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1.
Psychiatry ; : 1-13, 2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32338566

RESUMO

Objective: The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak has evolved into a pandemic crisis, with King County in Washington State emerging as the early US epicenter. A literature review revealed few reports providing front-line clinical and research teams guidance related to multilevel, rapidly evolving COVID-19 directives.Method: The Rapid Assessment Procedure Informed Clinical Ethnography (RAPICE) method was used to develop a clinical case series and conduct participant observation during an ongoing comparative effectiveness trial of peer-integrated, patient-centered interventions after traumatic injury. Participants were patients enrolled in the intervention arm of the ongoing trial, as well as front-line clinicians, patient peer interventionists, and clinical research team members implementing the trial. All participants were exposed to the Washington State COVID-19 outbreak.Results: Primary and secondary COVID-19 prevention strategies were feasibly integrated into ongoing care coordination and behavioral interventions for at-risk patients. Beyond the compilation of case studies, as an iterative method, RAPICE data collection naturalistically evolved to include observations of intervention team activity occurring within the larger pandemic epicenter context. A daily clinical research team huddle that flexibly accommodated virtual participation was also feasibly implemented.Conclusions: Primary and secondary COVID-19 prevention strategies can be feasibly integrated into ongoing clinical interventions during the pandemic. Routine, proactive clinical and research team communication that transparently addresses ethical tensions and health-sustaining activities may promote well-being for providers grappling with rapidly evolving pandemic directives. Proactive assessments of individual provider vulnerabilities for severe COVID-19 related respiratory illness may also be a crucial element of the health care system pandemic responses.

2.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170539

RESUMO

Differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among intellectually-able adults often presents a clinical challenge, particularly when individuals present in crisis without diagnostic history. The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) is a multiscale personality and psychopathology instrument utilized across clinical settings, but to date there are no published normative data for use of the PAI with adults with ASD. This study provides normative PAI data for adults diagnosed with ASD, with effect size comparisons to the PAI clinical standardization sample and an inpatient sample. Additionally, a discriminant function was developed and cross-validated for identification of ASD-like symptomatology in a clinical population, which demonstrates promise as a screening tool to aid in the identification of individuals in need of specialized ASD assessment.

3.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 91: 105970, 2020 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119926

RESUMO

Annually approximately 2-3 million Americans are so severely injured that they require inpatient hospitalization. The study team, which includes patients, clinical researchers, front-line provider and policy maker stakeholders, has been working together for over a decade to develop interventions that target improvements for US trauma care systems nationally. This pragmatic randomized trial compares a multidisciplinary team collaborative care intervention that integrates front-line trauma center staff with peer interventionists, versus trauma team notification of patient emotional distress with mental health consultation as enhanced usual care. The peer-integrated collaborative care intervention will be supported by a novel emergency department exchange health information technology platform. A total of 424 patients will be randomized to peer-integrated collaborative care (n = 212) and surgical team notification (n = 212) conditions. The study hypothesizes that patient's randomized to peer integrated collaborative care intervention will demonstrate significant reductions in emergency department health service utilization, severity of patient concerns, post traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and physical limitations when compared to surgical team notification. These four primary outcomes will be followed-up at 1- 3-, 6-, 9- and 12-months after injury for all patients. The Rapid Assessment Procedure Informed Clinical Ethnography (RAPICE) method will be used to assess implementation processes. Data from the primary outcome analysis and implementation process assessment will be used to inform an end-of-study policy summit with the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma. The policy summit will facilitate acute care practice changes related to patient-centered care transitions over the course of a single 5-year funding cycle. Trial registration: (Clinicaltrials.govNCT03569878).

4.
J Clin Med Res ; 11(11): 764-768, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803319

RESUMO

Background: Healthcare providers frequently engage patients in conversations about health behavior change and are encouraged to use patient-centered approaches, such as Motivational Interviewing. Training in and sustainment of these skills are known to require feedback based on actual or role-played patient encounters. The behavior change counseling index (BECCI) is a pragmatic measure to assess healthcare providers' patient-centered behavior change counseling skills that was developed as an alternative to resource-intensive "gold standard" measures, which are difficult to use in routine practice. We are not aware of any studies that examine the criterion-related validity of this measure using an alternative gold standard measure. We examined the criterion-related validity of the BECCI as rated by a simulated patient actor immediately after a brief behavior change intervention role-play using objective ratings on the motivational interviewing treatment integrity (MITI) scale. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a 25-site clinical trial of screening and intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbidities with patients at level I trauma centers in the USA. Participants were 64 providers representing diverse professional roles trained to deliver a multi-component intervention with study patients. As part of the training, providers role-played counseling a patient to reduce risky alcohol use with a simulated patient actor. These 20-min role-plays were conducted by telephone and audio recorded. Immediately after the role-play, the simulated patient actor rated the quality of the providers' patient-centered behavior change counseling skills using the BECCI. A third-party expert MITI rater later listened to the audio recordings of the role-plays and rated the quality of the providers' patient-centered behavior change counseling skills using the MITI 3.1.1. Results: All correlations observed were statistically significant. The overall BECCI score correlated strongly (≥ 0.50) with five of the six MITI scores and moderately (0.33) with MITI percent complex reflections. Conclusions: This study provides evidence of criterion-related validity of the BECCI with a sample of healthcare providers representing a range of professional roles. Simulated patient actor rating using the BECCI is a pragmatic approach to assessing the quality of brief behavior change interventions delivered by healthcare providers.

5.
Am J Bioeth ; 19(6): 47-61, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135323

RESUMO

As social media becomes increasingly popular, human subjects researchers are able to use these platforms to locate, track, and communicate with study participants, thereby increasing participant retention and the generalizability and validity of research. The use of social media; however, raises novel ethical and regulatory issues that have received limited attention in the literature and federal regulations. We review research ethics and regulations and outline the implications for maintaining participant privacy, respecting participant autonomy, and promoting researcher transparency when using social media to locate and track participants. We offer a rubric that can be used in future studies to determine ethical and regulation-consistent use of social media platforms and illustrate the rubric using our study team's experience with Facebook. We also offer recommendations for both researchers and institutional review boards that emphasize the importance of well-described procedures for social media use as part of informed consent.


Assuntos
Ética em Pesquisa , Registros de Saúde Pessoal , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/normas , Privacidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Sujeitos da Pesquisa , Mídias Sociais/ética , Mídias Sociais/legislação & jurisprudência , Comunicação , Humanos , Redes Sociais Online , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa/tendências , Mídias Sociais/tendências
7.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 24(4): 253-260, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30427808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Religiosity has been linked to mental health outcomes for decades. This study examined the potential relationship between religiosity and demographic and clinical variables in a sample of psychiatric inpatients. METHODS: In total, 688 adults admitted to an acute psychiatric facility with a primary mood or psychotic disorder completed the Duke University Religion Index (DUREL). The DUREL measures religious activity in 3 domains: organizational religious activity (ORA), nonorganizational religious activity (NORA), and intrinsic (or subjective) religiosity (IR). We categorized scores into high and low religiosity. Bivariate analyses with χ and independent sample t tests were used to examine the association between the DUREL subscales and demographic, clinical, and outcome measures. A generalized linear model was used to identify predictors of suicidality, psychosis, and 30-day rehospitalization. RESULTS: Elevated religious activity was common in the inpatient sample, with 58% categorized as high IR, 43% as high NORA, and 36% as high ORA. For all 3 DUREL subscales, high religiosity scores were associated with significantly more psychosis (P<0.05) and significantly less suicidal ideation (P<0.001). High ORA (P=0.001) and high IR (P=0.01) were associated with significantly fewer suicide attempts. High ORA scores were also associated with an increased length of stay (P<0.05) and more frequent 30-day readmission rates (P=0.01). In the generalized linear model, predictors of lower levels of suicidality were high ORA, high IR, and a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or other psychotic disorder, whereas a diagnosis of depressive disorder was associated with greater suicidality. Predictors of psychosis were high IR and Hispanic ethnicity, whereas a diagnosis of depressive disorder was associated with lower rates of psychosis. Female inpatients were more likely than male inpatients to score high on the ORA (P<0.05), NORA (P<0.05), and IR (P<0.0001) subscales. In addition, a significant relationship was detected between age and high IR scores (P<0.005), with increasing age associated with higher IR scores. CONCLUSIONS: Although preliminary, these results suggest that a brief measure of religiosity may provide important information concerning clinical features and acute outcomes in patients hospitalized with serious mental illness.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtornos Psicóticos , Religião e Psicologia , Esquizofrenia , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Feminino , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
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