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1.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 897: 173926, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549577

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a global health crisis. Considering the recent food and drug administration (FDA) approval of remdesivir as the first officially approved agent for COVID-19 treatment, we performed this systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of remdesivir administration in COVID-19 patients. A systematic literature search was done through MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, medRxiv, and bioRxiv from their inception to December 22nd, 2020. Five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and five non-randomized studies of intervention (NRSI) were entered into the meta-analysis. The results showed that remdesivir administration was associated with a significant improvement in the 28-day recovery (RR = 1.09, 95%CI, 1.04-1.15), low flow oxygen support through days one to 14 (RR = 2.88, 95%CI, 1.80-4.60), and invasive mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation requirement through days 14-28 of the follow-up time (RR = 5.34, 95%CI, 2.37-12.05). The risk of experiencing serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs) was significantly lower (RR = 0.75, 95%CI, 0.63-0.90) in the remdesivir group than the comparison/control group. The pooled median difference of the time to clinical improvement was 2.99 (95%CI = 2.71-3.28), which did not remain significant during the sensitivity analysis. The clinical output comparison of the 5-day and 10-day remdesivir courses revealed that the 5-day regimen might provide similar benefits while causing fewer serious ADRs than 10-day. The current meta-analysis provided an updated evaluation of scientific evidence on the use of remdesivir in COVID-19 patients. Performing adequate well-designed RCTs are needed to show more accurate results.

2.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 9(1): e00705, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421347

RESUMO

Drug-drug interaction (DDI) is a common clinical problem that has occurred as a result of the concomitant use of multiple drugs. DDI may occur in patients under treatment with medications used for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; i.e., chloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, tocilizumab, and remdesivir) and increase the risk of serious adverse reactions such as QT-prolongation, retinopathy, increased risk of infection, and hepatotoxicity. This review focuses on summarizing DDIs for candidate medications used for COVID-19 in order to minimize the adverse reactions.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , /tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Interações Medicamentosas , Humanos , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico
3.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511638

RESUMO

Since the early days of 2020, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has become a global health concern. Currently, some therapies and vaccines have gotten the FDA approval or emergency use authorization (EUA) for the management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). According to the pathophysiology of the disease, several medications have been evaluated in different clinical conditions of the disease. Evidence-based reviewing and categorizing these medications can guide the clinicians to select the proper medications according to each patient's condition. Therefore, we aimed to perform this review to categorize the COVID-19 potential therapeutics and vaccines. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Life Sci ; 270: 119124, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508291

RESUMO

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan of China in December 2019 and its worldwide spread has turned into the COVID-19 pandemic. Respiratory disorders, lymphopenia, cytokine cascades, and the immune responses provoked by this virus play a major and fundamental role in the severity of the symptoms and the immunogenicity which it causes. Owing to the decrease in the inflammatory responses' regulation in the immune system and the sudden increase in the secretion of cytokines, it seems that an investigation of inhibitory immune checkpoints can influence theories regarding this disease's treatment methods. Acquired cell-mediated immune defense's T-cells have a key major contribution in clearing viral infections thus reducing the severity of COVID-19's symptoms. The most important diagnostic feature in individuals with COVID-19 is lymphocyte depletion, most importantly, T-cells. Due to the induction of interferon-γ (INF-γ) production by neutrophils and monocytes, which are abundantly present in the peripheral blood of the individuals with COVID-19, the expression of inhibitory immune checkpoints including, PD-1 (programmed death), PD-L1 and CTLA4 on the T-cells' surface is enhanced. The purpose of this review is to discuss the functions of these checkpoints and their effects on the dysfunction and exhaustion of T-cells, making them almost ineffective in individuals with COVID-19, especially in the cases with extreme symptoms.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Antígeno CTLA-4/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , /metabolismo , Humanos , Monócitos/imunologia
5.
Expert Opin Biol Ther ; : 1-12, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161757

RESUMO

Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by a newly discovered coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2), continues to spread all around the world. Despite the emergency of COVID-19 worldwide, remdesivir is the only treatment that has been recently approved to treat the diseases, and other effective therapies are still lacking. SARS-CoV-2 may cause severe illness in 20% of patients. Based on available data, there is an association between interleukin-6 (IL-6) and severe COVID-19. Sarilumab is a fully human immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody binding to both membrane-bound and soluble IL-6 receptors with high affinity and has been considered for off-label use in the treatment of COVID-19. Areas covered: The present article reviews recently published literature focusing on the pathophysiology of COVID-19 induced cytokine storm, the potential therapeutic role, and important clinical issues of sarilumab in the treatment of COVID-19 patients. Expert opinion: The off-label treatment administration is unavoidable in the critical situation of the COVID-19 pandemic. Further efforts should be directed to determine mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 induced immune dysregulation as well as indications of sarilumab in the patients with COVID-19 to minimize concerns regarding its off-label administration.

7.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 60(9): 1131-1146, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557541

RESUMO

Currently, the world is facing the pandemic of a novel strain of beta-coronavirus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the most devastating complication of SARS-CoV-2. It was indicated that cytokine-release syndrome and dominantly interleukin (IL)-6 play a central role in the pathophysiology of ARDS related to the novel 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Despite the global emergency of the disease, at this time, there are no proven therapies for the management of the disease. Tocilizumab is a potential recombinant monoclonal antibody against IL-6 and currently is under investigation for the management of ARDS in patients with COVID-19. Given these points, we reviewed the current evidence regarding the potential therapeutic role of tocilizumab and its important clinical issues in the treatment of ARDS related to COVID-19.

8.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 60(2): 181-187, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489650

RESUMO

Because of the key role blood viscosity plays in the regulation of blood pressure (BP) and the hemorheological effects of pentoxifylline (PTX), this study was conducted to evaluate whether PTX can reduce BP when added to captopril in patients with stage 1 hypertension. In this randomized clinical trial 62 patients with stage 1 hypertension were entered. The intervention group (n = 30) received 1200 mg PTX in 3 divided doses plus 25 mg captopril 3 times a day, whereas the control group (n = 32) received only 75 mg captopril in 3 divided doses. Measurements of BP were done at baseline and in the first and second months after entering the study. Major adverse cardiac events during this period were recorded. When the systolic BP levels in the intervention and the control groups were compared, no significant differences at baseline (150.4 ± 6.03 versus 150.4 ± 6.2, P = .98) or first (138.4 ± 9.4 versus 142.3 ± 5.6, P = .08) or second (134.6  ± 8.9 versus 137.4 ± 6.0, P = .20) month of the study were noted. Similarly no significant difference was observed in the diastolic BP at baseline (91.7 ± 3.9 versus 92.0 ± 3.7, P = .84) or first (85.5 ± 5.1 versus 86.9  ± 3.8, P = .27) or second (82.6  ± 5.7 versus 84.0  ± 3.5, P = .31) month. Based on the results of present study, adding PTX as a hemorheological agent to captopril could not significantly reduce blood pressure in the patients with stage 1 hypertension.

9.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 858: 172471, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228455

RESUMO

Due to the potential benefits of curcumin in the ischemic heart disease, this study was performed to evaluate whether pretreatment with curcumin may reduce myocardial injury following elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A randomized clinical trial was performed on 110 patients undergoing elective PCI. The intervention group (n = 55) received a single dose of 480 mg nanomicelle curcumin orally and the standard treatment before PCI, while the control group (n = 55) received only the standard treatment., Serum concentrations of CK-MB and troponin I was measured before, 8 and 24 h after the procedure to assess myocardial damage during PCI. The results showed that the raise of CK-MB in curcumin group was half of the control group (4 vs. 8 cases) but was not significant. There were no significant differences in CK-MB levels at 8 (P = .24) and 24 h (P = .37) after PCI between the curcumin and the control group. No significant difference was also found in troponin I levels at 8 (P = 1.0) and 24 h (P = .35) after PCI between the groups. This study did not support the potential cardioprotective benefit of curcumin against pre-procedural myocardial injury in patients undergoing elective PCI.


Assuntos
Curcumina/farmacologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Traumatismos Cardíacos/etiologia , Traumatismos Cardíacos/prevenção & controle , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Feminino , Traumatismos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Fatores de Tempo , Troponina I/metabolismo
10.
Adv Pharm Bull ; 9(1): 174-179, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011571

RESUMO

Purpose: Medication errors (MEs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, yet they have remained as confusing and underappreciated concept. The complex pharmacotherapy in hospitalized patients necessitates continued report and surveillance of MEs as well as persistent pharmaceutical care. This study evaluated the frequency, types, clinical significance, and costs of MEs in internal medicine wards. Methods: In this 8-month prospective and cross-sectional study, an attending clinical pharmacist visited the patients during each physician's ward round at the morning. All MEs including prescription, transcription, and administration errors were detected, recorded, and subsequently appropriate corrective interventions were proposed during these rounds. The changes in the medications' cost after implementing clinical pharmacist's interventions were compared to the calculated medications' cost, assuming that the MEs would not have been detected by clinical pharmacist and continued up to discharge time of the patients. Results: 89% of the patients experienced at least one ME during their hospitalization. A mean of 2.6 errors per patient or 0.2 errors per ordered medication occurred in this study. More than 70% of MEs happened at the prescription stage by treating physicians. The most prevalent prescription errors were inappropriate drug selection, unauthorized drugs and untreated indication. The highest MEs occurred on cardiovascular agents followed by antibiotics, and vitamins, minerals, and electrolytes. The net effect of clinical pharmacist's contributions in medication therapy management was to decline medications' costs by 33.9%. Conclusion: The role of clinical pharmacy services in detection, prevention and reducing the cost of MEs is of paramount importance to internal medicine wards.

11.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 51(4): 699-705, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830654

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the most important complications of contrast media. We aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of pentoxifylline (PTX) on CIN in diabetic patients undergoing angioplasty using cystatin C. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was a randomized clinical trial, which was investigated the impact of PTX in the prevention of CIN among 90 diabetic patients undergoing the angioplasty using cystatin C as a novel biomarker of renal injury. The patients randomly were allocated 1:1 into the intervention and the control groups. The intervention group received a total of 1200 mg PTX orally before the angioplasty. The serum level of cystatin C and creatinine was measured at baseline and 24 h after the procedure. RESULTS: The incidence of CIN was 8.9% in the PTX group vs. 6.7% in the control group (p = 1.00). The baseline level of cystatin C was 1.31 ± 0.39 mg/L in the PTX group and 1.24 ± 0.42 mg/L in the control group (p = 0.561). After angioplasty, the level of cystatin C was increased to 1.33 ± 0.61 in PTX group and to 1.31 ± 0.47 in the control group but was not statistically significant. The similar pattern was also seen in the level of serum creatinine. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study did not support the potential benefit of PTX in the prevention of CIN in diabetic patients undergoing angioplasty.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Meios de Contraste/efeitos adversos , Cistatina C/sangue , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/uso terapêutico , Pentoxifilina/uso terapêutico , Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Idoso , Angioplastia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Creatinina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Método Simples-Cego
12.
Adv Pharm Bull ; 8(3): 377-382, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30276133

RESUMO

Purpose: Isotretinoin is the most effective anti-acne drug with a long-term remission. However; it contains severe teratogenic effects with serious adverse drug reactions, which limits the use of medication. Methods: To review the use of isotretinoin during pregnancy, we carried out a comprehensive search of literature in Google Scholar, Scopus and PubMed/Medline from their inception until April 2015. Results: Database searching identified 277 records, of which, 38 articles were retrieved according to abstract and title assessment. After full-text review, 17 articles were excluded and finally, a total of 21 studies met the inclusion criteria. Data showed an increased pattern in the use of isotretinoin. In some studies, health care providers were not fully adhered to the risk reduction programs in pregnancy. Exposing to isotretinoin among pregnant women has still occurred due to detrimental adherence to risk reduction programs which resulted in live-born infants with different kinds of abnormalities. Conclusion: Despite the known serious adverse effect of isotretinoin, the use of drug was not based on the guidelines in some cases, which needs more attentions to prevent the severe drug related problems.

13.
J Res Pharm Pract ; 7(1): 30-35, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29755996

RESUMO

Objective: Current literature indicates that the presence of clinical pharmacists in hospitals results in improved patient care, rational drug therapy, and treatment costs. This study assessed the clinical pharmacy services in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary hospital at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Methods: During a 9-month cross-sectional study (2014-2015), the clinical pharmacy interventions in 27 sessions and educational activities for patients and health-care professionals were randomly assessed based on the Australian guideline and standard of practice for clinical pharmacy. The interventions of clinical pharmacist were evaluated in terms of their clinical importance. Findings: In this study, a total of 832 interventions on 242 patients were performed by the clinical pharmacist, and approximately 93.6% of the interventions were approved by the attending physician. Most interventions concerned adding a new medication to a drug regimen or switching to a needed new medication. Each patient received an average of three interventions. The clinical pharmacist provided drug information to employees and medical staff in 108 of the total 832 interventions (13%). Medical residents who were surveyed indicated that the quality of education, research, and patient care was improved by the attendance of a clinical pharmacist. Conclusion: The results of this study show that the collaboration of a clinical pharmacist with the medical staff of an ICU can improve pharmacotherapy approach and increase the quality of education.

14.
Iran J Pharm Res ; 17(Suppl): 53-63, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29796029

RESUMO

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is one of the main leading causes of mortality and morbidity. Despite the progress in the treatment of AMI, streptokinase is still being used in many countries. Because of the critical condition of patients with AMI and complications of streptokinase therapy, this study was performed to evaluate the pattern of adverse drug reaction (ADRs) induced by streptokinase and its associated risk factors in patients with acute ST elevation MI. A prospective cross-sectional study in a 14-month period was done at the university affiliated referral cardiovascular center. The Naranjo probability scale and Food and drug administration (FDA) criteria for severity of ADRs were performed for assessing the ADRs. The linear and logistic regression tests were used to evaluate the correlation between ADRs and study risk factors. During the study period, 217 patients who received streptokinase were entered. The majority of patients (n = 191) experienced at least one ADR. Six patients died in-hospital mainly because of cardiac causes. The history of drug allergy was the main predictor in occurring of ADRs (Odds ratio: 3.26; 95% CI: 1.48-457.6; p =0.026). The most serious ADR was hemorrhagic stroke with a 1.4% incidence. Hypotension was one of the most occurred ADR (n = 75). Anaphylactic shock was not detected in this study. In summary, our study showed that the history of drug allergy is the main predictor in occurring of ADRs by streptokinase. Furthermore, streptokinase therapy was associated with a higher rate of hemorrhagic stroke in Iranian population.

15.
Iran J Pharm Res ; 17(Suppl): 73-78, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29796031

RESUMO

According to studies, a significant association exists between the low levels of vitamin D and cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction (MI). In a prospective case control study, 88 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) including ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and Non-STEMI were enrolled. The plasma level of 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH) D] was obtained at the time of acute MI. To assess the association between study variables logistic regression analysis was done. The overall rate of vitamin D deficiency was documented in 59.1% with the significantly higher prevalence rate in STEMI group (77.5% versus 43.7%; p = 0.001). In STEMI group, the plasma level of 25(OH) vitamin D was significantly lower than non-STEMI group (13.5 ± 7.7 versus 24.3 ± 14.9; p = 0.001). Vitamin D deficiency was the main predictor in occurring the ST elevation type of MI (Odd ratio: 8.1, 95% CI: 2.3 - 28.2; p = 0.001). The results of the present study demonstrated a higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among ACS patients. Furthermore, vitamin D deficiency was responsible for occurring ST elevation type of MI among ACS patients. Large studies are needed to confirm these findings.

16.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 58(2): 144-151, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28841229

RESUMO

Myocardial injury following elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) occurs in about one-third of patients and is associated with mortality. Platelet aggregation, thrombosis formation, and inflammation are the main causes of cardiac injury during PCI. Vitamin D plays a key role in the cardiovascular system by exerting antiplatelet, anticoagulant, and anti-inflammatory properties. There is no published study that investigated the effect of vitamin D in the prevention of cardiac injury following elective PCI. In a randomized clinical trial, 99 patients admitted for elective PCI were randomized into vitamin D (n = 52) and control (n = 47) groups. The intervention group received 300 000 IU vitamin D orally 12 hours before PCI. The cardiac biomarkers were checked at baseline, 8 and 24 hours after PCI. hs-CRP was also measured at baseline and after 24 hours. The increase in CK-MB was documented in 20 patients (42%) in the control group and 18 patients (34.6%) in the intervention group (P = .417). Furthermore, the increase in cTnI occurred in 4 patients (8%) and 2 patients (3.3%) in the control and intervention groups, respectively (P = .419). No significant changes were noted in the level of cardiac biomarkers. In the vitamin D group, the mean difference in CK-MB between 8 and 24 hours was significantly lower (P = .048). The mean difference in hs-CRP was significantly lower in the vitamin D group (P = .045). This study could not show a clear effect of vitamin D in the prevention of cardiac injury during elective PCI. Further outcome-based studies are needed to describe the role of vitamin D in the prevention of periprocedural myocardial injury.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Cardíacos/prevenção & controle , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Creatina Quinase Forma MB/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Método Simples-Cego
17.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 57(10): 1338-1344, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28513852

RESUMO

Cell death following acute myocardial infarction (MI) is the hallmark pathology of cardiovascular disease, leading to considerable mortality and morbidity. Platelet and neutrophil activation and inflammatory cytokines, prominently TNF-α, play an important role in the development of cell death. Because pentoxifylline inhibits platelet and neutrophil activation and reduces TNF-α, this study was performed to assess the potential benefit of pentoxifylline in the reduction of myocardial injury following acute MI. In this randomized clinical trial, 98 patients with acute MI were randomly divided into 2 groups. The intervention group received an oral dose of 1200 mg of pentoxifylline immediately before thrombolytic therapy (TLT). All patients received the same standard protocol for treatment of MI. Cardiac enzymes were checked over 48 hours. ST resolution was measured over 90 minutes. Then all patients were followed up for a 1-month period to assess major adverse cardiac effects (MACEs). There were no significant differences in peak levels of CPK (P = .18) and CK-MB (P = .33) between the 2 groups, whereas peak level of troponin I was significantly lower in the pentoxifylline group (16.8 ± 10.4 vs 21.3 ± 11.6; P = .048). No significant change between the groups was observed in biomarkers levels, ST segment resolution, cardiac ejection fraction, and MACEs. The results showed that pentoxifylline significantly reduced the peak value of troponin I in patients with acute MI receiving TLT. No significant change was observed in the other studied parameters. Further outcome-based studies are needed to show the clinical relevance of differences between the groups in troponin peak.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Pentoxifilina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Terapia Trombolítica , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Projetos Piloto , Troponina I/sangue
18.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 57(1): 40-47, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27225617

RESUMO

Despite the known role of vitamin D deficiency in development of thrombosis, no studies have evaluated the impact of treating of vitamin D deficiency on the markers of thrombosis. A pilot randomized clinical trial was done on 40 vitamin D-deficient patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE). The intervention group received an oral dose of 50,000 IU vitamin D3 every week for 8 weeks, followed by 1 pearl every 2 weeks for 4 weeks (a total of 3 months), while the control group did not receive vitamin D. Then, P-selectin and hs-CRP were measured at baseline and 1 and 3 months after the intervention. There was no significant decrease in hs-CRP in either group after 1 month (P = .955) or after 3 months (P = .525). Likewise, there was no significant decrease in P-selectin between the 2 groups after 1 month (P = .921) or 3 months (P = .795). The results indicated that treatment of vitamin D deficiency had no significant effect on hs-CRP or P-selectin after 3 months among DVT/PE patients. However, treatment of vitamin D deficiency in these patients resulted in the control of the international normalized ratio (INR) with the lower doses of warfarin. This observation is the first clinical report of enhancement of the anticoagulant effect of warfarin by the supplementing of vitamin D. Larger trials are needed to clearly show the effect of treating of vitamin D deficiency on thrombosis.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Selectina-P/sangue , Tromboembolia/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Tromboembolia/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(3): 403-412, July-Sept. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-828273

RESUMO

ABSTRACT This study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among common pathogens in the intensive care units (ICUs) of a university hospital in northwestern Iran. A retrospective study was done on laboratory records of patients with nosocomial infection who were admitted to five ICUs of Imam Reza Hospital during a 21-month period from March 2010 to January, 2012. A total number of 556 isolates from 328 patients were evaluated. The most common sites of infections included respiratory (51.7%), urinary (24.8%), and blood (10.4%). The most frequently isolated microorganisms were Enterobacter aerogenes (50.6%) followed by Escherichia coli (16.7%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7.5%). Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent pathogen among gram-positives (39.7%). The rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was 87.5%. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria were documented in 25.8% of Acinetobacter, 20% of Klebsiella, and 16.6% of Pseudomonas. The most active antimicrobials were vancomycin (93.5%) followed by amikacin (71.5%) and gentamicin (46%). The overall antibiotic susceptibility was as follows: 36% ciprofloxacin, 19% imipenem, 20% trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 20.5% ceftazidime, and 12% ceftriaxone. Due to the high rate of antimicrobial resistance in the ICU setting, more surveillance and control of the use of antimicrobials is needed to combat infections.


Assuntos
Humanos , Hospitais Universitários/classificação , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Irã (Geográfico) , Antibacterianos/análise , Infecção Hospitalar , Enterobacter aerogenes , Escherichia coli , Infecções/transmissão , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus
20.
Arch Iran Med ; 19(5): 359-62, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27179169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to many studies, vitamin D deficiency has been linked to cardiovascular diseases (CV). Other than maintaining skeletal health, vitamin D has been shown to decrease the risk of developing CV disease such as hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD) and thromboembolism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To perform a comprehensive review of the current literature on vitamin D and CV disease, we searched the online database, including PUBMED, Scopus, and Google Scholar until data inception January 2016. The search term included "vitamin D", "blood pressure", "hypertension", "coronary artery disease "and "thrombosis". We only included human studies that were published in English. RESULTS: A majority of data indicate that there is no relationship between vitamin D and hypertension, but the association of vitamin D with thrombosis is yet to be determined. Vitamin D is a fair predictor of adverse outcomes in coronary artery disease (CAD), which highlights it for future studies. CONCLUSION: According to research, there is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among patients with CV diseases, which needs to be diagnosed and treated.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/complicações , Hipertensão/complicações , Tromboembolia/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
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