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1.
Lancet Oncol ; 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with Ewing sarcoma or osteosarcoma have a median overall survival of less than 12 months after diagnosis, and a standard treatment strategy has not yet been established. Pharmacological inhibition of MET signalling and aberrant angiogenesis has shown promising results in several preclinical models of Ewing sarcoma and osteosarcoma. We aimed to investigate the activity of cabozantinib, an inhibitor of MET and VEGFR2, in patients with advanced Ewing sarcoma and osteosarcoma. METHODS: We did a multicentre, single-arm, two-stage, phase 2 trial in patients with advanced Ewing sarcoma or osteosarcoma recruited from ten centres in the French Sarcoma Group. Key eligibility criteria were aged 12 years or older, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1, and documented disease progression (according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1) before study entry. The number of previous lines of treatment was not limited. Patients received cabozantinib (adults 60 mg, children [<16 years] 40 mg/m2) orally once daily in 28-day cycles until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, the investigator's decision to discontinue, or participant withdrawal. The primary endpoint for Ewing sarcoma was best objective response within 6 months of treatment onset; for osteosarcoma, a dual primary endpoint of 6-month objective response and 6-month non-progression was assessed. All enrolled patients who received at least one dose of cabozantinib were included in the safety analysis, and all participants who received at least one complete or two incomplete treatment cycles were included in the efficacy population. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02243605. FINDINGS: Between April 16, 2015, and July 12, 2018, 90 patients (45 with Ewing sarcoma 45 with osteosarcoma) were recruited to the study. Median follow-up was 31·3 months (95% CI 12·4-35·4) for patients with Ewing sarcoma and 31·1 months (24·4-31·7) for patients with osteosarcoma. 39 (87%) patients with Ewing sarcoma and 42 (93%) patients with osteosarcoma were assessable for efficacy after histological and radiological review. In patients with Ewing sarcoma, ten (26%; 95% CI 13-42) of 39 patients had an objective response (all partial responses) by 6 months; in patients with osteosarcoma, five (12%; 4-26) of 42 patients had an objective response (all partial responses) and 14 (33%; 20-50) had 6-month non-progression. The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events were hypophosphataemia (five [11%] for Ewing sarcoma, three [7%] for osteosarcoma), aspartate aminotransferase increase (two [4%] for Ewing sarcoma, three [7%] for osteosarcoma), palmar-plantar syndrome (three [7%] for Ewing sarcoma, two [4%] for osteosarcoma), pneumothorax (one [2%] for Ewing sarcoma, four [9%] for osteosarcoma), and neutropenia (two [4%] for Ewing sarcoma, four [9%] for osteosarcoma). At least one serious adverse event was reported in 61 (68%) of 90 patients. No patients died from drug-related toxic effects. INTERPRETATION: Cabozantinib has antitumor activity in patients with advanced Ewing sarcoma and osteosarcoma and was generally well tolerated. Cabozantinib could represent a new therapeutic option in this setting, and deserves further investigation. FUNDING: Institut Bergonié; French National Cancer Institute; Association pour la Recherche contre le Cancer.

2.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(1): e28022, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Case reports have portrayed spinal cord atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (spATRT) as an aggressive form of ATRT. We conducted a retrospective European survey to collect data on clinical characteristics, molecular biology, treatment, and outcome of children with intramedullary spATRT. METHODS: Scrutinizing a French national series and the European Rhabdoid Registry database, we identified 13 patients (median age 32 months; metastatic disease at diagnosis, n = 6). Systemic postoperative chemotherapy was administered to all patients; three received intrathecal therapy and six were irradiated (craniospinal, n = 3; local, n = 3). RESULTS: Median observation time was 8 (range, 1-93) months. Progression-free and overall survival rates at 1 and (2 years) were 35.2% ± 13.9% (26.4% ± 12.9%) and 38.5% ± 13.5% (23.1% ± 11.7%). Four patients (ATRT-SHH, n = 2; ATRT-MYC, n = 1; DNA methylation subgroup not available, n = 1) achieved complete remission (CR); two of them are alive in CR 69 and 72 months from diagnosis. One patient relapsed after CR and is alive with progressive disease (PD) and one died of the disease. Three patients (ATRT-MYC, n = 2; subgroup not available, n = 1) died after 7 to 22 months due to PD after having achieved a partial remission (n = 1) or stabilization (n = 2). Five patients (ATRT-MYC, n = 2; subgroup not available, n = 3) developed early PD and died. One patient (ATRT-MYC) died of intracerebral hemorrhage prior to response evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term survival is achievable in selected patients with spATRT using aggressive multimodality treatment. Larger case series and detailed molecular analyses are needed to understand differences between spATRT and their inracranial counterparts and the group of extradural malignant rhabdoid tumors.

3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(12)2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGGs) are facing a very dismal prognosis and representative pre-clinical models are needed for new treatment strategies. Here, we examined the relevance of collecting functional, genomic, and metabolomics data to validate patient-derived models in a hypoxic microenvironment. METHODS: From our biobank of pediatric brain tumor-derived models, we selected 11 pHGGs driven by the histone H3.3K28M mutation. We compared the features of four patient tumors to their paired cell lines and mouse xenografts using NGS (next generation sequencing), aCGH (array comparative genomic hybridization), RNA sequencing, WES (whole exome sequencing), immunocytochemistry, and HRMAS (high resolution magic angle spinning) spectroscopy. We developed a multicellular in vitro model of cell migration to mimic the brain hypoxic microenvironment. The live cell technology Incucyte© was used to assess drug responsiveness in variable oxygen conditions. RESULTS: The concurrent 2D and 3D cultures generated from the same tumor sample exhibited divergent but complementary features, recreating the patient intra-tumor complexity. Genomic and metabolomic data described the metabolic changes during pHGG progression and supported hypoxia as an important key to preserve the tumor metabolism in vitro and cell dissemination present in patients. The neurosphere features preserved tumor development and sensitivity to treatment. CONCLUSION: We proposed a novel multistep work for the development and validation of patient-derived models, considering the immature and differentiated content and the tumor microenvironment of pHGGs.

4.
J Neurooncol ; 145(1): 177-184, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522324

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a rare clinically, neuro-radiologically, and molecularly defined malignancy of the brainstem with a median overall survival of approximately 11 months. Our aim is to evaluate the current tendency for its treatment in Europe in order to develop (inter)national consensus guidelines. METHODS: Healthcare professionals specialized in DIPG were asked to fill in an online survey with questions regarding usual treatment strategies at diagnosis and at disease progression in their countries and/or their centers, respectively. RESULTS: Seventy-four healthcare professionals responded to the survey, of which 87.8% were pediatric oncologists. Only 13.5% of the respondents biopsy all of their patients, 41.9% biopsy their patients infrequently. More than half of the respondents (54.1%) treated their patients with radiotherapy only at diagnosis, whereas 44.6% preferred radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy. When the disease progresses, treatment strategies became even more diverse, and the tendency for no treatment increased from 1.4% at diagnosis to 77.0% after second progression. 36.5% of the healthcare professionals treat children younger than 3 years differently than older children at diagnosis. This percentage decreased, when the disease progresses. Most of the participants (51.4%) included less than 25% of their patients in clinical trials. CONCLUSION: This survey demonstrates a large heterogeneity of treatment regimens, especially at disease progression. We emphasize the need for international consensus guidelines for the treatment of DIPG, possible by more collaborative clinical trials.

5.
Orthop Traumatol Surg Res ; 105(6): 1181-1185, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign tumour whose progression involves the RANK/RANKL signalling pathway. Surgery is the reference standard treatment but carries risks that vary with the site of the tumour. Denosumab is a human monoclonal IgG2 antibody that targets the RANK/RANKL pathway and may therefore hold promise for inhibiting ABC progression. The objective of this study was to evaluate denosumab use in paediatric patients (younger than 18 years) with ABC and to describe the clinical and radiological outcomes, as well as the side effect profile. HYPOTHESIS: Denosumab is a viable option in children with ABC refractory to standard treatments. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical files of paediatric patients given denosumab to treat ABC in any of 32 centres affiliated with the French Paediatric Cancer Society (Société Française du Cancer de l'Enfant, SFCE) and French Sarcoma Group (Groupe Sarcome Français, GSF-GETO). We identified 5 patients treated between March 2015 and June 2018. Median age was 8 years (range, 7-17 years). Pain was a symptom in all 5 patients and neurological deficits were present in 3 patients. Surgery was performed in 4 patients, either before (n=3) or after (n=1) denosumab therapy; the remaining patient had no surgery. Denosumab was given as monthly injections in a dosage of 70mg/m2 for a median of 12 months (range, 4-23 months). The clinical outcomes and changes in computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging findings were evaluated. RESULTS: Abnormalities in calcium and phosphate levels secondary to the ABC occurred in 2 patients. At median of 24 months (range, 0-28 months) after denosumab initiation, all 5 patients were free of pain, and the neurological deficits in 3 patients had improved. Central remineralisation and cortical reconstitution were demonstrated consistently by the imaging studies. DISCUSSION: Denosumab is a viable treatment option in selected paediatric patients with inoperable ABC. The immediate adverse effect profile is acceptable. A larger study with a longer follow-up would be welcome to further assess the contribution of denosumab to the treatment of ABC. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.

6.
Metabolomics ; 15(5): 69, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037432

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The identification of frequent acquired mutations shows that patients with oligodendrogliomas have divergent biology with differing prognoses regardless of histological classification. A better understanding of molecular features as well as their metabolic pathways is essential. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the tumor metabolome, six genomic aberrations (isocitrate dehydrogenase1 [IDH1] mutation, 1p/19q codeletion, tumor protein p53 [TP53] mutation, O6-methylguanin-DNA methyltransferase [MGMT] promoter methylation, epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR] amplification, phosphate and tensin homolog [PTEN] methylation), and the patients' survival time. METHODS: We applied 1H high-resolution magic-angle spinning (HRMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to 72 resected oligodendrogliomas. RESULTS: The presence of IDH1, TP53, 1p19q codeletion, MGMT promoter methylation reduced the relative risk of death, whereas PTEN methylation and EGFR amplification were associated with poor prognosis. Increased concentration of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), myo-inositol and the glycerophosphocholine/phosphocholine (GPC/PC) ratio were good prognostic factors. Increasing the concentration of serine, glycine, glutamate and alanine led to an increased relative risk of death. CONCLUSION: HRMAS NMR spectroscopy provides accurate information on the metabolomics of oligodendrogliomas, making it possible to find new biomarkers indicative of survival. It enables rapid characterization of intact tissue and could be used as an intraoperative method.

7.
Oncotarget ; 9(56): 30883-30893, 2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30112115

RESUMO

Platinum is extensively used in the treatment of several childhood cancers. However, ototoxicity is one of the most notable adverse effects, especially in children. Several studies suggest that genetics may predict its occurrence. Here, polymorphisms associated with platinum-induced ototoxicity were selected from the literature and were investigated in a pediatric population treated with platinum-based agents. In this retrospective study, patients treated with cisplatin and/or carboplatin were screened. The patients with pre- and post-treatment audiogram (Brock criteria) available were included. We selected polymorphisms that have previously been associated with cisplatin ototoxicity with a minor allele frequency ≥30%. Deletion of GSTM1 and GSTT1, rs1799735 (GSTM3), rs1695 (GSTP1), rs4880 (SOD2), rs2228001 (XPC), rs1799793 (XPD) and rs4788863 (SLC16A5) were investigated. Data of one hundred and six children matching the eligible criteria were analyzed. Thirty-three patients (31%) developed ototoxicity (with a Brock grade ≥2). The probability of hearing loss increased significantly in patients carrying the null genotype for GSTT1 (P = 0.03), A/A genotype at rs1695 (P = 0.01), and C/C genotype at rs1799793 (P = 0.008). We also showed an association of the cumulative doses of carboplatin with cisplatin ototoxicity (P <0.05). To conclude, deletion of GSTT1, rs1695 and rs1799793 may constitute potential predictors of platinum-induced ototoxicity.

8.
Nat Med ; 24(8): 1204-1215, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967352

RESUMO

The failure to develop effective therapies for pediatric glioblastoma (pGBM) and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is in part due to their intrinsic heterogeneity. We aimed to quantitatively assess the extent to which this was present in these tumors through subclonal genomic analyses and to determine whether distinct tumor subpopulations may interact to promote tumorigenesis by generating subclonal patient-derived models in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of 142 sequenced tumors revealed multiple tumor subclones, spatially and temporally coexisting in a stable manner as observed by multiple sampling strategies. We isolated genotypically and phenotypically distinct subpopulations that we propose cooperate to enhance tumorigenicity and resistance to therapy. Inactivating mutations in the H4K20 histone methyltransferase KMT5B (SUV420H1), present in <1% of cells, abrogate DNA repair and confer increased invasion and migration on neighboring cells, in vitro and in vivo, through chemokine signaling and modulation of integrins. These data indicate that even rare tumor subpopulations may exert profound effects on tumorigenesis as a whole and may represent a new avenue for therapeutic development. Unraveling the mechanisms of subclonal diversity and communication in pGBM and DIPG will be an important step toward overcoming barriers to effective treatments.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/patologia , Glioblastoma/patologia , Animais , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/genética , Carcinogênese/patologia , Separação Celular , Criança , Células Clonais , Genótipo , Glioblastoma/genética , Humanos , Camundongos Nus , Fenótipo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
9.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 58(12): 1541-1549, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29791011

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggests that polymorphisms of genes coding for transporters or enzymes may partially explain the large between subject variability reported for methotrexate (MTX) pharmacokinetics (PK). This prospective study aimed to develop a population PK-pharmacogenetic model to evaluate the part of between-subject variability due to single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in transporters and enzyme genes implicated in MTX distribution and elimination. MTX concentrations and 54 SNPs (located in ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCC3, ABCC4, ABCG2, SLC19A1, SLCO1B1, and UGT1A1 genes) were analyzed in patients treated with MTX included in the OS2006/sarcoma-09 trial (a multicenter, open-label, phase III trial, ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT00470223). PK data were analyzed using the nonlinear mixed-effect modeling software program Monolix. The influence of each SNP was evaluated using a stepwise procedure under additive, recessive, or dominant genetic model. The likelihood ratio test was used to test the effect of each SNP on PK parameters. Overall, 187 patients with 7898 MTX blood concentrations were included in the PK-pharmacogenetic analysis. A 2-compartment model adequately described the data. Although high-dose MTX dosing recommendations in pediatric patients are currently based on body surface area, body weight was more predictive of clearance between-subject variability than body surface area. The most significant polymorphism associated with MTX clearance was rs13120400 (on the ABCG2 gene) under the recessive genetic model (P < .0001). GG genotype carriers for rs13120400 appeared to have a moderate decrease in MTX exposure compared to AA or GA carriers.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Metotrexato/farmacocinética , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/sangue , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Criança , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Metotrexato/sangue , Metotrexato/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
Eur J Cancer ; 88: 57-66, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29190507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In most countries, reference chemotherapy for osteosarcoma is MAP regimen (M = high-dose methotrexate, AP = doxorubicin-cisplatinum). In France, the standard preoperative chemotherapy for children/adolescents combines M and etoposide-ifosfamide (EI), based on the OS94-trial. We report the safety and efficacy results of patients ≤25 years treated with preoperative M-EI regimen enroled in the French OS2006-study, between 2007 and 2014. METHODS: Treatment comprised preoperative chemotherapy with the 7 M-courses and 2 EI-courses, then surgery and postoperative chemotherapy assigned by risk's groups: standard-risk (good histological response without metastases) received 12 M-courses, 3 EI-courses; high-risk (poor histologic response, initial metastases or unresectable primary) received 5 M-courses alternated with 5 AP-courses. 253 patients were randomised to receive (n = 128) or not (n = 125) zoledronate. RESULTS: 409/522 patients enroled in the OS2006 study who received preoperative M-EI were analysed. Median age was 14.3 years (4.7-24.5), with 55 patients aged 18-25 years. Primary tumour location was limb in 383 patients (94%) and 85 (21%) presented metastases. Median chemotherapy duration was 37.4 weeks. 381 (96%) patients underwent surgery, 258 patients (65%) had a good histologic response. 187/324 patients (58%) with localised disease did not receive doxorubicin nor cisplatinum. Toxicity was evaluated in the randomised study: most patients experienced ≥1 severe toxicity (grade IV haematological or grade III/IV extra-haematological). Median follow-up was 4.8 years, and 168 patients had events. Five-year event-free survival was 56% (95% CI, 51-62%) and overall survival 71% (66-76%). CONCLUSION: M-EI regimen/strategy was feasible for patient aged ≤25 years with survival rates are comparable to those obtained with MAP regimen.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Terapia Combinada , Difosfonatos/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Feminino , França , Humanos , Ifosfamida/administração & dosagem , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Osteossarcoma/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem , Ácido Zoledrônico
11.
Oncotarget ; 8(42): 71597-71617, 2017 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29069732

RESUMO

Pediatric high grade glioma (pHGGs), including sus-tentorial and diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas, are known to have a very dismal prognosis. For instance, even an increased knowledge on molecular biology driving this brain tumor entity, there is no treatment able to cure those patients. Therefore, we were focusing on a translational pathway able to increase the cell resistance to treatment and to reprogram metabolically tumor cells, which are, then, adapting easily to a hypoxic microenvironment. To establish, the crucial role of the hypoxic pathways in pHGGs, we, first, assessed their protein and transcriptomic deregulations in a pediatric cohort of pHGGs and in pHGG's cell lines, cultured in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Secondly, based on the concept of a bi-therapy targeting in pHGGs mTORC1 (rapamycin) and HIF-1α (irinotecan), we hypothesized that the balanced expressions between RAS/ERK, PI3K/AKT and HIF-1α/HIF-2α/MYC proteins or genes may provide a modulation of the cell response to this double targeting. Finally, we could evidence three protein, genomic and metabolomic profiles of response to rapamycin combined with irinotecan. The pattern of highly sensitive cells to mTOR/HIF-1α targeting was linked to a MYC/ERK/HIF-1α over-expression and the cell resistance to a major hyper-expression of HIF-2α.

12.
Cancer Cell ; 32(4): 520-537.e5, 2017 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28966033

RESUMO

We collated data from 157 unpublished cases of pediatric high-grade glioma and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma and 20 publicly available datasets in an integrated analysis of >1,000 cases. We identified co-segregating mutations in histone-mutant subgroups including loss of FBXW7 in H3.3G34R/V, TOP3A rearrangements in H3.3K27M, and BCOR mutations in H3.1K27M. Histone wild-type subgroups are refined by the presence of key oncogenic events or methylation profiles more closely resembling lower-grade tumors. Genomic aberrations increase with age, highlighting the infant population as biologically and clinically distinct. Uncommon pathway dysregulation is seen in small subsets of tumors, further defining the molecular diversity of the disease, opening up avenues for biological study and providing a basis for functionally defined future treatment stratification.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/genética , Glioma/genética , Histonas/genética , Mutação , Adolescente , Neoplasias do Tronco Encefálico/patologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo I/genética , Exoma , Proteínas F-Box/genética , Proteína 7 com Repetições F-Box-WD , Feminino , Dosagem de Genes , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Adulto Jovem
13.
Oncoimmunology ; 6(9): e1331193, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28932633

RESUMO

The French phase 3 trial (OS 2006) testing zoledronic acid, an osteoclast inhibitor, with chemotherapy and surgery did not improve the outcome of patients with osteosarcoma (OS). To understand this unexpected result, the presence of infiltrating immune cells was investigated in 124 pre-therapeutic biopsies of patients enrolled in the trial. The percentage of CD68/CD163 tumor-infiltrating macrophages (TAMs), CD8+ lymphocytes, osteoclasts, and the PD1/PDL-1 checkpoint were assessed by immunohistochemistry. M1/M2 macrophage polarization was characterized by pSTAT1/CMAF staining. The expression of these biomarkers was correlated with clinical outcome. No statistical correlations were found with response to chemotherapy. High CD163 levels (>50% of cells per core; 43.8% of patients) were associated with CMAF nuclear expression and significantly correlated with better overall survival (p = 0.0025) and longer metastasis progression-free survival (MPFS, p = 0.0315) independently of metastatic status (p = 0.002). Only a trend was observed for patients with high CD68-positive cells (p = 0.0582). CD8+ staining was positive in >50% of cases with a median staining of 1%. Lower CD8+ levels were associated with metastatic disease at diagnosis and the presence of CD8-positive cells significantly correlated with improved overall survival in zoledronate-treated patients (p = 0.0415). PD1/PDL-1 staining was negative in >80% of cases and was not correlated with outcome. Finally, CD163-positive TAMs and CD8 positive cells are crucial prognostic biomarkers in OS, whereas PD1/PDL-1 checkpoint plays a minor role. For the first time, we described a correlation between CD8 positive cells and survival in zoledronate-treated patients. The immunohistochemical analysis of the microenvironment in biopsies may represent a novel tool for therapeutic stratification.

14.
Cancer Biomark ; 20(4): 435-441, 2017 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28800313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pyrosequencing is recognized as a strong technique to analyze the MGMT status of glioblastoma patients. The most commonly used assay, quantifies the methylation levels of CpGs 74 to 78. A more recent CE-marked In Vitro Diagnostic Medical Device (CE-IVD) assay, Therascreen, analyzes CpGs 76-79. METHODS: We performed a comparison of these two assays to evaluate the potential impact of this shift in analyzed CpGs. Therascreen analysis was centrally performed for 102 glioblastoma patients, who were part of a prospective multicenter trial. RESULTS: A strong correlation was observed for the mean values of the 4 or 5 analyzed CpGs, with lower values recorded using the Therascreen assay, especially for values greater than 20%. When considering a classification in 3 categories (> 12%: methylated; ⩽ 8%: unmethylated; 9-12%: grey zone), 93% of patients were identically classified between the two assays. Using a binary classification, 95% and 97% of patients were identically classified with cut-offs of 8% and 12%, respectively. A strong prognostic significance was observed for both assays: median overall survival were 15.9 months and 34.9 months for respectively unmethylated and methylated patients with either test. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that these assays may be used interchangeably.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Metilação de DNA , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico , Glioblastoma/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Ilhas de CpG , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Glioblastoma/mortalidade , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Cancer ; 17(1): 419, 2017 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28619014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis is essential for the progression and metastatic spread of solid tumours. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been linked to poor survival among osteosarcoma patients but the clinical relevance of monitoring blood and urine angiogenic factors is uncertain. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic significance of blood VEGF and blood and urinary basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) levels in osteosarcoma patients, both at diagnosis and during treatment. METHODS: Patients with localised or metastatic osteosarcoma enrolled in OS2005 and OS2006 studies between 2005 and 2011 were prospectively included in this study. VEGF and bFGF levels in serum and plasma and bFGF levels in urine were measured by ELISA at diagnosis, before surgery, and at the end of treatment. Endpoints considered for the prognostic analysis were histological response, progression-free and overall survival. Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare the distribution of baseline biomarker values across the different subgroups, and paired sample Wilcoxon rank tests were used to analyze changes over time. Association between biomarker levels and outcomes were assessed in multivariable models (logistic regression for histologic response, and Cox models for survival). RESULTS: Samples were available at diagnosis for 269 patients (54% males; age ≤ 18 years: 73%; localised disease in 68%, doubtful lung lesions in 17%, and metastases in 15%). High serum VEGF and bFGF levels were observed in respectively 61% and 51% of patients. Serum and plasma VEGF values were not strongly correlated with one another (r = 0.53). High serum and plasma VEGF levels were significantly more frequent in patients with large tumours (≥10 cm; p = 0.003 and p = 0.02, respectively). VEGF levels fell significantly during pre-operative chemotherapy (p < 0.0001). No significant correlation was found between this variation and either the histological response, progression-free survival or overall survival (p = 0.26, p = 0.67, and p = 0.87, respectively). No significant association was found between blood or urinary bFGF levels and clinical characteristics, histological response, or survival. CONCLUSIONS: Levels of VEGF and bFGF angiogenic factors are high in most osteosarcoma patients, but have no significant impact on response to chemotherapy or outcome in this large prospective series. OS 2006 TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: clinicaltrials.gov NCT00470223; date of registration: May 3th 2007.


Assuntos
Indutores da Angiogênese/sangue , Indutores da Angiogênese/urina , Biomarcadores , Neoplasias Ósseas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Osteossarcoma/metabolismo , Osteossarcoma/mortalidade , Adolescente , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ósseas/terapia , Criança , Feminino , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/sangue , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Osteossarcoma/diagnóstico , Osteossarcoma/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Carga Tumoral , Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue , Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/urina , Adulto Jovem
16.
Oncotarget ; 7(38): 61916-61929, 2016 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27542245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of this prospective multicentric trial was to validate a technique that allowed for MGMT promoter methylation analysis in routine clinical practice. METHODS: The MGMT status of 139 glioblastoma patients, whom had received standard first line treatment, was determined using pyrosequencing (PSQ) and a semi-quantitative Methylation-specific PCR (sqMS-PCR) method, using both frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded FFPE samples. Eight participating centers locally performed the analysis, including external quality controls. RESULTS: There was a strong correlation between results from FFPE and frozen samples. With cut-offs of 12% and 13%, 98% and 91% of samples were identically classified with PSQ and sqMS-PCR respectively. In 12% of cases frozen samples were excluded because they had a low percentage of tumor cells. In 5-6% of cases the analysis was not feasible on FFPE samples. The optimized risk cut-offs were higher in both techniques when using FFPE samples, in comparison to frozen samples. For sqMS-PCR, we validated a cut-off between 13-15% to dichotomize patients. For PSQ, patients with a low level of methylation (<= 8%) had a median progression-free survival under 9 months, as compared with more than 15.5 months for those with a level above 12%. For intermediate values (9-12%), more discordant results between FFPE and frozen samples were observed and there was not a clear benefit of temozolomide treatment, which indicated a "grey zone". CONCLUSIONS: MGMT status can reliably be investigated in local laboratories. PSQ is the ideal choice as proven by strong interlaboratory reproducibility, along with threshold agreements across independent studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Glioblastoma/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Metilação de DNA , Dacarbazina/análogos & derivados , Dacarbazina/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Temozolomida , Adulto Jovem
17.
Lancet Oncol ; 17(8): 1070-1080, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27324280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Based on preclinical data for the antitumour effect of zoledronate in osteosarcoma, we assessed whether zoledronate combined with chemotherapy and surgery improved event-free survival in children and adults with osteosarcoma. METHODS: In this randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 3 trial (OS2006), patients aged between 5 years and 50 years with newly diagnosed high-grade osteosarcoma were randomly assigned to receive standard chemotherapy with or without ten zoledronate intravenous infusions (four preoperative and six postoperative). Adults older than 25 years received 4 mg zoledronate per infusion, patients aged 18-25 years received 0·05 mg/kg for the first two infusions and 4 mg for the remaining eight infusions, and younger patients received 0·05 mg/kg per infusion. Chemotherapy comprised high-dose methotrexate based chemotherapy in patients younger than 18 years, and doxorubicin, ifosfamide, and cisplatin in adults older than 25 years; patients aged 18-25 years were treated with either regime at the discretion of the treating centre. Balanced randomisation between the two groups was done centrally with online randomisation software, based on a minimisation algorithm taking into account centre, age, combined with chemotherapy regimen, and risk group (resectable primary and no metastasis vs other). Patients and investigators were not masked to treatment assignment, but the endpoint adjudication committee members who reviewed suspected early progressions were masked to group allocation. The primary endpoint was event-free survival, estimated from the randomisation to the time of first failure (local or distant relapse, progression, death) or to the last follow-up visit for the patients in first complete remission, analysed on a modified intention-to-treat population, which excluded patients found not to have a malignant tumour after central review. Three interim analyses were planned. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00470223. FINDINGS: Between April 23, 2007, and March 11, 2014, 318 patients, median age 15·5 years (range 5·8-50·9), were enrolled from 40 French centres; of whom 158 were assigned to the control group (chemotherapy alone) and 160 to the zoledronate group, including 55 (17%) patients with definite metastases. The trial was stopped for futility after the second interim analysis. With a median follow-up of 3·9 years (IQR 2·7-5·1), 125 events occurred (55 in the control group and 70 in the with zoledronate group). Event-free survival at 3 years for all 315 randomly assigned patients was 60·3% (95% CI 64·5-65·9); 3-year event-free survival was 63·4% (55·2-70·9) for the control group and 57·1% (48·8-65·0) for the zoledronate group. The risk of failure was not reduced and was even marginally higher in the zoledronate group than in the control group (hazard ratio [HR] 1·36 [95% CI 0·95-1·96]; p=0·094). No major increase in severe toxic effects of grade 3 or higher associated with zoledronate, barring expected hypocalcaemia (45 [29%] of 153 participants in the zoledronate group vs ten [6%] of 155 participants in the control group; p<0·0001) and hypophosphataemia (61 [40%] of 151 in the zoledronate group vs 26 [17%] of 156 in the control group; p<0·0001). No significant difference in orthopaedic complications was noted between the two groups (27 in the control group and 29 in the zoledronate group). Two treatment-related deaths were reported (one from cardiomyopathy in the control group and one from multiorgan failure in the zoledronate group before the first zoledronate infusion). INTERPRETATION: From the results observed in this study, we do not recommend zoledronate in osteosarcoma patients. Further biological studies are required to understand the discordance between the results of OS2006 trial and preclinical data. FUNDING: French National Cancer Institute (INCa), Novartis, Chugai, Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Fédération Enfants et Santé, Société Française des Cancers et Leucémies de l'Enfant.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Osteossarcoma/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Terapia Combinada , Difosfonatos/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Ifosfamida/administração & dosagem , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Osteossarcoma/secundário , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem , Ácido Zoledrônico
18.
Fam Cancer ; 15(4): 571-7, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27017609

RESUMO

The constitutional MisMatch Repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome is one of the inherited cancer predisposition syndromes. More than two-third patients belonging to a CMMRD family are diagnosed mainly in the first decade with brain cancers and/or hematological malignancies. This syndrome is due to bi-allelic germline mutations in genes of the MMR pathway (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2). Our family report begins with the index case presenting initially with a medulloblastoma, which was even the two relapses in complete remission, when she was diagnosed for an AML. She died after bone marrow transplantation from toxicity. The family history was progressively established when her uncle was diagnosed for a colonic cancer and a cousin for a brain tumor. Surprisingly, her father had an atypical sarcoma but her brother also presented a lymphoma followed by a gliomatosis cerebri. A new MLH1 bi-allelic mutation was identified in this family. More than the diagnostic difficulties, this family report illustrates the complexity of the microsatellite instability detection in CMMRD patients, which has to be discussed further to a more accurate diagnosis in the pediatric setting, and address the question of the proper diagnostic tool to use in such genetic background with hypermutated tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/etiologia , Criança , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/etiologia , Linhagem
19.
BMC Cancer ; 15: 854, 2015 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26541413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to explore the off-label use of targeted therapies (TTs) for patients with osteosarcoma registered within the French Sarcoma Group--Bone Tumor Study Group (GSF-GETO) national registry. METHODS: All patients with an osteosarcoma, registered between January 1, 2009 and July 15, 2013 were analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients with refractory relapsed osteosarcomas received 33 treatment lines of TTs. The median age at the beginning of treatment was 19 years (range 9-72). The median number of previous lines of chemotherapy was 3 (range 1-8). Before inclusion, 3 patients were in second complete remission, 26 were in progression for metastatic relapse. Twenty-three patients received sirolimus (in combination with cyclophosphamide for 18); 5, sunitinib; 4, sorafenib; and one, pazopanib. Stable disease was observed for 45.5% of patients (95% Confidence Interval (CI) [20-52.8]). The median Progression-Free Survival (PFS) was 3 months (95% CI [2-5.4]) for patients treated by sirolimus and 1.8 months (95% CI [1.3-2.8]) for patients receiving multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors; 6-month PFS 15%. The median Overall Survival (OS) was 6.8 months (95% CI [4.7-12.1]), and one-year OS was 24%. In a multivariate analysis, PFS was superior for patients receiving sirolimus compared to other TTs (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 2.7, 95% CI [1.05-7.1]). No toxic death was reported. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities were observed in 27 and 6% of cases respectively. CONCLUSION: Off-label TTs, especially sirolimus, reported benefit in the treatment of refractory osteosarcomas with an acceptable toxicity profile, including in pediatric population.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Uso Off-Label , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , França , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Gradação de Tumores , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Osteossarcoma/mortalidade , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Sistema de Registros , Retratamento , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Gastroenterology ; 149(4): 1017-29.e3, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26116798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with bi-allelic germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, or PMS2) develop a rare but severe variant of Lynch syndrome called constitutional MMR deficiency (CMMRD). This syndrome is characterized by early-onset colorectal cancers, lymphomas or leukemias, and brain tumors. There is no satisfactory method for diagnosis of CMMRD because screens for mutations in MMR genes are noninformative for 30% of patients. MMR-deficient cancer cells are resistant to genotoxic agents and have microsatellite instability (MSI), due to accumulation of errors in repetitive DNA sequences. We investigated whether these features could be used to identify patients with CMMRD. METHODS: We examined MSI by PCR analysis and tolerance to methylating or thiopurine agents (functional characteristics of MMR-deficient tumor cells) in lymphoblastoid cells (LCs) from 3 patients with CMMRD and 5 individuals with MMR-proficient LCs (controls). Using these assays, we defined experimental parameters that allowed discrimination of a series of 14 patients with CMMRD from 52 controls (training set). We then used the same parameters to assess 23 patients with clinical but not genetic features of CMMRD. RESULTS: In the training set, we identified parameters, based on MSI and LC tolerance to methylation, that detected patients with CMMRD vs controls with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Among 23 patients suspected of having CMMRD, 6 had MSI and LC tolerance to methylation (CMMRD highly probable), 15 had neither MSI nor LC tolerance to methylation (unlikely to have CMMRD), and 2 were considered doubtful for CMMRD based on having only 1 of the 2 features. CONCLUSION: The presence of MSI and tolerance to methylation in LCs identified patients with CMMRD with 100% sensitivity and specificity. These features could be used in diagnosis of patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/diagnóstico , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Células CACO-2 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Células HCT116 , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Metilação , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/metabolismo , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/patologia , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transfecção , Adulto Jovem
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