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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some studies have shown that cadmium is associated with breast cancer risk. One hypothesis is that cadmium has estrogen-like properties. This case-control study investigates the association between breast cancer risk and blood cadmium levels. METHODS: All breast cancers in the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort were identified through linkage to the Swedish Cancer Registry, baseline (1991-1996) through 2014. Two controls per case were selected from the same cohort. Blood cadmium (BCd) was analyzed at baseline. Associations were analyzed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Mean BCd was 0.51 µg/L among 1274 cases and 0.46 among 2572 controls. There was an overall increased risk of breast cancer (odds ratio (OR)=1.18 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05 - 1.36) per µg/L of BCd. An increased risk was, however, only found at high BCd: OR=1.34 (95% CI 1.05-1.73) for BCd >1.20 µg/L. The group with the highest BCd were mainly smokers. A spline indicated that at BCd <1.0 µg/L, the OR was not increased. The association with BCd was stronger in current smokers and at body mass index above 25, while no modification due to receptor status was found. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated increased risk of breast cancer only for high Cd exposure, which occurred mainly among smokers. This made it difficult to disentangle the effects of smoking and Cd, despite inclusion of smoking habits in the models. IMPACT: This study provides support for reducing cadmium exposure through smoking cessation and dietary choice. On the population level preventive measures against cadmium pollution are warranted.

2.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204127

RESUMO

Risk factors for ischemic stroke is suggested to differ by etiologic subtypes. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors and atherothrombotic stroke (i.e., excluding cardioembolic stroke), and to examine if the potential benefit of modifiable lifestyle factors differs among subjects with and without predisposing comorbidities. After a median follow-up of 21.2 years, 2339 individuals were diagnosed with atherothrombotic stroke out of 26,547 study participants from the Malmö Diet and Cancer study. Using multivariable Cox regression, we examined non-modifiable (demographics and family history of stroke), semi-modifiable comorbidities (hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic disease), and modifiable (smoking, body mass index, diet quality, physical activity, and alcohol intake) risk factors in relation to atherothrombotic stroke. Higher age, male gender, family history of stroke, and low educational level increased the risk of atherothrombotic stroke as did predisposing comorbidities. Non-smoking (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.68), high diet quality (HR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.72-0.97) and high leisure-time physical activity (HR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.80-0.98) decreased the risk of atherothrombotic ischemic stroke independent of established risk factors, with non-significant associations with body mass index and alcohol intake. The effect of the lifestyle factors was independent of predisposing comorbidities at baseline. The adverse effects of several cardiovascular risk factors were confirmed in this study of atherothrombotic stroke. Smoking cessation, improving diet quality and increasing physical activity level is likely to lower risk of atherothrombotic stroke in the general population as well as in patient groups at high risk.

3.
Respir Med ; 185: 106504, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arterial ageing is characterised by degradation of elastic fibres and increased stiffness of elastic arteries. Although low lung function and arterial stiffness are strongly related to age, the association between lung function and arterial ageing has not been widely explored. We used a large population-based study of 50-64 year olds to assess the association between lung function (measured by spirometry and CO diffusing capacity (DLCO)) and arterial stiffness (measured by carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (c-f PWV)). METHODS: Participants from the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS) cohort with information on spirometry (n = 8941) and DLCO (n = 8616) were included. General linear models (lung function quartiles) and linear regression was used to determine the association between lung function and c-f PWV. RESULTS: FEV1 (L), FVC (L), DLCO (mmol/(min kPa)) and DLCO/VA (mmol/(min kPa L)) were significantly and inversely associated with c-f PWV after adjustments; mean PWV (m/s) in Q1 (highest lung function) vs Q4: FEV1; 8.45 vs 8.60, p-value 0.001; FVC; 8.45 vs 8.57, p-value 0.018; DLCO; 8.46 vs 8.60, p-value 0.002; and DLCO/VA; 8.47 vs 8.58, p-value 0.001. In sex-stratified analyses, significant findings were reflected for FEV1 and DLCO in men only. The results remained significant for DLCO in all never smokers and in all participants without COPD or airflow limitation on spirometry. CONCLUSIONS: A reduction in spirometry and DLCO is associated with elevated arterial stiffness in middle-aged men. A reduction in DLCO is associated with higher c-f PWV even in never smokers and in those without COPD or airflow limitation on spirometry.

4.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(6): 67007, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The general population is ubiquitously exposed to the toxic metal cadmium through the diet and smoking. Cadmium exposure is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in myocardial infarction and stroke. Atherosclerosis is the main underlying mechanism of myocardial infarction. However, associations between cadmium and coronary artery atherosclerosis have not been examined. OBJECTIVES: Our study sought to examine the hypothesis that blood cadmium (B-Cd) is positively associated with coronary artery calcification, as a measure of coronary artery atherosclerosis in the population-based Swedish SCAPIS study. METHODS: Our analysis included 5,627 individuals (51% women), age 50-64 y, enrolled from 2013 to 2018. The coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was obtained from computed tomography. Blood cadmium was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Associations between B-Cd and coronary artery calcium score (CACS Agatston score) were evaluated using prevalence ratios (PRs) in models adjusted for sex, age, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, low-density cholesterol/high-density cholesterol ratio, and family history. RESULTS: The median B-Cd concentration was 0.24µg/L. The prevalence of positive coronary artery calcium (CACS>0) was 41% and the prevalence of CACS≥100 was 13%. Relative to the lowest quartile (Q) of B-Cd (<0.16µg/L), the highest quartile (median 0.63µg/L) was associated with a small but significant increase in CACS>0 (PR 1.1; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.3), and a greater relative increase in CACS≥100 (PR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.3, 2.0). When restricted to 2,446 never-smokers, corresponding PRs were 1.1 (95% CI 0.9, 1.3) for CACS>0 (63 cases in Q4) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.1, 2.7) for CACS≥100 (17 cases in Q4). DISCUSSION: Blood cadmium in the highest quartile was associated with CACS in a general population sample with low to moderate cadmium exposure. This supports the hypothesis that atherosclerosis is an important mechanism underlying the associations between cadmium and incident cardiovascular disease. The findings suggest that public health measures to reduce cadmium exposure are warranted. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8523.

5.
Angiology ; : 33197211017406, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34013787

RESUMO

Low-grade inflammation and arterial stiffness are key factors in the development of vascular aging. However, the interplay between arterial stiffness and inflammation for cardiovascular (CV) disease is unclear. Aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) and the inflammatory markers, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and orosomucoid, were measured in 2710 participants (median age: 72 years). These participants were followed up for a mean of 7.6 years for a composite CV disease end point. Per 1 interquartile range increment of CRP and orosomucoid, respectively, aPWV increased by 0.19 m/s (95% CI: 0.07-0.32) and 0.19 m/s (0.11-0.27), after multifactorial adjustment. Mediation analysis showed that aPWV, after multifactorial adjustment, mediated 8% (-4, 20) of the CV disease risk associated with CRP and 8% (-4, 18) of orosomucoid risk. The associated risk increased with combinations of high aPWV and high CRP or orosomucoid. We found no evidence that arterial PWV acted as an important mediator of the relationship between systemic inflammation and CV disease risk in this elderly population. The results instead indicate an additive effect. Our study supports the view that arterial stiffness and chronic inflammation affects CV risk mainly through separate causal pathways.

6.
Respir Med ; 185: 106467, 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Red cell distribution width (RDW) reflects heterogeneity of the erythrocyte volumes. High RDW is a novel risk marker, which has been associated with mortality and morbidity both from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, but the association between RDW and measures of lung function in the general population remains unclear. METHODS: The associations of RDW with spirometry, diffusing capacity (DLCO) and impulse oscillometry (IOS) were investigated among 5767, 5496 and 5598 subjects (aged 50-64 years), respectively, from the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS). Multiple linear regression and general linear models were performed to examine the relationships of lung function measures and RDW, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. RESULTS: Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC were significantly and inversely associated with RDW after multivariate adjustments. For 1- standard deviation (SD) increase in RDW, FEV1 decreased with 0.034 L (95%CI: -0.046 to -0.022 L), p < 0.001; FVC with 0.031 L (95%CI: -0.045 to -0.017 L), p < 0.001; and FEV1/FVC with 0.003 (95%CI: -0.004 to -0.001), p = 0.002. Significant associations of RDW and DLCO were only found among smokers. For IOS, pulmonary reactance rather than resistance was significantly associated with RDW: X5 decreased 0.002 kPa/(L/s) (95%CI: -0.003 to -0.0002 kPa/(L/s)), p = 0.025, per 1-SD higher RDW. CONCLUSIONS: We found significant negative associations between RDW and measures of lung function. However, the effect sizes are small and RDW is not likely to be a sensitive marker of impaired lung function in middle-aged individuals from the general population.

7.
Eur J Clin Invest ; : e13562, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The identification of novel predictors of poor outcome may help stratify cardiovascular risk. Aim was to evaluate the individual contribution of blood cell count parameters, as well as their clustering, on the risk of death and cardiovascular events over the long term in the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study cohort. METHODS: In 30,447 individuals (age 57 ± 8 years), we assessed the incidence of all-cause death (primary endpoint) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, secondary outcome measure) according to absence or presence of one, two and three factors at baseline out of the following: anaemia, leukocytosis and thrombocytosis. Median follow-up was 16 years. RESULTS: The percentages of all-cause death were 19.5% in individuals without factors, 21.3% in those with one factor, 27.4% with two and 46.4% with three (log-rank test P < .001). The crude incidence of MACE was 28.0%, 29.2%, 35.5% and 57.1%, respectively (log-rank test P < .001). At multivariate analysis, we found a stepwise increase in overall mortality with increasing number of prevalent factors (one factor: HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.14-1.31, P < .001; two factors: 1.61, 1.37-1.89, P < .001; three factors: 2.69, 1.44-5.01, P = .002, vs no factor). Similar findings were observed for the incidence of MACE (one factor: adjusted HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.11-1.24, P < .001; two factors: 1.52, 1.33-1.76, P < .001; three factors: 2.03, 1.21-3.67, P < .001, vs no factor). CONCLUSIONS: The easily assessable clustering of anaemia, leukocytosis and thrombocytosis heralds higher incidence of death and adverse cardiovascular events.

8.
Open Heart ; 8(1)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879505

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mortality caused by coronary artery disease has markedly decreased in recent years. However, a substantial proportion of patients suffering a coronary event (CE) die within the first day, most of them out of hospital. We aimed to investigate how established cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and CV autonomic indices associate with fatal versus non-fatal CEs in the population. METHODS: 33 057 individuals (mean age; 45.6 years; 10 773 women) free of coronary artery disease at baseline were included. Baseline examination, including assessment of traditional CV risk factors and autonomic indices such as heart rate and orthostatic reaction, was performed during 1974-1992, after which the subjects were monitored for incident CV disease. The Lunn-McNeil competing risks approach with a prespecified multivariable model was used to assess differences in risks for fatal and non-fatal CEs in relation to baseline CV risk factors. RESULTS: During follow-up period of 29.7 years, 5494 subjects (6.10/1000 person-years) had first CE; 1554 of these were fatal. Age, male gender, smoking, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, pulse pressure and resting heart rate had stronger relationships with fatal CE than with non-fatal events. The effects of diabetes, serum cholesterol, antihypertensive treatment and orthostatic blood pressure responses were similar for fatal and non-fatal CE. CONCLUSIONS: Several cardiovascular risk factors, such as smoking, high BMI, blood pressure and high resting heart rate, were preferentially associated with fatal compared with non-fatal CEs. These observations may require special attention in the overall efforts to further reduce coronary artery disease mortality.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The forced oscillation technique (FOT) provides detailed information about the mechanics of the respiratory system, while requiring minimal co-operation by the patient. FOT may be abnormal in subjects with normal spirometry and appears to be more closely related to airway symptoms. It is, therefore, attractive in epidemiological studies, where a large number of different examinations are made in each subjects in a short period of time. Current technical standards recommend the mean of three consecutive measurements to be used, but there is limited information regarding within-session variability of FOT measurements. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the within-session variability in FOT measurements in a large, population-based sample. METHODS: We performed three consecutive FOT measurements in 700 subjects using the impulse oscillometry system. The first measurement was compared to the mean of three measurements for resistance at 5 and 20 Hz (R5 and R20, respectively), R5-R20, reactance at 5 Hz (X5) and resonant frequency (fres ). RESULTS: The differences between the first and the mean of three measurements (median, interquartile range) were minimal, for example 0.002, -0.008 to 0.014 kPa L-1  s for R5 and -0.001, -0.008 to 0.005 kPa L-1  s for X5. Findings were numerically similar for men and women as well as for subjects with and without airflow obstruction at spirometry. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that, whereas in clinical situations, three FOT measurements are to be preferred, a single measurement may suffice in epidemiological studies.

10.
Blood Press ; : 1-13, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is increasingly recommended for clinical use, but more knowledge about the prevalence and variability in ABPM-derived phenotypes in the general population is needed. We describe these parameters in the community-based Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS) cohort. METHODS: We examined 5881 men and women aged 50-64 with 24-hour ABPM recordings using validated monitors. ABPM phenotypes were defined according to European guidelines. White coat hypertension was defined as elevated office BP (≥140/90 mmHg) with normal mean ambulatory BP (<135/85 mmHg in day-time, <120/70 mmHg in night-time, <130/80 mmHg over 24-h); and masked hypertension as normal office BP (<140/90 mmHg) with elevated mean ambulatory BP (≥135/85 mmHg in day-time, ≥120/70 mmHg in night-time, ≥130/80 mmHg over 24-h). Blood pressure variability was assessed using the coefficient of variation (CV), standard deviation (SD), and average real variability. RESULTS: Based on the ABPM recordings, 36.9% of participants had 24-h hypertension, 40.7% had day-time hypertension, and 37.6% nocturnal hypertension. Among participants treated with anti-hypertensive drugs, one in three had elevated office blood pressures, and more than half had elevated 24-h, day-time or nocturnal blood pressures. Among participants without anti-hypertensive drugs, only one in six had elevated office blood pressures, but one in three had elevated 24-h, day-time or nocturnal blood pressures. Men had higher 24-h blood pressures, more masked hypertension, but less white-coat hypertension than women. The prevalence of white-coat hypertension increased with age, but not the prevalence of masked hypertension. A positive association between blood pressure level and variability was observed, and within-person and between-person SD and CV were of similar magnitude. The variance in ABPM on repeated measurements was substantial. CONCLUSIONS: In the middle-aged general population, masked hypertension is an underappreciated problem on the population level.

11.
Thorax ; 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859054

RESUMO

Airspace dimension assessment with nanoparticles (AiDA) is a novel method to measure distal airspace radius non-invasively. In this study, AiDA radii were measured in 618 individuals from the population-based Swedish CArdiopulmonary BioImaging Study, SCAPIS. Subjects with emphysema detected by computed tomography were compared to non-emphysematous subjects. The 47 individuals with mainly mild-to-moderate visually detected emphysema had significantly larger AiDA radii, compared with non-emphysematous subjects (326±48 µm vs 291±36 µm); OR for emphysema per 10 µm: 1.22 (1.13-1.30, p<0.0001). Emphysema according to CT densitometry was similarly associated with larger radii compared with non-emphysematous CT examinations (316±41 µm vs 291 µm±26 µm); OR per 10 µm: 1.16 (1.08-1.24, p<0.0001). The results are in line with comparable studies. The results show that AiDA is a potential biomarker for emphysema in individuals in the general population.

12.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 28(3): 250-259, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not clear if the European Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation algorithm is useful for identifying prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis in a population of apparently healthy individuals. Our aim was to explore the association between the risk estimates from Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation and prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis. DESIGN: The design of this study was as a cross-sectional analysis from a population-based study cohort. METHODS: From the general population, the Swedish Cardiopulmonary Bioimage Study randomly invited individuals aged 50-64 years and enrolled 13,411 participants mean age 57 (standard deviation 4.3) years; 46% males between November 2013-December 2016. Associations between Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation risk estimates and coronary artery calcification and plaques in the carotid arteries by using imaging data from a computed tomography of the heart and ultrasonography of the carotid arteries were examined. RESULTS: Coronary calcification was present in 39.5% and carotid plaque in 56.0%. In men, coronary artery calcium score >0 ranged from 40.7-65.9% and presence of carotid plaques from 54.5% to 72.8% in the age group 50-54 and 60-65 years, respectively. In women, the corresponding difference was from 17.1-38.9% and from 41.0-58.4%. A doubling of Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation was associated with an increased probability to have coronary artery calcium score >0 (odds ratio: 2.18 (95% confidence interval 2.07-2.30)) and to have >1 carotid plaques (1.67 (1.61-1.74)). CONCLUSION: Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation estimated risk is associated with prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis in two major vascular beds in a general population sample without established cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus. Thus, the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation risk chart may be of use for estimating the risk of subclinical atherosclerosis.

13.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 134, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frequent supraventricular arrhythmia is associated with increased incidence of atrial fibrillation. However, it is unknown whether the prognostic significance of supraventricular arrhythmia is modified by plasma levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) or troponin T (TnT). This study examined the interrelationships between NT-proBNP, TnT levels and frequent supraventricular arrhythmia, and whether these biomarkers and a measure of frequent supraventricular arrhythmia could improve risk assessment for incidence of AF. METHODS: Supraventricular extrasystoles (SVEs) and supraventricular tachycardias were assessed from 24-h electrocardiograph recordings in 373 individuals initially without AF. Elevated NT-pro-BNP, TnT and SVEs was defined as a measurement in the top quartile of the study population distribution. Incident cases of AF were retrieved by linkage with the Swedish National Patient Register. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 15.4 years, 88 subjects had a diagnosis of AF. After multivariable adjustment, individuals with both elevated NT-proBNP and frequent SVEs had a significantly increased incidence of AF, compared to subjects without elevated NT-proBNP or frequent SVEs (hazard ratio (HR) 4.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.45-8.69), and compared to individuals with either elevated NT-proBNP or frequent SVEs (both P < 0.05). HRs for frequent SVEs alone or elevated NT-proBNP alone were 2.32 (95% CI 1.33-4.06) and 1.52 (95% CI 0.76-3.05), respectively. The addition of NT-pro-BNP and SVEs to a validated risk prediction score for AF, CHARGE-AF, resulted in improved prediction (Harrell's C 0.751 (95% CI 0.702-0.799) vs 0.720 (95% CI 0.669-0.771), P = 0.015). CONCLUSION: Subjects with both elevated NT-proBNP and frequent SVEs have substantially increased risk of AF, and the use of these variables could improve long-term prediction of incident AF.

14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6734, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762603

RESUMO

Novel methods to characterize the plasma proteome has made it possible to examine a wide range of proteins in large longitudinal cohort studies, but the complexity of the human proteome makes it difficult to identify robust protein-disease associations. Nevertheless, identification of individuals at high risk of early mortality is a central issue in clinical decision making and novel biomarkers may be useful to improve risk stratification. With adjustment for established risk factors, we examined the associations between 138 plasma proteins measured using two proximity extension assays and long-term risk of all-cause mortality in 3,918 participants of the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. To examine the reproducibility of protein-mortality associations we used a two-step random-split approach to simulate a discovery and replication cohort and conducted analyses using four different methods: Cox regression, stepwise Cox regression, Lasso-Cox regression, and random survival forest (RSF). In the total study population, we identified eight proteins that associated with all-cause mortality after adjustment for established risk factors and with Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. In the two-step analyses, the number of proteins selected for model inclusion in both random samples ranged from 6 to 21 depending on the method used. However, only three proteins were consistently included in both samples across all four methods (growth/differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and epididymal secretory protein E4). Using the total study population, the C-statistic for a model including established risk factors was 0.7222 and increased to 0.7284 with inclusion of the most predictive protein (GDF-15; P < 0.0001). All multiple protein models showed additional improvement in the C-statistic compared to the single protein model (all P < 0.0001). We identified several plasma proteins associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality independently of established risk factors. Further investigation into the putatively causal role of these proteins for longevity is needed. In addition, the examined methods for identifying multiple proteins showed tendencies for overfitting by including several putatively false positive findings. Thus, the reproducibility of findings using such approaches may be limited.

16.
Stroke ; 52(3): 937-944, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: VIM (vimentin) is a cytoskeletal intermediate filament protein, which has been linked to atherosclerosis and thrombosis; both are important causes of stroke. We examined the relationship between circulating VIM and incidence of stroke, and if carotid plaque could modify the association in a prospective population-based cohort. METHODS: This prospective study was based on the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort. A total of 4688 participants (39.7% men; mean age, 57.6 years) were examined and blood samples were collected between 1991 and 1994. Incidence of stroke was followed up to 2018. Cox' proportional hazards regression was used to assess the relationship between VIM and stroke. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 22.0 years, a total of 528 subjects were diagnosed with stroke, among which 434 were ischemic stroke. Participants in the highest quartile (vs 1st quartile) had 1.34× higher risk of total stroke (95% CI, 1.03-1.74) and 1.47× higher of ischemic stroke (95% CI, 1.10-1.98) after adjustment for potential confounders. A significant interaction was found between carotid plaque and VIM with respect to incidence of both total stroke and ischemic stroke (P=0.041 and 0.011, respectively). After stratifying by carotid plaque, high VIM had stronger association with stroke in participants with carotid plaque, especially for the risk of ischemic stroke (adjusted hazard ratio,1.66 [95% CI, 1.23-2.25] for quartile 4 versus quartile 1 to 3). CONCLUSIONS: VIM is positively associated with the incidence of stroke, especially in individuals with carotid plaque. Further studies are needed to confirm the observed associations.

17.
J Hypertens ; 39(7): 1319-1325, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that cardiovascular physiology differs in reflex syncope patients compared with the general population, predisposing such individuals to vasovagal reflex. METHODS: In this multicohort cross-sectional study, we compared aggregate data of resting SBP, DBP, pulse pressure (PP) and heart rate (HR), collected from six community-based cohort studies (64 968 observations) with those from six databases of reflex syncope patients (6516 observations), subdivided by age decades and sex. RESULTS: Overall, in male individuals with reflex syncope, SBP (-3.4 mmHg) and PP (-9.2 mmHg) were lower and DBP (+2.8 mmHg) and HR (+5.1 bpm) were higher than in the general population; the difference in SBP was higher at ages above 60 years. In female individuals, PP (-6.0 mmHg) was lower and DBP (+4.7 mmHg) and HR (+4.5 bpm) were higher than in the general population; differences in SBP were less pronounced, becoming evident only above 60 years. Compared with male individuals, SBP in female individuals exhibited slower increase until age 40 years, and then demonstrated steeper increase that continued throughout remaining life. CONCLUSION: The patients prone to reflex syncope demonstrate a different resting cardiovascular haemodynamic profile as compared with a general population, characterized by lower SBP and PP, reflecting reduced venous return and lower stroke volume, and a higher HR and DBP, suggesting the activation of compensatory mechanisms. Our data contribute to a better understanding why some individuals with similar demographic characteristics develop reflex syncope and others do not. VIDEO ABSTRACT: http://links.lww.com/HJH/B580.

18.
Angiology ; 72(6): 550-555, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504164

RESUMO

We evaluated if plasma biomarkers can predict incident peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and mortality in a longitudinal cohort study. Men (n = 3618) and women (n = 1542) were included in the Malmö Preventive Project and underwent analysis of: C-terminal endothelin-1 (CT-proET-1), N-Terminal prosomatostatin (NT-proSST), midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), procalcitonin (PCT), and copeptin. Participants were followed up for incident PAD and mortality until December 31, 2016. Median follow-up was 11.2 years (interquartile range 9.4-12.2). Cumulative incidence of PAD was 4.3% (221/5160), 4.5% in men (164/3618) and 3.7% in women (57/1542; P = .174). In an adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression model, higher CT-proET-1 (hazard ratio [HR] 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-2.3), NT-proSST (HR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2-2.0), and MR-proANP (HR 1.7; 95% CI 1.3-2.3) were independently associated with incident PAD, and higher CT-proET-1 (HR 1.3; 95% CI 1.2-1.5), NT-proSST (HR 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.3), MR-proANP (HR 1.4; 95% CI 1.3-1.6), PCT (HR 1.1; 95% CI 1.0-1.2), and copeptin (HR 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.4) were independently associated with mortality. Increased levels of CT-proET-1, NT-proSST, and MR-proANP were independently associated with incident PAD, whereas all the vasoactive biomarkers were independently associated with mortality during follow-up.


Assuntos
Fator Natriurético Atrial/sangue , Endotelina-1/sangue , Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Doença Arterial Periférica/sangue , Doença Arterial Periférica/mortalidade , Pró-Calcitonina/sangue , Precursores de Proteínas/sangue , Somatostatina/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Regulação para Cima
19.
Am Heart J ; 234: 81-89, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have proposed growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) as a predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes and mortality. The present study aimed to determine if such associations remain after accounting for death as a competing risk, and if GDF-15 provides superior prediction performance than other biomarkers. METHODS: Plasma GDF-15 levels and cardiovascular risk factors were measured in individuals without cardiovascular diseases (n = 4,143, aged 57.4 ± 5.96 years, 38.6 % men) from Malmö Diet and Cancer-Cardiovascular Cohort and were followed up for more than 20 years. Incidence of coronary events, ischemic stroke, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality was studied in relation to GDF-15 using Cox proportional hazards regression, with adjustment for potential confounders. Confounding from death as competing risk was carefully checked using the Fine and Gray subdistribution hazard model. Predictive capabilities were further evaluated using C-statistics, continuous net reclassification improvement, and integrated discrimination improvement. RESULTS: During follow-up, 424 coronary events, 327 ischemic stroke, 368 cardiovascular deaths, and 1,308 all-cause deaths occurred. After controlling for death from other causes as competing events, only all-cause mortality remained significantly related to GDF-15. The addition of GDF-15 significantly improved prediction for all-cause mortality in addition to the traditional risk factors, high-sensitive C-reactive protein and N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide. Only N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide improved prediction for CVD mortality. CONCLUSIONS: GDF-15 is a robust biomarker for all-cause mortality but less reliable for coronary event, ischemic stroke or cardiovascular mortality. Competing risk from death is an important consideration when interpreting the results.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Produtos do Gene env/sangue , Humanos , Incidência , AVC Isquêmico/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
20.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(1): 103-116, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222051

RESUMO

As cardio metabolic disease manifestations tend to cluster in families there is a need to better understand the underlying mechanisms in order to further develop preventive strategies. In fact, genetic markers used in genetic risk scores, important as they are, will not be able alone to explain these family clusters. Therefore, the search goes on for the so called missing heritability to better explain these associations. Shared lifestyle and social conditions in families, but also early life influences may be of importance. Gene-environmental interactions should be explored. In recent years interest has grown for the role of diet-microbiota associations, as microbiota patterns may be shared by family members. In the Malmö Offspring Study that started in 2013, we have so far been able to examine about 4700 subjects (18-71 years) representing children and grandchildren of index subjects from the first generation, examined in the Malmö Diet Cancer Study during 1991 to 1996. This will provide rich data and opportunities to analyse family traits of chronic disease across three generations. We will provide extensive genotyping and phenotyping including cardiovascular and respiratory function, as well as markers of glucose metabolism. In addition, also cognitive function will be assessed. A 4-day online dietary recall will be conducted and gut as well as oral microbiota analysed. The ambition is to provide one of the first large-scale European family studies with individual data across three generations, which could deepen our knowledge about the role of family traits for chronic disease and its underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Dieta , Estilo de Vida , Síndrome Metabólica , Microbiota , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Doença Crônica , Exercício Físico , Família , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
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