility Improvement Tool (WASH-FIT) was designed for self-assessment. The tool was designed for small primary care facilities mainly providing outpatient and limited inpatient care and was not designed to compare hospital performance. Together with technical experts, we worked to adapt the tool for use in larger facilities with multiple inpatient units (wards), allowing for comparison between facilities and prompt action at different levels of the health system. METHODS: We adapted the existing facility improvement tool (WASH-FIT) to create a simple numeric scoring approach. This is to illustrate the variation across hospitals and to facilitate monitoring of progress over time and to group indicators that can be used to identify this variation. Working with stakeholders, we identified those responsible for action to improve WASH at different levels of the health system and used piloting, analysis of interview data to establish the feasibility and potential value of the WASH Facility Survey Tool (WASH-FAST) to demonstrate such variability. RESULTS: We present an aggregate percentage score based on 65 indicators at the facility level to summarise hospitals' overall WASH status and how this varies. Thirty-four of the 65 indicators spanning four WASH domains can be assessed at ward level enabling within hospital variations to be highlighted. Three levels of responsibility for WASH service monitoring and improvement were identified with stakeholders: the county/regional level, senior hospital management and hospital infection prevention and control committees. CONCLUSION: We propose WASH-FAST can be used as a survey tool to assess, measure and monitor the progress of WASH in hospitals in resource-limited settings, providing useful data for decision making and tracking improvements over time.


Assuntos
Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Saneamento/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Purificação da Água/normas , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Viabilidade , Saúde Global , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/normas , Hospitais , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade , Saneamento/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Purificação da Água/métodos , Abastecimento de Água/normas
14.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0222922, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) in healthcare facilities is critical in the provision of safe and quality care. Poor WASH increases hospital-associated infections and contributes to the rise of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). It is therefore essential for governments and hospital managers to know the state of WASH in these facilities to set priorities and allocate resources. METHODS: Using a recently developed survey tool and scoring approach, we assessed WASH across four domains in 14 public hospitals in Kenya (65 indicators) with specific assessments of individual wards (34 indicators). Aggregate scores were generated for whole facilities and individual wards and used to illustrate performance variation and link findings to specific levels of health system accountability. To help interpret and contextualise these scores, we used data from key informant interviews with hospital managers and health workers. RESULTS: Aggregate hospital performance ranged between 47 and 71% with five of the 14 hospitals scoring below 60%. A total of 116 wards were assessed within these facilities. Linked to specific domains, ward scores varied within and across hospitals and ranged between 20% and 80%. At ward level, some critical indicators, which affect AMR like proper waste segregation and hand hygiene compliance activities had pooled aggregate scores of 45 and 35% respectively. From 31 interviews conducted, the main themes that explained this heterogenous performance across facilities and wards included differences in the built environment, resource availability, leadership and the degree to which local managers used innovative approaches to cope with shortages. CONCLUSION: Significant differences and challenges exist in the state of WASH within and across hospitals. Whereas the senior hospital management can make some improvements, input and support from the national and regional governments are essential to improve WASH as a basic foundation for averting nosocomial infections and the spread of AMR as part of safe, quality hospital care in Kenya.

15.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020416, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555441

RESUMO

Background: Kenyan paediatric treatment protocols recommend the use of zinc supplement for all children with diarrhoea. However, there is limited evidence of benefit for young children aged 1-5 months and those who are well-nourished. We examine effectiveness of zinc supplementation for children admitted with diarrhoea to Kenya's public hospitals with different nutritional and age categories. This is to determine whether the current policy where zinc is prescribed for all children with diarrhoea is appropriate. Methods: We explore the effect of zinc treatment on time to discharge for children aged 1-5 and 6-59 months and amongst those classified as either severely - moderately under-nourished or well-nourished. To overcome the challenges associated with non-random allocation of treatments and missing data in these observational data, we use propensity score methods and multiple imputation to minimize bias. Results: The analysis included 1645 (1-5 months) and 11 546 (6-59 months) children respectively. The estimated sub-distribution hazard ratios for being discharged in the zinc group vs the non-zinc group were 1.25 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07, 1.46) and 1.17 (95% CI = 1.10, 1.24) in these respective age categories. Zinc treatment was associated with shorter time to discharge in both well and under-nourished children. Conclusion: Zinc treatment, in general, was associated with shorter time to discharge. In the absence of significant adverse effects, these data support the continued use of zinc for admissions with diarrhoea including those aged 1-5 months and in those who are well-nourished.


Assuntos
Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Públicos , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Fatores Etários , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Quênia , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0221145, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: True burden of tuberculosis (TB) in children is unknown. Hospitalised children are low-hanging fruit for TB case detection as they are within the system. We aimed to explore the process of recognition and investigation for childhood TB using a guideline-linked cascade of care. METHODS: This was an observational study of 42,107 children admitted to 13 county hospitals in Kenya from 01Nov 15-31Oct 16, and 01Nov 17-31Oct 18. We estimated those that met each step of the cascade, those with an apparent (or "Working") TB diagnosis and modelled associations with TB tests amongst guideline-eligible children. RESULTS: 23,741/42,107 (56.4%) met step 1 of the cascade (≥2 signs and symptoms suggestive of TB). Step 2(further screening of history of TB contact/full respiratory exam) was documented in 14,873/23,741 (62.6%) who met Step 1. Step 3(chest x-ray or Mantoux test) was requested in 2,451/14,873 (16.5%) who met Step 2. Step 4(≥1 bacteriological test) was requested in 392/2,451 (15.9%) who met Step 3. Step 5("Working TB" diagnosis) was documented in 175/392 (44.6%) who met Step 4. Factors associated with request of TB tests in patients who met Step 1 included: i) older children [AOR 1.19(CI 1.09-1.31)]; ii) co-morbidities of HIV, malnutrition or pneumonia [AOR 3.81(CI 3.05-4.75), 2.98(CI 2.69-3.31) and 2.98(CI 2.60-3.40) respectively]; iii) sicker children, readmitted/referred [AOR 1.24(CI 1.08-1.42) and 1.15(CI 1.04-1.28) respectively]. "Working TB" diagnosis was made in 2.9%(1,202/42,107) of all admissions and 0.2%(89/42,107) were bacteriologically-confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: More than half of all paediatric admissions had symptoms associated with TB and nearly two-thirds had more specific history documented. Only a few amongst them got TB tests requested. TB was diagnosed in 2.9% of all admissions but most were inadequately investigated. Major challenges remain in identifying and investigating TB in children in hospitals with access to Xpert MTB/RIF and a review is needed of existing guidelines.

17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria prevalence has declined in western Kenya resulting in risk of neurological phenotypes in older children. This study investigates clinical the profile of paediatric malaria admissions ahead of the introduction of RTS,S/AS01 vaccine. METHODS: Malaria admissions, aged 1 month to 15 years, were identified from routine standardised inpatient clinical surveillance data collected between 2015 and 2018 from 4 hospitals in western Kenya. Malaria phenotypes were defined based on available data. RESULTS: 5,766 malaria admissions were documented; the median age was 36 (interquartile range, 18-60) months; 15% were aged between 1-11 months of age, 33% were aged 1-23 months of age, and 70% were aged 1 month to 5 years. At admission, 2,340 (40.6%) children had severe malaria; 421/2,208 (19.1%) with impaired consciousness, 665/2,240 (29.7%) with inability to drink or breastfeed, 317/2,340 (13.6%) with two or more convulsions, 1,057/2,340 (45.2%) with severe anaemia, and 441/2,239 (19.7%) with severe respiratory distress. Overall, 211 (3.7%) of malaria admissions died; 163/211 (77% deaths, case fatality 7.0%) and 48/211(23% deaths, case fatality 1.4% ) met criteria for severe malaria and non-severe malaria at admission respectively. Median age for fatal cases was 33 (interquartile range, 12-72) months and case fatality was highest in those unconscious (44.4%). CONCLUSION: Severe malaria in western Kenya is still predominantly among the younger paediatric age group and current interventions targeted for those <5 years are appropriate. However, there are increasing numbers of children older than 5 years and on-going hospital surveillance would identify when interventions should target older children.

18.
BMJ Glob Health ; 4(5): e001715, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544003

RESUMO

Introduction: There were almost 1 million deaths in children aged between 5 and 14 years in 2017, and pneumonia accounted for 11%. However, there are no validated guidelines for pneumonia management in older children and data to support their development are limited. We sought to understand risk factors for mortality among children aged 5-14 years hospitalised with pneumonia in district-level health facilities in Kenya. Methods: We did a retrospective cohort study using data collected from an established clinical information network of 13 hospitals. We reviewed records for children aged 5-14 years admitted with pneumonia between 1 March 2014 and 28 February 2018. Individual clinical signs were examined for association with inpatient mortality using logistic regression. We used existing WHO criteria (intended for under 5s) to define levels of severity and examined their performance in identifying those at increased risk of death. Results: 1832 children were diagnosed with pneumonia and 145 (7.9%) died. Severe pallor was strongly associated with mortality (adjusted OR (aOR) 8.06, 95% CI 4.72 to 13.75) as were reduced consciousness, mild/moderate pallor, central cyanosis and older age (>9 years) (aOR >2). Comorbidities HIV and severe acute malnutrition were also associated with death (aOR 2.31, 95% CI 1.39 to 3.84 and aOR 1.89, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.21, respectively). The presence of clinical characteristics used by WHO to define severe pneumonia was associated with death in univariate analysis (OR 2.69). However, this combination of clinical characteristics was poor in discriminating those at risk of death (sensitivity: 0.56, specificity: 0.68, and area under the curve: 0.62). Conclusion: Children >5 years have high inpatient pneumonia mortality. These findings also suggest that the WHO criteria for classification of severity for children under 5 years do not appear to be a valid tool for risk assessment in this older age group, indicating the urgent need for evidence-based clinical guidelines for this neglected population.

19.
Front Public Health ; 7: 198, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380338

RESUMO

Background: Routine clinical data are widely used in many countries to monitor quality of care. A limitation of routine data is missing information which occurs due to lack of documentation of care processes by health care providers, poor record keeping, or limited health care technology at facility level. Our objective was to address missing covariates while properly accounting for hierarchical structure in routine pediatric pneumonia care. Methods: We analyzed routine data collected during a cluster randomized trial to investigating the effect of audit and feedback (A&F) over time on inpatient pneumonia care among children admitted in 12 Kenyan hospitals between March and November 2016. Six hospitals in the intervention arm received enhance A&F on classification and treatment of pneumonia cases in addition to a standard A&F report on general inpatient pediatric care. The remaining six in control arm received standard A&F alone. We derived and analyzed a composite outcome known as Pediatric Admission Quality of Care (PAQC) score. In our analysis, we adjusted for patients, clinician and hospital level factors. Missing data occurred in patient and clinician level variables. We did multiple imputation of missing covariates within the joint model imputation framework. We fitted proportion odds random effects model and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models to the data before and after multilevel multiple imputation. Results: Overall, 2,299 children aged 2 to 59 months were admitted with childhood pneumonia in 12 hospitals during the trial period. 2,127 (92%) of the children (level 1) were admitted by 378 clinicians across the 12 hospitals. Enhanced A&F led to improved inpatient pediatric pneumonia care over time compared to standard A&F. Female clinicians and hospitals with low admission workload were associated with higher uptake of the new pneumonia guidelines during the trial period. In both random effects and marginal model, parameter estimates were biased and inefficient under complete case analysis. Conclusions: Enhanced A&F improved the uptake of WHO recommended pediatric pneumonia guidelines over time compared to standard audit and feedback. When imputing missing data, it is important to account for the hierarchical structure to ensure compatibility with analysis models of interest to alleviate bias.

20.
Wellcome Open Res ; 4: 96, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289756

RESUMO

Background: Clinical outcomes data are a crucial component of efforts to improve health systems globally. Strengthening of these health systems is essential if the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) are to be achieved. Target 3.2 of SDG Goal 3 is to end preventable deaths and reduce neonatal mortality to 12 per 1,000 or lower by 2030. There is a paucity of data on neonatal in-hospital mortality in Kenya that is poorly captured in the existing health information system. Better measurement of neonatal mortality in facilities may help promote improvements in the quality of health care that will be important to achieving SDG 3 in countries such as Kenya. Methods: This was a cohort study using routinely collected data from a large urban neonatal unit in Nairobi, Kenya. All the patients admitted to the unit between April 2014 to December 2015 were included. Clinical characteristics are summarised descriptively, while the competing risk method was used to estimate the probability of in-hospital mortality considering discharge alive as the competing risk. Results: A total of 9,115 patients were included. Most were males (966/9115, 55%) and the majority (6287/9115, 69%) had normal birthweight (2.5 to 4 kg). Median length of stay was 2 days (range, 0 to 98 days) while crude mortality was 9.2% (839/9115). The probability of in-hospital death was higher than discharge alive for birthweight less than 1.5 kg with the transition to higher probability of discharge alive observed after the first week in birthweight 1.5 to <2 kg. Conclusions: These prognostic data may inform decision making, e.g. in the organisation of neonatal in-patient service delivery to improve the quality of care. More of such data are therefore required from neonatal units in Kenya and other low resources settings especially as more advanced neonatal care is scaled up.

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