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1.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 28(1): 115189, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740201

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is known to be one of the most lethal cancers. Since the majority of patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage, development of a detection method for PDAC at an earlier stage of disease progression is strongly desirable. Integrin αVß6 is a promising target for early PDAC detection because its expression increases during precancerous changes. The present study aimed to develop an imaging probe for positron emission tomography (PET) which targets αVß6 integrin-positive PDAC. We selected A20FMDV2 peptide, which binds specifically to αvß6 integrin, as a probe scaffold, and 68Ga as a radioisotope. A20FMDV2 peptide has not been previously labeled with 68Ga. A cysteine residue was introduced to the N-terminus of the probe at a site-specific conjugation of maleimide-NOTA (mal-NOTA) chelate. Different numbers of glycine residues were also introduced between cysteine and the A20FMDV2 sequence as a spacer in order to reduce the steric hindrance of the mal-NOTA on the binding probe to αVß6 integrin. In vitro, the competitive binding assay revealed that probes containing a 6-glycine linker ([natGa]CG6 and [natGa]Ac-CG6) showed high affinity to αVß6 integrin. Both probes could be labeled by 67/68Ga with high radiochemical yield (>50%) and purity (>98%). On biodistribution analysis, [67Ga]Ac-CG6 showed higher tumor accumulation, faster blood clearance, and lower accumulation in the surrounding organs of pancreas than did [67Ga]CG6. The αVß6 integrin-positive xenografts were clearly visualized by PET imaging with [68Ga]Ac-CG6. The intratumoral distribution of [68Ga]Ac-CG6 coincided with the αVß6 integrin-positive regions detected by immunohistochemistry. Thus, [68Ga]Ac-CG6 is a useful peptide probe for the imaging of αVß6 integrin in PDAC.

2.
Med Phys ; 47(2): 587-596, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800969

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Beta-ray imaging systems are widely used for various biological objects to obtain a two-dimensional (2D) distribution of ß-ray emitting radioisotopes. However, a conventional ß-ray imaging system is unsuitable for multiple-tracer imaging, because the continuous energy distribution of ß-rays complicates distinguishing among different tracers by energy information. Therefore, we developed a new type of ß-ray imaging system, which is useful for multiple tracers by detecting coincidence γ-rays with ß-rays, and evaluated its imaging performance. METHODS: Our system is composed of position-sensitive ß-ray and γ-ray detectors. The former is a 35 × 35 × 1-mm3 Ce-Doped((La, Gd)2 Si2 O7 ) (La-GPS) scintillation detector, which has a 300-µm pitch of pixels. The latter is a 43 × 43 × 16-mm3 bismuth germanium oxide (BGO) scintillation detector. Both detectors are mounted on a flexible frame and placed in a user-selectable position. We experimentally evaluated the performance of the ß-ray detector and the γ-ray efficiencies of the γ-ray detector with different energies, positions, and distances. We also conducted point sources and phantom measurements with dual isotopes to evaluate the system performance of multiple-tracer imaging. RESULTS: For the ß-ray detector, the ß-ray detection efficiencies for 45 Ca (245-keV maximum energy) and 90 Sr/90 Y (545 and 2280-keV maximum energy) were 14.3% and 21.9%, respectively. The total γ-ray detection efficiency of the γ-ray detector for all γ-rays from 22 Na (511-keV annihilation γ-rays and a 1275-keV γ-ray) in the center position with a detector distance of 20 mm was 17.5%. From a point-source measurement using 22 Na and 90 Sr/90 Y, we successfully extracted the position of a positron-γ emitter 22 Na. Furthermore, for a phantom experiment using 45 Ca and 18 F or 18 F and 22 Na, we successfully extracted the distribution of the second tracer using the annihilation γ-ray or de-excitation γ-ray coincidence. In all the imaging experiments, the event counts of the extracted images were consistent with the counts estimated by the measured γ-ray efficiencies. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully demonstrated the feasibility of our ß-ray autoradiography system for imaging multiple isotopes. Since our system can identify not only a ß-γ emitter but also a positron emitter using the coincidence detection of annihilation γ-rays, it is useful for PET tracers and various new applications that are otherwise impractical.

3.
Mol Imaging Biol ; 21(3): 519-528, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30047036

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), the loss of cerebral nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that are implicated in higher brain functions has been reported. However, it is unclear if nAChR deficits occur in association with cognitive impairments. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between nAChR deficits and cognitive impairments in a mouse model of AD (APP/PS2 mice). PROCEDURES: The cognitive abilities of APP/PS2 and wild-type mice (aged 2-16 months) were evaluated using the novel object recognition test. Double-tracer autoradiography analyses with 5-[125I]iodo-A-85380 ([125I]5IA: α4ß2 nAChR imaging probe) and 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose were performed in both mice of different ages. [123I]5IA-single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) imaging was also performed in both mice at 12 months of age. Furthermore, each age cohort was investigated for changes in cognitive ability and expression levels of α7 nAChRs and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). RESULTS: No significant difference was found between the APP/PS2 and wild-type mice at 2-6 months of age in terms of novel object recognition memory; subsequently, however, APP/PS2 mice showed a clear cognitive deficit at 12 months of age. [125I]5IA accumulation decreased in the brains of 12-month-old APP/PS2 mice, i.e., at the age at which cognitive impairments were first observed; this result was supported by a reduction in the protein levels of α4 nAChRs using Western blotting. nAChR deficits could be noninvasively detected by [123I]5IA-SPECT in vivo. In contrast, no significant changes in glycometabolism, expression levels of α7 nAChRs, or NMDARs were associated with cognitive impairments in APP/PS2 mice. CONCLUSION: A decrease in cerebral α4ß2 nAChR density could act as a biomarker reflecting cognitive impairments associated with AD pathology.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Amiloide/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/química , Masculino , Memória , Camundongos Transgênicos , Presenilina-2/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único
4.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 40(4): 510-515, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28381805

RESUMO

Many zinc (Zn) complexes have been developed as promising oral antidiabetic agents. In vitro assays using adipocytes have demonstrated that the coordination structures of Zn complexes affect the uptake of Zn into cells and have insulinomimetic activities, for which moderate stability of Zn complexes is vital. The complexation of Zn plays a major role improving its bioavailability. However, investigation of the speciation changes of Zn complexes after oral administration is lacking. A dual radiolabeling approach was applied in order to investigate the speciation of bis(5-chloro-7-iodo-8-quinolinolato)zinc complex [Zn(Cq)2], which exhibits the antidiabetic activity in diabetic mice. In the present study, 65Zn- and 131I-labeled [Zn(Cq)2] were synthesized, and their biodistribution were analyzed after an oral administration using both invasive conventional assays and noninvasive gamma-ray emission imaging (GREI), a novel nuclear medicine imaging modality that enables analysis of multiple radionuclides simultaneously. The GREI experiments visualized the behavior of 65Zn and [131I]Cq from the stomach to large intestine and through the small intestine; most of the administered Zn was transported together with clioquinol (5-chloro-7-iodo-8-quinolinol) (Cq). Higher accumulation of 65Zn for [Zn(Cq)2] than ZnCl2 suggests that the Zn associated with Cq was highly absorbed by the intestinal tract. In particular, the molar ratio of administered iodine to Zn decreased during the distribution processes, indicating the dissociation of most [Zn(Cq)2] complexes. In conclusion, the present study successfully evaluated the speciation changes of orally administered [Zn(Cq)2] using the dual radiolabeling method.


Assuntos
Cloretos/administração & dosagem , Cloretos/metabolismo , Radioisótopos do Iodo/administração & dosagem , Radioisótopos do Iodo/metabolismo , Compostos de Zinco/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Zinco/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Distribuição Tecidual/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Tecidual/fisiologia
5.
Med Phys ; 44(6): 2257-2266, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28168704

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Positron emission tomography (PET) is a useful imaging modality that quantifies the physiological distributions of radiolabeled tracers in vivo in humans and animals. However, this technique is unsuitable for multiple-tracer imaging because the annihilation photons used for PET imaging have a fixed energy regardless of the selection of the radionuclide tracer. This study developed a multi-isotope PET (MI-PET) system and evaluated its imaging performance. METHODS: Our MI-PET system is composed of a PET system and additional γ-ray detectors. The PET system consists of pixelized gadolinium orthosilicate (GSO) scintillation detectors and has a ring geometry that is 95 mm in diameter with an axial field of view of 37.5 mm. The additional detectors are eight bismuth germanium oxide (BGO) scintillation detectors, each of which is 50 × 50 × 30 mm3 , arranged into two rings mounted on each side of the PET ring with a 92-mm-inner diameter. This system can distinguish between different tracers using the additional γ-ray detectors to observe prompt γ-rays, which are emitted after positron emission and have an energy intrinsic to each radionuclide. Our system can simultaneously acquire double- (two annihilation photons) and triple- (two annihilation photons and a prompt γ-ray) coincidence events. The system's efficiency for detecting prompt de-excitation γ-rays was measured using a positron-γ emitter, 22 Na. Dual-radionuclide (18 F and 22 Na) imaging of a rod phantom and a mouse was performed to demonstrate the performance of the developed system. Our system's basic performance was evaluated by reconstructing two images, one containing both tracers and the other containing just the second tracer, from list-mode data sets that were categorized by the presence or absence of the prompt γ-ray. RESULTS: The maximum detection efficiency for 1275 keV γ-rays emitted from 22 Na was approximately 7% at the scanner's center, and the minimum detection efficiency was 5.1% at the edge of the field of view. Dual-radionuclide imaging of the point sources and rod phantom revealed that our system maintained PET's intrinsic spatial resolution and quantitative nature for the second tracer. We also successfully acquired simultaneous double- and triple-coincidence events from a mouse containing 18 F-fluoro-deoxyglucose and 22 Na dissolved in water. The dual-tracer distributions in the mouse obtained by our MI-PET were reasonable from the viewpoints of physiology and pharmacokinetics. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the feasibility of multiple-tracer imaging using PET with additional γ-ray detectors. This method holds promise for enabling the reconstruction of quantitative multiple-tracer images and could be very useful for analyzing multiple-molecular dynamics.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagens de Fantasmas , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Fótons , Radioisótopos
6.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(2): 1209-1216, 2017 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27957579

RESUMO

While investigating the unique optical properties of aminobenzopyranoxanthenes (ABPXs), organic fluorescent dyes with the fusion of two rhodamines, we have found that the spirolactone form of ABPXs exhibited solvatochromic fluorescence in organic solvents. Detailed spectrophotometric and theoretical analyses showed that the solvatochromic fluorescence of ABPXs originated from the photo-excited charge separation in solvents of different dipolarities. Further studies revealed that fluorescent nanoaggregates were also formed in highly concentrated solution. The intriguing dual fluorescence properties of ABPXs were tunable in response to the water content, and served as a new detection principle for naked-eye visualisation (above 0.5 wt%) and quantification (0.010-0.125 wt%) of water in tetrahydrofuran.

8.
Nucl Med Biol ; 43(6): 372-8, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27260778

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are of great interest because they are implicated in higher brain functions. Nuclear medical imaging is one of the useful techniques for noninvasive evaluation of physiological and pathological function in living subjects. Recent progress in nuclear medical imaging modalities enables the clear visualization of the organs of small rodents. Thus, translational research using nuclear medical imaging in transgenic mice has become possible and helps to elucidate human disease pathology. However, imaging of α4ß2 nAChRs in the mouse brain has not yet been performed. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 5-[(123)I]iodo-3-[2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy]pyridine ([(123)I]5IA) for evaluating α4ß2 nAChR availability in the mouse brain. METHODS: A 60-min dynamic SPECT imaging session of α4ß2 nAChRs in the mouse brain was performed. The regional distribution of radioactivity in the SPECT images was compared to the density of α4ß2 nAChRs measured in an identical mouse. Alteration of nAChR density in the brains of Tg2576 mice was also evaluated. RESULTS: The mouse brain was clearly visualized by [(123)I]5IA-SPECT and probe accumulation was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with (-)-nicotine. The regional distribution of radioactivity in SPECT images showed a significant positive correlation with α4ß2 nAChR density measured in an identical mouse brain. Moreover, [(123)I]5IA-SPECT was able to detect the up-regulation of α4ß2 nAChRs in the brains of Tg2576 transgenic mice. CONCLUSIONS: [(123)I]5IA-SPECT imaging would be a promising tool for evaluating α4ß2 nAChR availability in the mouse brain and may be useful in translational research focused on nAChR-related diseases.


Assuntos
Azetidinas , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Piridinas , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único/métodos , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Animais , Autorradiografia , Azetidinas/farmacocinética , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nicotina/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacocinética , Distribuição Tecidual
9.
Dalton Trans ; 45(23): 9436-45, 2016 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27184978

RESUMO

Copper complexes formed by an amino terminal Cu(2+)- and Ni(2+)-binding (ATCUN) motif have attracted attention as metallodrug candidates that cleave DNA or RNA and inactivate enzymes. Although the stability of the Cu(2+)-ATCUN complex under physiologically relevant conditions is a key factor for medical applications, it has remained unclear. Here we prepared a series of ATCUN peptides by inserting various amino acid residues into positions 1 and 2, and investigated the stability of the Cu(2+)-ATCUN complexes in aqueous solution, blood plasma, and living animals. Systematic pH titration showed that the low basicity of the N-terminal amine of the peptide stabilized the Cu(2+)-ATCUN complex in aqueous solution. Interestingly, the stability of (64)Cu-labeled ATCUN complexes in blood plasma was significantly enhanced by the structural bulkiness and hydrophobicity of the amino acid residues at positions 1 and 2. To validate the in vivo stability, six ATCUN motifs (YYH, VVH, NNH, TTH, GGH, and DDH) were conjugated to a tumor-targeting peptide, octreotide (Oct). The stability of the (64)Cu-ATCUN-Oct complexes in blood plasma showed a similar trend to that of the (64)Cu-ATCUN complexes. The (64)Cu-YYH-Oct complex exhibited the highest stability in blood plasma. According to the positron emission tomography and competitive blocking studies of a tumor-bearing mouse model, (64)Cu-YYH-Oct specifically accumulated in tumors, suggesting that the complex was sufficiently stable to reach its target in vivo. The results show that the structural bulkiness and hydrophobicity of the residues at positions 1 and 2 are key parameters for designing metallodrugs on the basis of the Cu(2+)-ATCUN complex.

10.
Biochem Biophys Rep ; 5: 211-215, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28955826

RESUMO

Various types of zinc (Zn) complexes have been developed as promising antidiabetic agents in recent years. However, the pharmacological action of Zn complex is not elucidated because the biodistribution of the complex in a living organism has not been studied. Nuclear medicine imaging is superior technology for the noninvasive analysis of the temporal distribution of drug candidates in living organisms. Gamma-ray emission imaging (GREI), which was developed by our laboratory as a novel molecular imaging modality, was adopted to visualize various γ-ray-emitting radionuclides that are not detected by conventional imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography. Therefore, we applied GREI to a biodistribution assay of Zn complexes. In the present study, 65Zn was produced in the natCu(p,n) reaction in an azimuthal varying field cyclotron for the GREI experiment. The distribution was then noninvasively visualized using GREI after the intravenous administration of a 65Zn-labeled di(1-oxy-2-pyridinethiolato)zinc [Zn(opt)2], ZnCl2, and di(l-histidinato)zinc. The GREI images were validated using conventional invasive assays. This novel study showed that GREI is a powerful tool for the biodistribution analysis of antidiabetic Zn complexes in a living organism. In addition, accumulation of 65Zn in the cardiac blood pool was observed for [Zn(opt)2], which exhibits potent antidiabetic activity. These results suggest that the slow elimination of Zn from the blood is correlated to the antidiabetic activity of [Zn(opt)2].

11.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 80(3): 600-9, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26566138

RESUMO

DL-Penicillamine, a copper-specific metal chelator, remarkably suppressed the growth of Bacillus subtilis 168 when added to a synthetic medium under Cu(2+) limitation. DNA microarray and screening of 2,602 knockout mutants showed that the zosA gene was de-repressed in the presence of 0.1% dl-penicillamine, and that the zosA mutant was sensitive to dl-penicillamine medium. The zosA mutant delayed the growth under Cu-limitation even without the chelator, and the sensitivity to dl-penicillamine was reversed by induction using 0.3 mM IPTG and the Pspac promoter inserted directly upstream of the zosA gene. Furthermore, the zosA mutant showed elevated tolerance of excessive Cu(2+) but not of excessive Zn(2+) added to LB and synthetic media. Homology modeling of the ZosA protein suggested that the protein can fold itself into essential domains for constituting a metal transporting ATPase. Our study suggests that zosA is a candidate gene involved in copper uptake.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/genética , Cobre/metabolismo , Genes Bacterianos , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Mutação , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos
12.
Biochem J ; 472(2): 183-93, 2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26385990

RESUMO

Dietary zinc deficiency puts human health at risk, so we explored strategies for enhancing zinc absorption. In the small intestine, the zinc transporter ZIP4 functions as an essential component of zinc absorption. Overexpression of ZIP4 protein increases zinc uptake and thereby cellular zinc levels, suggesting that food components with the ability to increase ZIP4 could potentially enhance zinc absorption via the intestine. In the present study, we used mouse Hepa cells, which regulate mouse Zip4 (mZip4) in a manner indistinguishable from that in intestinal enterocytes, to screen for suitable food components that can increase the abundance of ZIP4. Using this ZIP4-targeting strategy, two such soybean extracts were identified that were specifically able to decrease mZip4 endocytosis in response to zinc. These soybean extracts also effectively increased the abundance of apically localized mZip4 in transfected polarized Caco2 and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and, moreover, two apically localized mZip4 acrodermatitis enteropathica mutants. Soybean components were purified from one extract and soyasaponin Bb was identified as an active component that increased both mZip4 protein abundance and zinc levels in Hepa cells. Finally, we confirmed that soyasaponin Bb is capable of enhancing cell surface endogenous human ZIP4 in human cells. Our results suggest that ZIP4 targeting may represent a new strategy to improve zinc absorption in humans.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/agonistas , Enterócitos/metabolismo , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/metabolismo , Absorção Intestinal , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Soja/química , Zinco/metabolismo , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Deficiências Nutricionais/metabolismo , Deficiências Nutricionais/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Cães , Endocitose , Enterócitos/citologia , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/análise , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/química , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Estabilidade Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Saponinas/análise , Saponinas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Zinco/deficiência
13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(20): 6436-9, 2015 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25965882

RESUMO

Mechanochromic organic molecules (MOMs) that exhibit a large difference of fluorescence wavelength between two states have important potential applications, but few such compounds are known. Here, we report a new MOM, cis-ABPX01(0), which shows switchable near-IR and blue fluorescence responses. Detailed spectrophotometric and single-crystal X-ray analyses revealed that the near-IR fluorescence is attributable to fluorescence from slip-stacked dimeric structures in crystals, while the blue fluorescence is attributable to fluorescence from the monomer. Switching between the two is achieved by dynamic structural interconversion between the two molecular packing arrangements in response to mechanical grinding and solvent vapor-fuming.


Assuntos
Fluoresceínas/química , Xantenos/química , Fluorescência , Raios Infravermelhos , Estrutura Molecular
14.
PLoS One ; 9(11): e109866, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25365349

RESUMO

Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) targeted therapy by anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) is highly effective in cancer patients. However, it is extremely expensive and potentially produces autoimmune-related adverse effects. Therefore, the development of a method to evaluate CTLA-4 expression prior to CTLA-4-targeted therapy is expected to open doors to evidence-based and cost-efficient medical care and to avoid adverse effects brought about by ineffective therapy. In this study, we aimed to develop a molecular imaging probe for CTLA-4 visualization in tumor. First, we examined CTLA-4 expression in normal colon tissues, cultured CT26 cells, and CT26 tumor tissues from tumor-bearing BALB/c mice and BALB/c nude mice by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and confirmed whether CTLA-4 is strongly expressed in CT26 tumor tissues. Second, we newly synthesized 64Cu-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N″,N‴-tetraacetic acid-anti-mouse CTLA-4 mAb (64Cu-DOTA-anti-CTLA-4 mAb) and evaluated its usefulness in positron emission tomography (PET) and ex-vivo biodistribution analysis in CT26-bearing BALB/c mice. High CTLA-4 expression was confirmed in the CT26 tumor tissues of tumor-bearing BALB/c mice. However, CTLA-4 expression was extremely low in the cultured CT26 cells and the CT26 tumor tissues of tumor-bearing BALB/c nude mice. The results suggested that T cells were responsible for the high CTLA-4 expression. Furthermore, 64Cu-DOTA-anti-CTLA-4 mAb displayed significantly high accumulation in the CT26 tumor, thereby realizing non-invasive CTLA-4 visualization in the tumor. Together, the results indicate that 64Cu-DOTA-anti-CTLA-4 mAb would be useful for the evaluation of CTLA-4 expression in tumor.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais , Antígeno CTLA-4/metabolismo , Radioisótopos de Cobre , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Compostos Organometálicos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Animais , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Neoplasias/genética , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Ligação Proteica , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
15.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 134(7): 797-800, 2014.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24989468

RESUMO

Radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are very useful molecular probes for nuclear imaging technique due to their high-target specificity and high-stability in the bloodstream. MAbs are generally labeled by indirect method using the combination of relatively long-lived metallic radionuclides (including (64)Cu, (89)Zr, and (111)In) and bifunctional chelating agents which are capable of binding both antibodies and radio metals. The indirect radiolabeling method has some advantages such as high labeling efficiency and long-term retention ability within their target cells. However, this conventional labeling method can potentially lead to low-target affinity of the mAb probes, because of the non-site-specific introduction of the bifunctional chelators into the active site of the mAbs. To overcome the shortcoming, we proposed a new direct labeling method utilizing fusion proteins comprising mAbs linked to metal binding peptides at the N- or C-terminus. In this study, we synthesized new peptide derivatives possessing an N-terminal tripeptide sequence (Xaa-Yaa-His) called the amino terminal Cu(2+)- and Ni(2+)-binding (ATCUN) motif as (64)Cu binding peptides for the proposed labeling method. Moreover, we studied the stability constants of Cu(2+)-ATCUN peptide complexes by pH titration. From these studies, we found that a low basicity of the N-terminal amine in the peptide resulted in a high stability constant of the complex. This finding may provide valuable guidelines in designing the ATCUN peptide with high-binding affinity toward (64)Cu.


Assuntos
Quelantes/síntese química , Radioisótopos de Cobre/química , Peptídeos/química , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/síntese química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Quelantes/química , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/química
16.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 134(7): 809-12, 2014.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24989471

RESUMO

Zinc is the essential trace element and important for all living organisms. Zinc functions not only as a nutritional factor, but also as a second messenger. However, the effects of intracellular zinc on the B cell-receptor (BCR) signaling pathway are not poorly understood. Here, we indicate that the ZIP9 induces increase in intracellular zinc level and plays an important role in the phosphorylation of Akt and Erk in response to BCR activation. In DT40 cells, the enhancement of Akt and Erk phosphorylation requires intracellular zinc. To clarify this event, we used chicken Zip9-knockout DT40 (cZip9KO) cells. The levels of Akt and Erk phosphorylation significantly decreased in cZip9KO cells treated with zinc pyrithione (ZnPy), and overexpressing the human Zip9 gene restored these biochemical events. Moreover, we found that the increase in intracellular zinc level depends on the expression of ZIP9. Additionally, intracellular zinc was localized at the Golgi, even if it was treated with ZnPy in cZip9KO cells. We concluded that ZIP9 regulates cytosolic zinc level, resulting in the enhancement of Akt and Erk phosphorylation. Our observations provide new mechanistic insights into the BCR signaling pathway underlying the regulation of intracellular zinc level by ZIP9 in response to the BCR activation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Zinco/metabolismo , Animais , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
17.
Org Lett ; 16(1): 258-61, 2014 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24320213

RESUMO

New derivatives of aminobenzopyrano-xanthene (ABPX) dyes have been designed and synthesized with high fluorescence quantum yields in the visible and far-red regions. It was kinetically demonstrated that the structurally rigid conjugation of the xanthene moiety, which is closely related to the reduction of the nonradiative deactivation process, is an effective molecular design for the drastic enhancement of fluorescence emission efficiency.


Assuntos
Benzopiranos/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Xantenos/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Cinética , Estrutura Molecular , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24211802

RESUMO

A portable mass spectrometer with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (miniECRIS-MS) was developed. It was used for in situ monitoring of trace amounts of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in atmospheric air. Instrumental construction and parameters were optimized to realize a fast response, high sensitivity, and a small body size. Three types of CWAs, i.e., phosgene, mustard gas, and hydrogen cyanide were examined to check if the mass spectrometer was able to detect characteristic elements and atomic groups. From the results, it was found that CWAs were effectively ionized in the miniECRIS-MS, and their specific signals could be discerned over the background signals of air. In phosgene, the signals of the 35Cl+ and 37Cl+ ions were clearly observed with high dose-response relationships in the parts-per-billion level, which could lead to the quantitative on-site analysis of CWAs. A parts-per-million level of mustard gas, which was far lower than its lethal dosage (LCt50), was successfully detected with a high signal-stability of the plasma ion source. It was also found that the chemical forms of CWAs ionized in the plasma, i.e., monoatomic ions, fragment ions, and molecular ions, could be detected, thereby enabling the effective identification of the target CWAs. Despite the disadvantages associated with miniaturization, the overall performance (sensitivity and response time) of the miniECRIS-MS in detecting CWAs exceeded those of sector-type ECRIS-MS, showing its potential for on-site detection in the future.


Assuntos
Ar/análise , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/análise , Cianeto de Hidrogênio/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/instrumentação , Gás de Mostarda/análise , Fosgênio/análise , Ciclotrons/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 154(1): 111-9, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23712834

RESUMO

The increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) worldwide has underscored the urgency of developing an efficient therapeutic agent. Recently, Zn complexes have been attracting attention due to their antidiabetic activity. In this study, we designed and synthesized a new Zn complex, Zn-3,4-heptanedione-bis(N (4)-methylthiosemicarbazonato) (Zn-HTSM), characterized its physicochemical properties, and examined its antidiabetic activity in KK-A(y) type 2 DM model mice. It was demonstrated that Zn-HTSM has adequate lipophilicity for the cellular permeability, shows potent hypoglycemic activity, and improves glucose intolerance in KK-A(y) mice. We also analyzed the levels of serum adipokines after continuous oral administration of Zn-HTSM. The level of serum leptin of KK-A(y) mice is significantly reduced by the treatment of Zn-HTSM. Nevertheless, the levels of serum insulin and adiponectin were not improved. These data suggested that the Zn-HTSM acts on the leptin metabolism. Our present studies indicate that Zn-HTSM is a candidate oral antidiabetic agent for the treatment of type 2 DM.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Tiossemicarbazonas/uso terapêutico , Zinco/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexos de Coordenação/administração & dosagem , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Leptina/sangue , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Tiossemicarbazonas/síntese química , Tiossemicarbazonas/química , Tiossemicarbazonas/farmacologia
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