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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are known to share clinical comorbidity and to have genetic overlap. Besides their shared genetics, both diseases seem to be associated with alterations in brain structural connectivity and impaired cognitive performance, but little is known about the mechanisms by which genetic risk of T2D might affect brain structure and function and if so, how these effects could contribute to the disease course of MDD. METHODS: This study explores the association of polygenic risk for T2D with structural brain connectome topology and cognitive performance in 434 nondiabetic MDD patients and 539 healthy controls. RESULTS: Polygenic risk score for T2D across MDD patients and healthy controls was found to be associated with reduced global fractional anisotropy, a marker of white matter microstructure, an effect found to be predominantly present in MDD-related fronto-temporo-parietal connections. A mediation analysis further suggests that this FA variation may mediate the association between PGS and cognitive performance. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide preliminary evidence of a polygenic risk for T2D to be linked to brain structural connectivity and cognition in MDD patients and healthy controls, even in the absence of a direct T2D diagnosis. This suggests an effect of T2D genetic risk on white matter integrity, which may mediate an association of genetic risk for diabetes and cognitive impairments.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648793

RESUMO

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype is the strongest single gene predictor of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and has been frequently associated with AD-related brain structural alterations before the onset of dementia. While previous research has primarily focused on hippocampal morphometry in relation to APOE, sporadic recent findings have questioned the specificity of the hippocampus and instead suggested more global effects on the brain. With the present study we aimed to investigate associations between homozygous APOE ε4 status and cortical gray matter structure as well as white matter microstructure. In our study, we contrasted n = 31 homozygous APOE ε4 carriers (age=34.47 years, including a subsample of n = 12 subjects with depression) with a demographically matched sample without an ε4 allele (resulting total sample: N = 62). Morphometry analyses included a) Freesurfer based cortical segmentations of thickness and surface area measures and b) tract based spatial statistics of DTI measures. We found pronounced and widespread reductions in cortical surface area of ε4 homozygotes in 57 out of 68 cortical brain regions. In contrast, no differences in cortical thickness were observed. Furthermore, APOE ε4 homozygous carriers showed significantly lower fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum, the right internal and external capsule, the left corona radiata and the right fornix. The present findings support a global rather than regionally specific effect of homozygous APOE ε4 allele status on cortical surface area and white matter microstructure. Future studies should aim to delineate the clinical implications of these findings.

3.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 126: 105148, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513455

RESUMO

Novelty seeking (NS) has previously been identified as a personality trait that is associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) and obesity. Of note, both obesity and reduced impulse control - a core feature of NS - have previously been associated with grey matter volume (GMV) reductions in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Yet, it remains unknown, if body weight-related grey matter decline in the OFC might be explained by higher levels of NS. To address this question, we studied associations between NS, BMI and brain structure in 355 healthy subjects. Brain images were pre-processed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight. The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) was used to assess NS. NS and BMI were associated positively (r = .137, p = .01) with NS being a significant predictor of BMI (B = 0.172; SE B = 0.05; ß = 0.184; p = 0.001). Significant associations between BMI and GMV specifically in the OFC (x = -44, y = 56, z = -2, t(350) = 4.34, k = 5, pFWE = 0.011) did not uphold when correcting for NS in the model. In turn, a significant negative association between NS and OFC GMV was found independent of BMI (x = -2, y = 48, z = -10, t(349) = 4.42, k = 88, pFWE = 0.008). Body mass-related grey matter decrease outside the OFC could not be attributed to NS. Our results suggest that body-weight-related orbitofrontal grey matter reduction can at least partly be linked to higher levels of NS. Given the pivotal role of the OFC in overweight as well as cognitive domains such as impulse inhibition, executive control and reward processing, its association with NS seems to provide a tenable neurobiological correlate for future research.

4.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 425, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293520

RESUMO

It has been difficult to find robust brain structural correlates of the overall severity of major depressive disorder (MDD). We hypothesized that specific symptoms may better reveal correlates and investigated this for the severity of insomnia, both a key symptom and a modifiable major risk factor of MDD. Cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volumes were assessed from T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 1053 MDD patients (age range 13-79 years) from 15 cohorts within the ENIGMA MDD Working Group. Insomnia severity was measured by summing the insomnia items of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Symptom specificity was evaluated with correlates of overall depression severity. Disease specificity was evaluated in two independent samples comprising 2108 healthy controls, and in 260 clinical controls with bipolar disorder. Results showed that MDD patients with more severe insomnia had a smaller cortical surface area, mostly driven by the right insula, left inferior frontal gyrus pars triangularis, left frontal pole, right superior parietal cortex, right medial orbitofrontal cortex, and right supramarginal gyrus. Associations were specific for insomnia severity, and were not found for overall depression severity. Associations were also specific to MDD; healthy controls and clinical controls showed differential insomnia severity association profiles. The findings indicate that MDD patients with more severe insomnia show smaller surfaces in several frontoparietal cortical areas. While explained variance remains small, symptom-specific associations could bring us closer to clues on underlying biological phenomena of MDD.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007775

RESUMO

Preclinical evidence indicates that the endocannabinoid system is involved in neural responses to reward. This study aimed to investigate associations between basal serum concentrations of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) with brain functional reward processing. Additionally, a personality measure of reward dependence was obtained. Brain functional data were obtained of 30 right-handed adults by conducting fMRI at 3 Tesla using a reward paradigm. Reward dependence was obtained using the subscale reward dependence of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). Basal concentrations of AEA and 2-AG were determined in serum. Analyzing the fMRI data, for AEA and 2-AG ANCOVAs were calculated using a full factorial model, with condition (reward > control, loss > control) and concentrations for AEA and 2-AG as factors. Regression analyses were conducted for AEA and 2-AG on TPQ-RD scores. A whole-brain analysis showed a significant interaction effect of AEA concentration by condition (positive vs. negative) within the putamen (x = 26, y = 16, z = -8, F13.51, TFCE(1, 54) = 771.68, k = 70, PFWE = 0.044) resulting from a positive association of basal AEA concentrations and putamen activity to rewarding stimuli, while this association was absent in the loss condition. AEA concentrations were significantly negatively correlated with TPQ reward dependence scores (rspearman = -0.56, P = 0.001). These results show that circulating AEA may modulate brain activation during reward feedback and that the personality measure reward dependence is correlated with AEA concentrations in healthy human volunteers. Future research is needed to further characterize the nature of the lipids' influence on reward processing, the impact on reward anticipation and outcome, and on vulnerability for psychiatric disorders.

6.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eighty percent of all patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) relapse at least once in their lifetime. Thus, understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of the course of MDD is of utmost importance. A detrimental course of illness in MDD was most consistently associated with superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) fiber integrity. As similar associations were, however, found between SLF fiber integrity and acute symptomatology, this study attempts to disentangle associations attributed to current depression from long-term course of illness. METHODS: A total of 531 patients suffering from acute (N = 250) or remitted (N = 281) MDD from the FOR2107-cohort were analyzed in this cross-sectional study using tract-based spatial statistics for diffusion tensor imaging. First, the effects of disease state (acute v. remitted), current symptom severity (BDI-score) and course of illness (number of hospitalizations) on fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity were analyzed separately. Second, disease state and BDI-scores were analyzed in conjunction with the number of hospitalizations to disentangle their effects. RESULTS: Disease state (pFWE < 0.042) and number of hospitalizations (pFWE< 0.032) were associated with decreased FA and increased MD and RD in the bilateral SLF. A trend was found for the BDI-score (pFWE > 0.067). When analyzed simultaneously only the effect of course of illness remained significant (pFWE < 0.040) mapping to the right SLF. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased FA and increased MD and RD values in the SLF are associated with more hospitalizations when controlling for current psychopathology. SLF fiber integrity could reflect cumulative illness burden at a neurobiological level and should be targeted in future longitudinal analyses.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801319

RESUMO

Childhood maltreatment is associated with cognitive deficits that in turn have been predictive for therapeutic outcome in psychiatric patients. However, previous studies have either investigated maltreatment associations with single cognitive domains or failed to adequately control for confounders such as depression, socioeconomic environment, and genetic predisposition. We aimed to isolate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and dysfunction in diverse cognitive domains, while estimating the contribution of potential confounders to this relationship, and to investigate gene-environment interactions. We included 547 depressive disorder and 670 healthy control participants (mean age: 34.7 years, SD = 13.2). Cognitive functioning was assessed for the domains of working memory, executive functioning, processing speed, attention, memory, and verbal intelligence using neuropsychological tests. Childhood maltreatment and parental education were assessed using self-reports, and psychiatric diagnosis was based on DSM-IV criteria. Polygenic scores for depression and for educational attainment were calculated. Multivariate analysis of cognitive domains yielded significant associations with childhood maltreatment (η²p = 0.083, P < 0.001), depression (η²p = 0.097, P < 0.001), parental education (η²p = 0.085, P < 0.001), and polygenic scores for depression (η²p = 0.021, P = 0.005) and educational attainment (η²p = 0.031, P < 0.001). Each of these associations remained significant when including all of the predictors in one model. Univariate tests revealed that maltreatment was associated with poorer performance in all cognitive domains. Thus, environmental, psychopathological, and genetic risk factors each independently affect cognition. The insights of the current study may aid in estimating the potential impact of different loci of interventions for cognitive dysfunction. Future research should investigate if customized interventions, informed by individual risk profiles and related cognitive preconditions, might enhance response to therapeutic treatments.

8.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648625

RESUMO

Reduced sleep duration and sleep deprivation have been associated with cognitive impairment as well as decreased white matter integrity as reported by experimental studies. However, it is largely unknown whether differences in sleep duration and sleep quality might affect microstructural white matter and cognition. Therefore, the present study aims to examine the cross-sectional relationship between sleep duration, sleep quality, and cognitive performance in a naturalistic study design, by focusing on the association with white matter integrity in a large sample of healthy, young adults. To address this, 1,065 participants, taken from the publicly available sample of the Human Connectome Project, underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Moreover, broad cognitive performance measures (NIH Cognition Toolbox) and sleep duration and quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) were assessed. The results revealed a significant positive association between sleep duration and overall cognitive performance. Shorter sleep duration significantly correlated with fractional anisotropy (FA) reductions in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). In turn, FA in this tract was related to measures of cognitive performance and was shown to significantly mediate the association of sleep duration and cognition. For cognition only, associations shift to a negative association of sleep duration and cognition for participants sleeping more than 8 hr a day. Investigations into subjective sleep quality showed no such associations. The present study showed that real-world differences in sleep duration, but not subjective sleep quality are related to cognitive performance measures and white matter integrity in the SLF in healthy, young adults.

9.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 36: 10-17, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451266

RESUMO

While the hippocampus remains a region of high interest for neuropsychiatric research, the precise contributors to hippocampal morphometry are still not well understood. We and others previously reported a hippocampus specific effect of a tescalcin gene (TESC) regulating single nucleotide polymorphism (rs7294919) on gray matter volume. Here we aimed to replicate and extend these findings. Two complementary morphometric approaches (voxel based morphometry (VBM) and automated volumetric segmentation) were applied in a well-powered cohort from the Marburg-Münster Affective Disorder Cohort Study (MACS) including N=1137 participants (n=636 healthy controls, n=501 depressed patients). rs7294919 homozygous T-allele genotype was significantly associated with lower hippocampal gray matter density as well as with reduced hippocampal volume. Exploratory whole brain VBM analyses revealed no further associations with gray matter volume outside the hippocampus. No interaction effects of rs7294919 with depression nor with childhood trauma on hippocampal morphometry could be detected. Hippocampal subfield analyses revealed similar effects of rs7294919 in all hippocampal subfields. In sum, our results replicate a hippocampus specific effect of rs7294919 on brain structure. Due to the robust evidence for a pronounced association between the reported polymorphism and hippocampal morphometry, future research should consider investigating the potential clinical and functional relevance of the reported association.

10.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424236

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with an increased risk of brain atrophy, aging-related diseases, and mortality. We examined potential advanced brain aging in adult MDD patients, and whether this process is associated with clinical characteristics in a large multicenter international dataset. We performed a mega-analysis by pooling brain measures derived from T1-weighted MRI scans from 19 samples worldwide. Healthy brain aging was estimated by predicting chronological age (18-75 years) from 7 subcortical volumes, 34 cortical thickness and 34 surface area, lateral ventricles and total intracranial volume measures separately in 952 male and 1236 female controls from the ENIGMA MDD working group. The learned model coefficients were applied to 927 male controls and 986 depressed males, and 1199 female controls and 1689 depressed females to obtain independent unbiased brain-based age predictions. The difference between predicted "brain age" and chronological age was calculated to indicate brain-predicted age difference (brain-PAD). On average, MDD patients showed a higher brain-PAD of +1.08 (SE 0.22) years (Cohen's d = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.08-0.20) compared with controls. However, this difference did not seem to be driven by specific clinical characteristics (recurrent status, remission status, antidepressant medication use, age of onset, or symptom severity). This highly powered collaborative effort showed subtle patterns of age-related structural brain abnormalities in MDD. Substantial within-group variance and overlap between groups were observed. Longitudinal studies of MDD and somatic health outcomes are needed to further assess the clinical value of these brain-PAD estimates.

11.
Brain Stimul ; 13(4): 1051-1058, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD), electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a treatment with high efficacy. While knowledge regarding changes in brain structure following ECT is growing, the effects of ECT on brain function during emotional processing are largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of ECT on the activity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and amygdala during negative emotional stimuli processing and its association with clinical response. METHODS: In this non-randomized longitudinal study, patients with MDD (n = 37) were assessed before and after treatment with ECT. Healthy controls (n = 37) were matched regarding age and gender. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was obtained twice, at baseline and after six weeks using a supraliminal face-matching paradigm. In order to evaluate effects of clinical response, additional post-hoc analyses were performed comparing responders to non-responders. RESULTS: After ECT, patients with MDD showed a statistically significant increase in ACC activity during processing of negative emotional stimuli (pFWE = .039). This effect was driven by responders (pFWE = .023), while non-responders showed no increase. Responders also had lower pre-treatment ACC activity compared to non-responders (pFWE = .025). No significant effects in the amygdala could be observed. CONCLUSIONS: ECT leads to brain functional changes in the ACC, a relevant region for emotional regulation during processing of negative stimuli. Furthermore, baseline ACC activity might serve as a biomarker for treatment response. Findings are in accordance with recent studies highlighting properties of pre-treatment ACC to be associated with general antidepressive treatment response.

12.
Brain Stimul ; 13(3): 696-704, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment option for major depressive disorder, so understanding whether its clinical effect relates to structural brain changes is vital for current and future antidepressant research. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether clinical response to ECT is related to structural volumetric changes in the brain as measured by structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and, if so, which regions are related to this clinical effect. We also determine whether a similar model can be used to identify regions associated with electrode placement (unilateral versus bilateral ECT). METHODS: Longitudinal MRI and clinical data (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale) was collected from 10 sites as part of the Global ECT-MRI research collaboration (GEMRIC). From 192 subjects, relative changes in 80 (sub)cortical areas were used as potential features for classifying treatment response. We used recursive feature elimination to extract relevant features, which were subsequently used to train a linear classifier. As a validation, the same was done for electrode placement. We report accuracy as well as the structural coefficients of regions included in the discriminative spatial patterns obtained. RESULTS: A pattern of structural changes in cortical midline, striatal and lateral prefrontal areas discriminates responders from non-responders (75% accuracy, p < 0.001) while left-sided mediotemporal changes discriminate unilateral from bilateral electrode placement (81% accuracy, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The identification of a multivariate discriminative pattern shows that structural change is relevant for clinical response to ECT, but this pattern does not include mediotemporal regions that have been the focus of electroconvulsive therapy research so far.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Eletroconvulsoterapia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Encéfalo/patologia , Eletroconvulsoterapia/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Schizophr Res ; 218: 38-47, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an ongoing discussion about which neurobiological correlates or symptoms separate the major psychoses (i.e. Major Depressive Disorder MDD, Bipolar Disorder BD, and Schizophrenia SZ). Psychopathological factor analyses within one of these disorders have resulted in models including one to five factors. Factor analyses across the major psychoses using a comprehensive set of psychopathological scales in the same patients are lacking. It is further unclear, whether hierarchical or unitarian models better summarize phenomena. METHOD: Patients (n = 1182) who met DSM-IV criteria for MDD, BD, SZ or schizoaffective disorder were assessed with the SANS, SAPS, HAMA, HAM-D, and YMRS. The sample was split into two and analyzed using explorative and confirmatory factor analyses to extract psychopathological factors independent of diagnosis. RESULTS: In the exploratory analysis of sample 1 (n = 593) we found 5 factors. The confirmatory analysis using sample 2 (n = 589) confirmed the 5-factor model (χ2 = 1287.842, df = 571, p < .0001: CFI = 0.932; RMSEA = 0.033). The 5-factors were depression, negative syndrome, positive formal thought disorder, paranoid-hallucinatory syndrome, and increased appetite. Increased appetite was not related to medication. None of the factors was specific for one diagnosis. Second order factor analysis revealed two higher order factors: negative/affective (I) and positive symptoms (II). CONCLUSION: This is the first study delineating psychopathological factors in a large group of patients across the spectrum of affective and psychotic disorders. In future neurobiological studies, we should consider transdiagnostic syndromes besides the traditional diagnoses.

14.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(7): 1550-1558, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758093

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated to affected brain wiring. Little is known whether these changes are stable over time and hence might represent a biological predisposition, or whether these are state markers of current disease severity and recovery after a depressive episode. Human white matter network ("connectome") analysis via network science is a suitable tool to investigate the association between affected brain connectivity and MDD. This study examines structural connectome topology in 464 MDD patients (mean age: 36.6 years) and 432 healthy controls (35.6 years). MDD patients were stratified categorially by current disease status (acute vs. partial remission vs. full remission) based on DSM-IV criteria. Current symptom severity was assessed continuously via the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD). Connectome matrices were created via a combination of T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tractography methods based on diffusion-weighted imaging. Global tract-based metrics were not found to show significant differences between disease status groups, suggesting conserved global brain connectivity in MDD. In contrast, reduced global fractional anisotropy (FA) was observed specifically in acute depressed patients compared to fully remitted patients and healthy controls. Within the MDD patients, FA in a subnetwork including frontal, temporal, insular, and parietal nodes was negatively associated with HAMD, an effect remaining when correcting for lifetime disease severity. Therefore, our findings provide new evidence of MDD to be associated with structural, yet dynamic, state-dependent connectome alterations, which covary with current disease severity and remission status after a depressive episode.

15.
Psychol Med ; 50(2): 187-209, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858931

RESUMO

Antidepressive pharmacotherapy (AD), electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) are effective treatments for major depressive disorder. With our review, we aim to provide a systematic overview of neuroimaging studies that investigate the effects of AD, ECT and CBT on brain grey matter volume (GMV) and biomarkers associated with response. After a systematic database research on PubMed, we included 50 studies using magnetic resonance imaging and investigating (1) changes in GMV, (2) pre-treatment GMV biomarkers associated with response, or (3) the accuracy of predictions of response to AD, ECT or CBT based on baseline GMV data. The strongest evidence for brain structural changes was found for ECT, showing volume increases within the temporal lobe and subcortical structures - such as the hippocampus-amygdala complex, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and striatum. For AD, the evidence is heterogeneous as only 4 of 11 studies reported significant changes in GMV. The results are not sufficient in order to draw conclusions about the structural brain effects of CBT. The findings show consistently that higher pre-treatment ACC volume is associated with response to AD, ECT and CBT. An association of higher pre-treatment hippocampal volume and response has only been reported for AD. Machine learning approaches based on pre-treatment whole brain patterns reach accuracies of 64-90% for predictions of AD or ECT response on the individual patient level. The findings underline the potential of brain biomarkers for the implementation in clinical practice as an additive feature within the process of treatment selection.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/análise , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Eletroconvulsoterapia , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Neuroimagem , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 45(2): 117-124, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603638

RESUMO

Background: Alexithymia is a risk factor for major depressive disorder (MDD) and has been associated with diminished treatment response. Neuroimaging studies have revealed structural aberrations of the anterior cingulate cortex and the fusiform gyrus in healthy controls with high levels of alexithymia. The present study tried to corroborate and extend these results to patients with MDD compared with healthy controls. Methods: We investigated the relationship between alexithymia, depression and grey matter volume in 63 patients with MDD (mean age ± standard deviation = 42.43 yr ± 11.91; 33 female) and 46 healthy controls (45.35 yr ± 8.37; 22 female). We assessed alexithymia using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. We conducted an alexithymia × group analysis of covariance; we used a region-of-interest approach, including the fusiform gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex, and conducted whole brain analysis using voxelbased morphometry. Results: Our analysis revealed a significant alexithymia × group interaction in the fusiform gyrus (left, pFWE = 0.031; right, pFWE = 0.010). Higher alexithymia scores were associated with decreased grey matter volume in patients with MDD (pFWE = 0.009), but with increased grey matter volume of the fusiform gyrus in healthy controls (pFWE = 0.044). We found no significant main effects in the region-of-interest analysis. Limitations: Owing to the naturalistic nature of our study, patients with MDD and healthy controls differed significantly in their alexithymia scores. Conclusion: Our results showed the fusiform gyrus as a correlate of alexithymia. We also found differences related to alexithymia between patients with MDD and healthy controls in the fusiform gyrus. Our study encourages research related to the transition from risk to MDD in people with alexithymia.

17.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(12): 3422-3431, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30185937

RESUMO

Neuroticism has been shown to act as an important risk factor for major depressive disorder (MDD). Genetic and neuroimaging research has independently revealed biological correlates of neurotic personality including cortical alterations in brain regions of high relevance for affective disorders. Here we investigated the influence of a polygenic score for neuroticism (PGS) on cortical brain structure in a joint discovery sample of n = 746 healthy controls (HC) and n = 268 MDD patients. Findings were validated in an independent replication sample (n = 341 HC and n = 263 MDD). Subgroup analyses stratified for case-control status and analyses of associations between neurotic phenotype and cortical measures were carried out. PGS for neuroticism was significantly associated with a decreased cortical surface area of the inferior parietal cortex, the precuneus, the rostral cingulate cortex and the inferior frontal gyrus in the discovery sample. Similar associations between PGS and surface area of the inferior parietal cortex and the precuneus were demonstrated in the replication sample. Subgroup analyses revealed negative associations in the latter regions between PGS and surface area in both HC and MDD subjects. Neurotic phenotype was negatively correlated with surface area in similar cortical regions including the inferior parietal cortex and the precuneus. No significant associations between PGS and cortical thickness were detected. The morphometric overlap of associations between both PGS and neurotic phenotype in similar cortical regions closely related to internally focused cognition points to the potential relevance of genetically shaped cortical alterations in the development of neuroticism.

18.
Psychol Med ; 50(5): 849-856, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a fast-acting intervention for major depressive disorder. Previous studies indicated neurotrophic effects following ECT that might contribute to changes in white matter brain structure. We investigated the influence of ECT in a non-randomized prospective study focusing on white matter changes over time. METHODS: Twenty-nine severely depressed patients receiving ECT in addition to inpatient treatment, 69 severely depressed patients with inpatient treatment (NON-ECT) and 52 healthy controls (HC) took part in a non-randomized prospective study. Participants were scanned twice, approximately 6 weeks apart, using diffusion tensor imaging, applying tract-based spatial statistics. Additional correlational analyses were conducted in the ECT subsample to investigate the effects of seizure duration and therapeutic response. RESULTS: Mean diffusivity (MD) increased after ECT in the right hemisphere, which was an ECT-group-specific effect. Seizure duration was associated with decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) following ECT. Longitudinal changes in ECT were not associated with therapy response. However, within the ECT group only, baseline FA was positively and MD negatively associated with post-ECT symptomatology. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that ECT changes white matter integrity, possibly reflecting increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier, resulting in disturbed communication of fibers. Further, baseline diffusion metrics were associated with therapy response. Coherent fiber structure could be a prerequisite for a generalized seizure and inhibitory brain signaling necessary to successfully inhibit increased seizure activity.

19.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(7): 1511-1525, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471575

RESUMO

Alterations in white matter (WM) microstructure have been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, previous findings have been inconsistent, partially due to low statistical power and the heterogeneity of depression. In the largest multi-site study to date, we examined WM anisotropy and diffusivity in 1305 MDD patients and 1602 healthy controls (age range 12-88 years) from 20 samples worldwide, which included both adults and adolescents, within the MDD Working Group of the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) consortium. Processing of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data and statistical analyses were harmonized across sites and effects were meta-analyzed across studies. We observed subtle, but widespread, lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in adult MDD patients compared with controls in 16 out of 25 WM tracts of interest (Cohen's d between 0.12 and 0.26). The largest differences were observed in the corpus callosum and corona radiata. Widespread higher radial diffusivity (RD) was also observed (all Cohen's d between 0.12 and 0.18). Findings appeared to be driven by patients with recurrent MDD and an adult age of onset of depression. White matter microstructural differences in a smaller sample of adolescent MDD patients and controls did not survive correction for multiple testing. In this coordinated and harmonized multisite DTI study, we showed subtle, but widespread differences in WM microstructure in adult MDD, which may suggest structural disconnectivity in MDD.

20.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 41(3): 594-604, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617281

RESUMO

Epigenetic alterations of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene have been associated with psychiatric disorders in humans and with differences in amygdala BDNF mRNA levels in rodents. This human study aimed to investigate the relationship between the functional BDNF-Val66 Met polymorphism, its surrounding DNA methylation in BDNF exon IX, amygdala reactivity to emotional faces, and personality traits. Healthy controls (HC, n = 189) underwent functional MRI during an emotional face-matching task. Harm avoidance, novelty seeking and reward dependence were measured using the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). Individual BDNF methylation profiles were ascertained and associated with several BDNF single nucleotide polymorphisms surrounding the BDNF-Val66 Met, amygdala reactivity, novelty seeking and harm avoidance. Higher BDNF methylation was associated with higher amygdala reactivity (x = 34, y = 0, z = -26, t(166) = 3.00, TFCE = 42.39, p(FWE) = .045), whereby the BDNF-Val66 Met genotype per se did not show any significant association with brain function. Furthermore, novelty seeking was negatively associated with BDNF methylation (r = -.19, p = .015) and amygdala reactivity (r = -.17, p = .028), while harm avoidance showed a trend for a positive association with BDNF methylation (r = .14, p = .066). The study provides first insights into the relationship among BDNF methylation, BDNF genotype, amygdala reactivity and personality traits in humans, highlighting the multidimensional relations among genetics, epigenetics, and neuronal functions. The present study suggests a possible involvement of epigenetic BDNF modifications in psychiatric disorders and related brain functions, whereby high BDNF methylation might reduce BDNF mRNA expression and upregulate amygdala reactivity.

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