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1.
J Invest Dermatol ; 139(8): 1769-1778.e2, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776432

RESUMO

In melanoma, initiating oncogenic mutations in BRAF or NRAS are detected in premalignant lesions that accumulate additional mutations and genomic instability as the tumor evolves to the metastatic state. Here we investigate evolution of clonal composition and neoantigen landscape in an atypical melanoma displaying recurrent cutaneous lesions over a 6-year period without development of extracutaneous metastases. Whole exome sequencing of four cutaneous lesions taken during the 6-year period identified a collection of single nucleotide variants and small insertions and deletions shared among all tumors, along with progressive selection of subclones displaying fewer single nucleotide variants. Later tumors also displayed lower neoantigen burden compared to early tumors, suggesting that clonal evolution was driven, at least in part, by counter selection of subclones with high neoantigen burdens. Among the selected mutations are a missense mutation in MAP2K1 (F53Y) and an inversion on chromosome 7 generating a AKAP9-BRAF fusion. The mutant proteins cooperatively activate the MAPK signaling pathway confirming they are potential driver mutations of this tumor. We therefore describe the long-term genetic evolution of cutaneous metastatic melanoma characterized by an unexpected phenotypic stability and neoantigen-driven clonal selection.

2.
Clin Cancer Res ; 23(22): 7097-7107, 2017 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28855355

RESUMO

Purpose: Understanding tumor heterogeneity is an important challenge in current cancer research. Transcription and epigenetic profiling of cultured melanoma cells have defined at least two distinct cell phenotypes characterized by distinctive gene expression signatures associated with high or low/absent expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). Nevertheless, heterogeneity of cell populations and gene expression in primary human tumors is much less well characterized.Experimental Design: We performed single-cell gene expression analyses on 472 cells isolated from needle biopsies of 5 primary human melanomas, 4 superficial spreading, and one acral melanoma. The expression of MITF-high and MITF-low signature genes was assessed and compared to investigate intra- and intertumoral heterogeneity and correlated gene expression profiles.Results: Single-cell gene expression analyses revealed varying degrees of intra- and intertumor heterogeneity conferred by the variable expression of distinct sets of genes in different tumors. Expression of MITF partially correlated with that of its known target genes, while SOX10 expression correlated best with PAX3 and ZEB2 Nevertheless, cells simultaneously expressing MITF-high and MITF-low signature genes were observed both by single-cell analyses and RNAscope.Conclusions: Single-cell analyses can be performed on limiting numbers of cells from primary human melanomas revealing their heterogeneity. Although tumors comprised variable proportions of cells with the MITF-high and MITF-low gene expression signatures characteristic of melanoma cultures, primary tumors also comprised cells expressing markers of both signatures defining a novel cell state in tumors in vivoClin Cancer Res; 23(22); 7097-107. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Heterogeneidade Genética , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia/genética , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia/metabolismo , Mutação , Análise de Célula Única
3.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res ; 28(6): 736-40, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26301891

RESUMO

The multifunctional Ig-like carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is neo-expressed in the majority of malignant melanoma lesions. CEACAM1 acts as a driver of tumor cell invasion, and its expression correlates with poor patient prognosis. Despite its importance in melanoma progression, how CEACAM1 expression is regulated is largely unknown. Here, we show that CEACAM1 expression in melanoma cell lines and melanoma tissue strongly correlates with that of the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), a key regulator of melanoma proliferation and invasiveness. MITF is revealed as a direct and positive regulator for CEACAM1 expression via binding to an M-box motif located in the CEACAM1 promoter. Taken together, our study provides novel insights into the regulation of CEACAM1 expression and suggests an MITF-CEACAM1 axis as a potential determinant of melanoma progression.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Melanoma/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Melanoma/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Motivos de Nucleotídeos/genética , Ligação Proteica , Neoplasias Cutâneas
4.
J Cell Sci ; 128(13): 2303-18, 2015 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25991548

RESUMO

Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) treated with all-trans retinoic acid differentiate into a homogenous population of glutamatergic neurons. Although differentiation is initiated through activation of target genes by the retinoic acid receptors, the downstream transcription factors specifying neuronal fate are less well characterised. Here, we show that the transcription factor Brn2 (also known as Pou3f2) is essential for the neuronal differentiation programme. By integrating results from RNA-seq following Brn2 silencing with results from Brn2 ChIP-seq, we identify a set of Brn2 target genes required for the neurogenic programme. Further integration of Brn2 ChIP-seq data from retinoic-acid-treated ESCs and P19 cells with data from ESCs differentiated into neuronal precursors by Fgf2 treatment and that from fibroblasts trans-differentiated into neurons by ectopic Brn2 expression showed that Brn2 occupied a distinct but overlapping set of genomic loci in these differing conditions. However, a set of common binding sites and target genes defined the core of the Brn2-regulated neuronal programme, among which was that encoding the transcription factor Zic1. Small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated silencing of Zic1 prevented ESCs from differentiating into neuronal precursors, thus defining a hierarchical Brn2-Zic1 axis that is essential to specify neural fate in retinoic-acid-treated ESCs.


Assuntos
Linhagem da Célula/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/citologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Fatores do Domínio POU/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Tretinoína/farmacologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Corpos Embrioides/citologia , Corpos Embrioides/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genoma , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo
5.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 77: 139-51, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25224035

RESUMO

Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies of all cancers in women worldwide. Many difficulties reside in the prediction of tumor metastatic progression because of the lack of sufficiently reliable predictive biological markers, and this is a permanent preoccupation for clinicians. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) may represent a rational candidate as a predictive biomarker of breast tumor metastatic progression, because its gene expression is profoundly altered between early and advanced breast cancer, in contrast to expression in the normal mammary gland. In this review, we report the characterization of some gene polymorphisms and molecular mechanisms of SOD2 gene regulation, which allows a better understanding of how MnSOD is decreased in early breast cancer and increased in advanced breast cancer. Several studies display the biological significance of MnSOD level in proliferation as well as in invasive and angiogenic abilities of breast tumor cells by controlling superoxide anion radical (O2(•-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Particularly, they report how these reactive oxygen species may activate some signaling pathways involved in breast tumor growth. Emerging understanding of these findings provides an interesting framework for guiding translational research and suggests a way to define precisely the clinical interest of MnSOD as a prognostic and/or predicting marker in breast cancer, by associating with some regulators involved in SOD2 gene regulation and other well-known biomarkers, in addition to the typical clinical parameters.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Superóxido Dismutase/fisiologia , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Indução Enzimática , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Estresse Oxidativo , Polimorfismo Genético , Superóxidos/metabolismo
6.
Cancer Res ; 73(16): 5040-52, 2013 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23774208

RESUMO

The DNA repair protein damaged DNA-binding 2 (DDB2) has been implicated in promoting cell-cycle progression by regulating gene expression. DDB2 is selectively overexpressed in breast tumor cells that are noninvasive, but not in those that are invasive. We found that its overexpression in invasive human breast tumor cells limited their motility and invasiveness in vitro and blocked their ability to colonize lungs in vivo, defining a new function for DDB2 in malignant progression. DDB2 overexpression attenuated the activity of NF-κB and the expression of its target matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP9). Mechanistic investigations indicated that DDB2 decreased NF-κB activity by upregulating expression of IκBα by binding the proximal promoter of this gene. This effect was causally linked to invasive capacity. Indeed, knockdown of DDB2-induced IκBα gene expression restored NF-κB activity and MMP9 expression, along with the invasive properties of breast tumor cells overexpressing DDB2. Taken together, our findings enlighten understanding of how breast cancer cells progress to an invasive phenotype and underscore potential clinical interest in DDB2 as a prognostic marker or therapeutic target in this setting.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Proteínas I-kappa B/genética , Proteínas I-kappa B/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Invasividade Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Transcrição Genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
7.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 50(12): 1771-9, 2011 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21419216

RESUMO

A high basal expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) has been reported in aggressive breast cancer cells, according to an unknown mechanism, and contributes to their invasive abilities. Here, we report the involvement of Sp1 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcription factors in this high basal expression of MnSOD in aggressive breast cancer cells. Suppression or inactivation of Sp1 showed that it plays an essential role in the high MnSOD expression in aggressive breast cancer cells through a unique binding site identified by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay and functional analysis of the MnSOD proximal promoter. Treatment of cells with a specific NF-κB inhibitor peptide decreased significantly high basal MnSOD expression. A ChIP assay showed binding of a constitutive p50/p65 NF-κB complex to the MnSOD intronic enhancer element, associated with hyperacetylation of the H3 histone. Finally, high basal expression of MnSOD resulted in the lack of expression of Damaged DNA binding 2 (DDB2) protein in aggressive breast cancer cells. DDB2 overexpression prevented the binding of Sp1 as well as of NF-κB to their respective elements on the MnSOD gene. These results contribute to a better understanding of MnSOD up-regulation, which may be clinically important in the prediction of breast tumor progression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Acetilação , Sequência de Bases , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Feminino , Radicais Livres , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/biossíntese , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
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