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Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 10(11): 1203-1214, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28836870


INTRODUCTION: In the modern antimicrobial era, the rapid spread of resistance to antibiotics and introduction of new and mutating viruses is a global concern. Combating antimicrobial resistant microbes (AMR) requires coordinated international efforts that incorporate new conventional antibiotic development as well as development of alternative drugs with antimicrobial activity, management of existing antimicrobials, and rapid detection of AMR pathogens. Areas covered: This manuscript discusses some conventional strategies to control microbial resistance. The main purpose of the manuscript is to present information on specific herbal medicines that may serve as good treatment alternatives to conventional antimicrobials for infections sensitive to conventional as well as resistant strains of microorganisms. Expert commentary: Identification of potential new antimicrobials is challenging; however, one source for potential structurally diverse and complex antimicrobials are natural products. Natural products may have advantages over other post-germ theory antimicrobials. Many antimicrobial herbal medicines possess simultaneous antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal and/or antiviral properties. Herbal products have the potential to boost host resistance to infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Antimicrobial broad-spectrum activity in conjunction with immunostimulatory properties may help to prevent microbial resistance to herbal medicine. As part of the efforts to broaden use of herbal medicines to treat microbial infections, pre-clinical and clinical testing guidelines of these compounds as a whole should be implemented to ensure consistency in formulation, efficacy and safety.

Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Fitoterapia/métodos , Preparações de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Infecções/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções/microbiologia , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 10(3): 327-338, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27923318


INTRODUCTION: Herbal medicine (HM) use is growing worldwide. Single herb preparations, ethnic and modern HM formulations are widely used as adjunct therapies or to improve consumer wellbeing. Areas covered: This final part in the publication series summarizes common tendencies in HM use as adjunct or alternative medicine, education of healthcare professionals and consumers, current and proposed guidelines regulating of production. We discuss potential HM-HM and HM-drug interactions that could lead to severe adverse events in situations where HMs are taken without proper medical professional oversight. Expert commentary: A number of serious problems have arisen with the steady global increase in HM use. HM interaction with conventional drugs (CD) may result in inadequate dosing of CD or adverse reactions; HM-HM interaction within herbal supplements could lead to toxicity of formulations. Inadequate education of clinicians and patients regarding medicinal properties of HMs must be addressed regionally and globally to ensure consumer safety.

Terapias Complementares/métodos , Fitoterapia/métodos , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Terapias Complementares/efeitos adversos , Terapias Complementares/tendências , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Humanos , Fitoterapia/efeitos adversos , Fitoterapia/tendências , Preparações de Plantas/efeitos adversos , Plantas Medicinais/química
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 9(12): 1597-1609, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27644147


INTRODUCTION: Similar to other nations North American people used herbs for thousands of years to treat diseases and purify their spirits. By the middle of the 1900s, evidence-based conventional medicine received wide acceptance in Canada and the United States (US). Nowadays, people are going back to their roots and actively using herbal medicines (HMs) and natural health products (NHPs). Areas covered: This article is focusing on use and regulation of the HMs and NHPs in Canada and the US, raises concerns regarding HM and NHP safety and efficacy, offers suggestions on how to overcome these problems. Materials available from legislative and governmental websites, PubMed and news media were used. Expert commentary: Use of HMs, especially dietary supplements is widespread among adults in Canada and US. HMs and NHPs are regulated in both countries, but minimum criteria for product approval and post-market surveillance have been set. Concerns of quality, contamination, adulteration, and efficacy in are of central importance in the discussion of HMs and NHPs. Detailed product description and research are of vital importance to ensure safety and efficacy of these products. Additionally, 'herbal' education of healthcare providers and patients is needed to guarantee further successful integration of HM and conventional medicines.

Legislação de Medicamentos , Fitoterapia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais , Canadá , Humanos , Estados Unidos
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 11(12): 1861-78, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26535960


INTRODUCTION: Neonatal patients, because of the inability of their immune system to properly respond to microbial challenge, are highly susceptible to viral infections. Immunoglobulins, monoclonal antibody and antiviral drugs are used for prophylaxis and treatment of viral diseases in neonates. Neonates and, especially, preterm infants differ in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion from adults and older children. AREAS COVERED: This review will evaluate deficiencies of neonatal immune responses to microbial challenge that predispose newborns to viral infections, clinical manifestations and the treatment of viral diseases in neonates. We focus on published studies describing antiviral drug pharmacokinetics in neonates and make recommendations on the dosing of these drugs, allowing achievement of maximal clinical benefits in neonates. EXPERT OPINION: While some efforts were undertaken to study pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antiviral drugs, much more needs to be done. Current data indicate that the pharmacokinetics of antiviral drugs may vary significantly depending on gestational age, maturation processes of drug-metabolizing enzymes and renal clearance. Specifics of pharmacokinetics of antiviral drugs need to be taken into consideration when they are prescribed to neonates and infants.

Antivirais/farmacocinética , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Animais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Criança , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/imunologia
J Immunol ; 182(7): 4296-305, 2009 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19299729


The addition of monophosphoryl lipid A, a minimally toxic derivative of LPS, to nonmucosally administered vaccines induced both systemic and mucosal immune responses to coadministered Ags. This was dependent on an up-regulated expression of 1alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1, 1alphaOHase), the enzyme that converts 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, a circulating inactive metabolite of vitamin D(3), into 1,25(OH)2D(3) (calcitriol). In response to locally produced calcitriol, myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) migrated from cutaneous vaccination sites into multiple secondary lymphoid organs, including classical inductive sites of mucosal immunity, where they effectively stimulated B and T cell immune responses. The endogenous production of calcitriol by monophosphoryl lipid A-stimulated DCs appeared to be Toll-IL-1R domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-beta-dependent, mediated through a type 1 IFN-induced expression of 1alphaOHase. Responsiveness to calcitriol was essential to promote the trafficking of mobilized DCs to nondraining lymphoid organs. Collectively, these studies help to expand our understanding of the physiologically important roles played by locally metabolized vitamin D(3) in the initiation and diversification of adaptive immune responses. The influences of locally produced calcitriol on the migration of activated DCs from sites of vaccination/infection into both draining and nondraining lymphoid organs create a condition whereby Ag-responsive B and T cells residing in multiple lymphoid organs are able to simultaneously engage in the induction of adaptive immune responses to peripherally administered Ags as if they were responding to an infection of peripheral or mucosal tissues they were designed to protect.

Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Colecalciferol/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Receptores Toll-Like/imunologia , Vacinas/imunologia , 25-Hidroxivitamina D3 1-alfa-Hidroxilase/imunologia , 25-Hidroxivitamina D3 1-alfa-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Animais , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Western Blotting , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Calcitriol/imunologia , Calcitriol/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/imunologia , Colecalciferol/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Imunidade nas Mucosas/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Lipídeo A/análogos & derivados , Lipídeo A/imunologia , Lipídeo A/farmacologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Tecido Linfoide/citologia , Tecido Linfoide/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo