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1.
J Affect Disord ; 260: 722-727, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recent evidence indicates that the intake of atypical antipsychotics (AAP) is associated with gray matter abnormalities in patients with psychiatric disorders. We explored if patients with bipolar disorder (BD) who are medicated with AAP exhibit total gray matter volume (TGV) reduction compared to BD individuals not medicated with AAP and healthy controls (HC). METHODS: In a cross-sectional design, 124 individuals with BD and 86 HC underwent 3T-MRI of the brain and clinical assessment as part of our BIPFAT-study. The TGV was estimated using Freesurfer. We used univariate covariance analysis (ANCOVA) to test for normalized TGV differences and controlled for covariates. RESULTS: ANCOVA results indicated that 75 BD individuals taking AAP had significantly reduced normalized TGV as compared to 49 BD not taking AAP (F = 9.995, p = .002., Eta = 0.084) and 86 HC (F = 7.577, p = .007, Eta = 0.046). LIMITATIONS: Our cross-sectional results are not suited to draw conclusions about causality. We have no clear information on treatment time and baseline volumes before drug treatment in the studied subjects. We cannot exclude that patients received different psychopharmacologic medications prior to the study point. We did not included dosages into the calculation. Many BD individuals received combinations of psychopharmacotherapy across drug classes. We did not have records displaying quantitative alcohol consumption and drug abuse in our sample. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide further evidence for the impact of AAP on brain structure in BD. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the causal directions of the proposed relationships.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16221, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700126

RESUMO

We aimed to assess differences in resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between distinct morphological MRI-phenotypes in multiple sclerosis (MS). Out of 180 MS patients, we identified those with high T2-hyperintense lesion load (T2-LL) and high normalized brain volume (NBV; a predominately white matter damage group, WMD; N = 37) and patients with low T2-LL and low NBV (N = 37; a predominately grey matter damage group; GMD). Independent component analysis of resting-state fMRI was used to test for differences in the sensorimotor network (SMN) between MS MRI-phenotypes and compared to 37 age-matched healthy controls (HC). The two MS groups did not differ regarding EDSS scores, disease duration and distribution of clinical phenotypes. WMD compared to GMD patients showed increased FC in all sub-units of the SMN (sex- and age-corrected). WMD patients had increased FC compared to HC and GMD patients in the central SMN (leg area). Only in the WMD group, higher EDSS scores and T2-LL correlated with decreased connectivity in SMN sub-units. MS patients with distinct morphological MRI-phenotypes also differ in brain function. The amount of focal white matter pathology but not global brain atrophy affects connectivity in the central SMN (leg area) of the SMN, consistent with the notion of a disconnection syndrome.

3.
Neuroimage Clin ; 24: 102011, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734524

RESUMO

Machine learning classification is an attractive approach to automatically differentiate patients from healthy subjects, and to predict future disease outcomes. A clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) is often the first presentation of multiple sclerosis (MS), but it is difficult at onset to predict who will have a second relapse and hence convert to clinically definite MS. In this study, we thus aimed to distinguish CIS converters from non-converters at onset of a CIS, using recursive feature elimination and weight averaging with support vector machines. We also sought to assess the influence of cohort size and cross-validation methods on the accuracy estimate of the classification. We retrospectively collected 400 patients with CIS from six European MAGNIMS MS centres. Patients underwent brain MRI at onset of a CIS according to local standard-of-care protocols. The diagnosis of clinically definite MS at one-year follow-up was the standard against which the accuracy of the model was tested. For each patient, we derived MRI-based features, such as grey matter probability, white matter lesion load, cortical thickness, and volume of specific cortical and white matter regions. Features with little contribution to the classification model were removed iteratively through an interleaved sample bootstrapping and feature averaging approach. Classification of CIS outcome at one-year follow-up was performed with 2-fold, 5-fold, 10-fold and leave-one-out cross-validation for each centre cohort independently and in all patients together. The estimated classification accuracy across centres ranged from 64.9% to 88.1% using 2-fold cross-validation and from 73% to 92.9% using leave-one-out cross-validation. The classification accuracy estimate was higher in single-centre, smaller data sets than in combinations of data sets, being the lowest when all patients were merged together. Regional MRI features such as WM lesions, grey matter probability in the thalamus and the precuneus or cortical thickness in the cuneus and inferior temporal gyrus predicted the occurrence of a second relapse in patients at onset of a CIS using support vector machines. The increased accuracy estimate of the classification achieved with smaller and single-centre samples may indicate a model bias (overfitting) when data points were limited, but also more homogeneous. We provide an overview of classifier performance from a range of cross-validation schemes to give insight into the variability across schemes. The proposed recursive feature elimination approach with weight averaging can be used both in single- and multi-centre data sets in order to bridge the gap between group-level comparisons and making predictions for individual patients.

4.
Transl Stroke Res ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705427

RESUMO

Morphologic evolution of recent small subcortical infarcts (RSSI) ranges from lesion disappearance to lacune formation and the reasons for this variability are still poorly understood. We hypothesized that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and blood-brain-barrier (BBB) abnormalities early on can predict tissue damage 1 year after an RSSI. We studied prospectively recruited patients with a symptomatic MRI-defined RSSI who underwent baseline and two pre-specified MRI examinations at 1-3-month and 1-year post-stroke. We defined the extent of long-term tissue destruction, termed cavitation index, as the ratio of the 1-year T1-weighted cavity volume to the baseline RSSI volume on FLAIR. We calculated fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity (MD) of the RSSI and normal-appearing white matter, and BBB leakage in different tissues on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Amongst 60 patients, at 1-year post-stroke, 44 patients showed some degree of RSSI cavitation on FLAIR, increasing to 50 on T2- and 56 on T1-weighted high-resolution scans, with a median cavitation index of 7% (range, 1-36%). Demographic, clinical, and cerebral small vessel disease features were not associated with the cavitation index. While lower baseline MD of the RSSI (rs = - 0.371; p = 0.004) and more contrast leakage into CSF (rs = 0.347; p = 0.007) were associated with the cavitation index in univariable analysis, only BBB leakage in CSF remained independently associated with cavitation (beta = 0.315, p = 0.046). Increased BBB leakage into CSF may indicate worse endothelial dysfunction and increased risk of tissue destruction post RSSI. Although cavitation was common, it only affected a small proportion of the original RSSI.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15410, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659218

RESUMO

Interactions between cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) and renal dysfunction (RD) have been reported, but previous studies were mostly retrospective and limited to measurements of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). In this prospective, longitudinal study of patients with CSVD-related recent small subcortical infarcts (RSSI), we aimed at a comprehensive exploration of markers of early RD and their association with microvascular brain damage. We investigated 101 stroke patients (mean age: 60.2 ± 10.7 years) with an MRI-confirmed RSSI who underwent follow-up brain MRI 15 months post-stroke. Besides serum creatinine and eGFR, we assessed urinary Albumin-Creatinine Ratio and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23). RD was classified according to recent Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria. We identified 24 patients with RD, only six patients revealed an eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m². RSSI patients with RD more often had severe white matter hyperintensities (WMH, 58% vs. 36%, p = 0.04). CSVD progression was not dependent on RD. However, patients in the highest FGF-23 quartile more frequently had new microangiopathic lesions on follow-up MRI (50% vs. 21%, p = 0.03). Early RD was found in a quarter of RSSI patients and associated with WMH severity, but not CSVD progression. High FGF-23 indicates an increased risk for ongoing microvascular brain damage, warranting further studies.

6.
Wien Med Wochenschr ; 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535230

RESUMO

Modifiable risk factors such as hypertension, obesity or smoking have been reported to explain up to 90% of risk for ischemic stroke. Treatment of these risk factors is known to decrease the risk of recurrent stroke events. We performed a computer-based literature research from June to August 2018 using the electronic database PubMed to investigate the effect of smartphone apps on risk factor control for secondary stroke prevention as well as feasibility and patient satisfaction with mobile health. Studies evaluating interventions by smartphone or tablet devices in stroke patients and reported results regarding risk factors, feasibility or patient satisfaction were considered (n = 10). Identified data showed significant improvement regarding the control of risk factors hypertension and diabetes as well as significant improvements of the lifestyle risk factors physical inactivity and obesity. Stroke patients perceive smartphone apps mostly as useful and are open-minded regarding mHealth, provided that these complement rather than replace personal medical care.

7.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 130(11): 2124-2131, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546180

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of EEG-based neurofeedback training, in which one can learn to self-regulate one's own brain activity, on cognitive function in patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). METHODS: Fourteen pwMS performed ten neurofeedback training sessions within 3-4 weeks at home using a tele-rehabilitation system. The aim of the neurofeedback training was to increase voluntarily the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR, 12-15 Hz) in the EEG over central brain areas by receiving visual real-time feedback thereof. Cognitive function was assessed before and after all neurofeedback training sessions using a comprehensive standardized neuropsychological test battery. RESULTS: Half of the pwMS (N = 7) showed cognitive improvements in long-term memory and executive functions after neurofeedback training. These patients successfully learned to self-regulate their own brain activity by means of neurofeedback training. The other half of pwMS (N = 7) did neither show any cognitive changes when comparing the pre- and post-assessment nor were they able to modulate their own brain activity in the desired direction during neurofeedback training. CONCLUSIONS: Data from this interventional study provide first preliminary evidence that successful self-regulation of one's own brain activity may be associated with cognitive improvements in pwMS. SIGNIFICANCE: These promising results should stimulate further studies. Neurofeedback might be a promising and alternative tool for future cognitive rehabilitation.

8.
J Neurol ; 266(11): 2678, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531765

RESUMO

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. First and last names of the authors were interchanged. The correct author names are given below.

10.
JAMA Neurol ; 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424490

RESUMO

Importance: The central vein sign has been proposed as a specific imaging biomarker for distinguishing between multiple sclerosis (MS) and not MS, mainly based on findings from ultrahigh-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. The diagnostic value of the central vein sign in a multicenter setting with a variety of clinical 3 tesla (T) MRI protocols, however, remains unknown. Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of various central vein sign lesion criteria for differentiating MS from non-MS conditions using 3T brain MRI with various commonly used pulse sequences. Design, Setting, and Participants: This large multicenter, cross-sectional study enrolled participants (n = 648) of ongoing observational studies and patients included in neuroimaging research databases of 8 neuroimaging centers in Europe. Patient enrollment and MRI data collection were performed between January 1, 2010, and November 30, 2016. Data analysis was conducted between January 1, 2016, and April 30, 2018. Investigators were blinded to participant diagnosis by a novel blinding procedure. Main Outcomes and Measures: Occurrence of central vein sign was detected on 3T T2*-weighted or susceptibility-weighted imaging. Sensitivity and specificity were assessed for these MRI sequences and for different central vein sign lesion criteria, which were defined by the proportion of lesions with central vein sign or by absolute numbers of lesions with central vein sign. Results: A total of 606 participants were included in the study after exclusion of 42 participants. Among the 606 participants, 413 (68.2%) were women. Patients with clinically isolated syndrome and relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) included 235 women (66.6%) and had a median (range) age of 37 (14.7-61.4) years, a median (range) disease duration of 2 (0-33) years, and a median (range) Expanded Disability Status Scale score of 1.5 (0-6.5). Patients without MS included 178 women (70.4%) and had a median (range) age of 54 (18-83) years. A total of 4447 lesions were analyzed in a total of 487 patients: 690 lesions in 98 participants with clinically isolated syndrome, 2815 lesions in 225 participants with RRMS, 54 lesions in 13 participants with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, 54 lesions in 14 participants with systemic lupus erythematosus, 121 lesions in 29 participants with migraine or cluster headache, 240 lesions in 20 participants with diabetes, and 473 lesions in 88 participants with other types of small-vessel disease. The sensitivity was 68.1% and specificity was 82.9% for distinguishing MS from not MS using a 35% central vein sign proportion threshold. The 3 central vein sign lesion criteria had a sensitivity of 61.9% and specificity of 89.0%. Sensitivity was higher when an optimized T2*-weighted sequence was used. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, use of the central vein sign at 3T MRI yielded a high specificity and a moderate sensitivity in differentiating MS from not MS; international, multicenter studies may be needed to ascertain whether the central vein sign-based criteria can accurately detect MS.

11.
J Neurol ; 266(11): 2672-2677, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312958

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy of natalizumab (NTZ) and fingolimod (FTY) in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) in sequential use in common and as a function of transition periods in a nationwide observational cohort using prospectively collected data from a real-life setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 195 patients from the Austrian MS Treatment Registry, who had started treatment with NTZ at any time since 2006 and stayed on NTZ for at least 24 months, switched afterwards within 1 year to FTY and stayed on FTY for at least another 12 months. Transition periods between NTZ and FTY were grouped into three different intervals: < 3 months (135 patients), 3-6 months (44 patients), and 6-12 months (16 patients). RESULTS: Estimated mean annualized relapse rates (ARR) over a mean treatment period of 44 months were 0.26 for NTZ and 0.32 for FTY (p = 0.381) over 46 months. In the treatment gap, differences were found concerning the relapse probability, seven (5.2%) patients in the < 3 months group, six (13.6%) in thef 3-6 months group, and seven (43.8%) in the 6-12 months group (p < 0.001). After this treatment gap, no significant differences concerning ARR, EDSS change, EDSS progression, and regression were observed regardless the proceeding transition periods. Significantly higher efficacy of NTZ compared to FTY in sequential use was found regarding EDSS change, EDSS progression, and EDSS regression sustained for 12 and 24 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: First, we here show an increased short-time risk for relapses during the treatment gap between NTZ and FTY therapy, dependent on the length of transition time. Second, the disease course after switching to FTY remained stable in the long-term evaluation. Therefore, switching from NTZ to FTY in a real-world setting appears efficacious and safe, but this data advocate for a short switching gap of 3 months or less.

12.
Neurobiol Aging ; 81: 30-37, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207467

RESUMO

We provide here normative values of yearly percentage brain volume change (PBVC/y) as obtained with Structural Imaging Evaluation, using Normalization, of Atrophy, a widely used open-source software, developing a PBVC/y calculator for assessing the deviation from the expected PBVC/y in patients with neurological disorders. We assessed multicenter (34 centers, 11 acquisition protocols) magnetic resonance imaging data of 720 healthy participants covering the whole adult lifespan (16-90 years). Data of 421 participants with a follow-up > 6 months were used to obtain the normative values for PBVC/y and data of 392 participants with a follow-up <1 month were selected to assess the intrasubject variability of the brain volume measurement. A mixed model evaluated PBVC/y dependence on age, sex, and magnetic resonance imaging parameters (scan vendor and magnetic field strength). PBVC/y was associated with age (p < 0.001), with 60- to 70-year-old participants showing twice more volume decrease than participants aged 30-40 years. PBVC/y was also associated with magnetic field strength, with higher decreases when measured by 1.5T than 3T scanners (p < 0.001). The variability of PBVC/y normative percentiles was narrower as the interscan interval was longer (e.g., 80th normative percentile was 50% smaller for participants with 2-year than with 1-year follow-up). The use of these normative data, eased by the freely available calculator, might help in better discriminating pathological from physiological conditions in the clinical setting.

13.
Stroke ; 50(8): 2223-2226, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216968

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Occult atrial fibrillation (AF) causes a relevant proportion of initially cryptogenic stroke (CS), but prolonged rhythm monitoring is difficult to apply to all such patients. We hypothesized that blood biomarkers indicating heart failure (NT-proBNP [N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide]) and hypercoagulability (D-dimer, AT-III [antithrombin-III]) were associated with AF-related stroke and could serve to predict the likelihood of AF detection in CS patients early on. Methods- Over a 1-year period, we prospectively applied a defined etiologic work-up to all ischemic stroke patients admitted to our stroke unit. If no clear stroke cause was detected (CS), patients underwent extended in-hospital cardiac rhythm monitoring (≥72 hours). Blood to determine biomarker levels was drawn within 24 hours after admission. Results- Of 429 patients, 103 had AF-related stroke. Compared with noncardiac stroke patients (n=171), they had higher NT-proBNP (1867 versus 263 pg/ml) and D-dimer levels (1.1 versus 0.6 µg/ml), and lower AT-III concentration (89% versus 94%). NT-proBNP ≥505 pg/ml distinguished AF-related from noncardiac stroke with a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 72%. D-dimer and AT-III cutoffs had lower sensitivities (61% and 53%) and specificities (58% and 69%) for AF-related stroke. Of all initially 143 CS patients, 14 were diagnosed with AF during in-hospital monitoring. The preidentified NT-proBNP cutoff ≥505 pg/ml correctly predicted AF in 12 of them (86%, negative predictive value: 98%), while D-dimer and AT-III cutoffs were noncontributory. Conclusions- This study supports the association of NT-proBNP and to a lesser extent of hypercoagulation markers with AF-related stroke. NT-proBNP seems helpful in selecting CS patients for immediate extended cardiac rhythm monitoring to detect occult AF whereby levels <505 pg/ml seem to have a high-negative predictive value.

14.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 140(1): 32-39, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958901

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy, frequencies and reasons for treatment interruption of fingolimod, dimethyl fumarate (DMF) or teriflunomide in a nationwide observational cohort using prospectively collected data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two cohorts of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) starting treatment with fingolimod, dimethyl fumarate or teriflunomide documented in the Austrian MS Treatment Registry (AMSTR) since 2014 and either staying on therapy for at least 12 months (12m cohort) or having at least one follow-up visit (total cohort). The 12m cohort included 664 RRMS patients: 315 in the fingolimod, 232 in the DMF and 117 in the teriflunomide group. Multinomial propensity scores were used for inverse probability weighting to correct for the bias of this non-randomised registry study. RESULTS: Estimated mean annualized relapse rates (ARR) over 12 months were 0.21 for fingolimod, 0.20 for DMF and 0.19 for teriflunomide treatment, causing an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 1.01 for fingolimod vs DMF (P = 0.96) and 0.92 for teriflunomide vs DMF (P = 0.84). No differences were found regarding the probability for experiencing a relapse, EDSS change, EDSS progression and EDSS regression, except regarding less sustained EDSS progression for 12 weeks concerning DMF vs fingolimod (P = 0.02). The hazard ratio for treatment interruption comparing fingolimod vs DMF was 1.03 (P = 0.86) and 1.07 comparing teriflunomide vs DMF (P = 0.77). CONCLUSIONS: In the AMSTR, there was no difference concerning ARR, probability for a relapse, EDSS change, treatment interruption, EDSS progression or regression between oral DMTs, except regarding less sustained EDSS progression for 12 weeks concerning DMF vs fingolimod.


Assuntos
Crotonatos/uso terapêutico , Fumarato de Dimetilo/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/tratamento farmacológico , Toluidinas/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Áustria , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros
15.
Mult Scler ; : 1352458519837707, 2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:: In multiple sclerosis (MS), abnormalities of brain network dynamics and their relevance for cognitive impairment have never been investigated. OBJECTIVES:: The aim of this study was to assess the dynamic resting state (RS) functional connectivity (FC) on 62 relapsing-remitting MS patients and 65 sex-matched healthy controls enrolled at 7 European sites. METHODS:: MS patients underwent clinical and cognitive evaluation. Between-group network FC differences were evaluated using a dynamic approach (based on sliding-window correlation analysis) and grouping correlation matrices into recurrent FC states. RESULTS:: Dynamic FC analysis revealed, in healthy controls and MS patients, three recurrent FC states: two characterized by strong intra- and inter-network connectivity and one characterized by weak inter-network connectivity (State 3). A total of 23 MS patients were cognitively impaired (CI). Compared to cognitively preserved (CP), CI-MS patients had reduced RS-FC between subcortical and default-mode networks in the low-connectivity State 3 and lower dwell time (i.e. time spent in a given state) in the high-connectivity State 2. CI-MS patients also exhibited a lower number and a less frequent switching between meta-states, as well as a smaller distance traveled through connectivity states. CONCLUSION:: Time-varying RS-FC was markedly less dynamic in CI- versus CP-MS patients, suggesting that slow inter-network connectivity contributes to cognitive dysfunction in MS.

16.
JAMA Neurol ; 76(4): 480-491, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726504

RESUMO

Importance: Genetic studies of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) have focused mainly on white participants, but genetic risk may vary or could be concealed by differing nongenetic coexposures in nonwhite populations. Transethnic analysis of risk may clarify the role of genetics in ICH risk across populations. Objective: To evaluate associations between established differences in ICH risk by race/ethnicity and the variability in the risks of apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 alleles, the most potent genetic risk factor for ICH. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control study of primary ICH meta-analyzed the association of APOE allele status on ICH risk, applying a 2-stage clustering approach based on race/ethnicity and stratified by a contributing study. A propensity score analysis was used to model the association of APOE with the burden of hypertension across race/ethnic groups. Primary ICH cases and controls were collected from 3 hospital- and population-based studies in the United States and 8 in European sites in the International Stroke Genetic Consortium. Participants were enrolled from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2017. Participants with secondary causes of ICH were excluded from enrollment. Controls were regionally matched within each participating study. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical variables were systematically obtained from structured interviews within each site. APOE genotype was centrally determined for all studies. Results: In total, 13 124 participants (7153 [54.5%] male with a median [interquartile range] age of 66 [56-76] years) were included. In white participants, APOE ε2 (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% CI, 1.24-1.80; P < .001) and APOE ε4 (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.23-1.85; P < .001) were associated with lobar ICH risk; however, within self-identified Hispanic and black participants, no associations were found. After propensity score matching for hypertension burden, APOE ε4 was associated with lobar ICH risk among Hispanic (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.03-1.28; P = .01) but not in black (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.98-1.07; P = .25) participants. APOE ε2 and ε4 did not show an association with nonlobar ICH risk in any race/ethnicity. Conclusions and Relevance: APOE ε4 and ε2 alleles appear to affect lobar ICH risk variably by race/ethnicity, associations that are confirmed in white individuals but can be shown in Hispanic individuals only when the excess burden of hypertension is propensity score-matched; further studies are needed to explore the interactions between APOE alleles and environmental exposures that vary by race/ethnicity in representative populations at risk for ICH.

17.
Neuropsychology ; 33(3): 379-390, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702305

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive dysfunction is frequent in multiple sclerosis (MS), and its relationship with cognitive reserve (CR) has been investigated in several studies with conflicting results. In this meta-analysis, we here sought to determine the relationship between CR and cognition in MS patients and to ascertain whether demographic or clinical variables could moderate the above-mentioned relationship. METHOD: We searched three electronic databases for studies assessing the relationship between CR and performance in 6 cognitive domains or processes (verbal and spatial memory, attention, processing speed, verbal fluency, inhibitory control). The initial literature search yielded 1,452 articles; 245 full-texts were evaluated, and 18 studies were entered into the meta-analysis. Mean weighted effect sizes (ES) were calculated using Hedges' g. Sensitivity analyses and examinations of funnel plots served to reduce heterogeneity. RESULTS: A total number of 1,903 MS patients were included, analyzing each aspect of cognition separately. ES for the relationship between CR and cognition were significant (except for verbal fluency) and moderate. After applying specific techniques to reduce heterogeneity, the verbal fluency ES became significant. Metaregression analysis revealed that older age and female sex increased the ES for attention and verbal memory outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of CR were associated with better cognitive task performance in verbal and spatial memory, attention, processing speed, verbal fluency, and inhibitory control. The results indirectly emphasize the value of early cognitive assessments of cognitive status and CR levels to enable timely initiation of cognitive interventions to increase CR in MS in patients with low levels of CR. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Reserva Cognitiva/fisiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Humanos , Memória/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos
18.
Lancet Neurol ; 18(2): 198-210, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663609

RESUMO

Pathological evaluation is the gold standard for identifying processes related to multiple sclerosis that explain disease manifestations, and for guiding the development of new treatments. However, there are limitations to the techniques used, including the small number of donors available, samples often representing uncommon cases, and impossibility of follow-up. Correlative studies have demonstrated that MRI is sensitive to the different pathological substrates of multiple sclerosis (inflammation, demyelination, and neuro-axonal loss). The role of MRI in evaluating other pathological processes, such as leptomeningeal involvement, central vein and rim of lesions, microstructural abnormalities, iron accumulation, and recovery mechanisms, has been investigated. Although techniques used for quantifying pathological processes in different regions of the CNS have advanced diagnosis and monitoring of disease course and treatment of multiple sclerosis, new perspectives and questions have emerged, including how different pathological processes interact over the disease course and when remyelination might occur. Addressing these questions will require longitudinal studies using MRI in large cohorts of patients with different phenotypes.

19.
Stroke ; 50(2): 349-356, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580732

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Several risk factors are known to increase mid- and long-term mortality of ischemic stroke patients. Information on predictors of early stroke mortality is scarce but often requested in clinical practice. We therefore aimed to develop a rapidly applicable tool for predicting early mortality at the stroke unit. Methods- We used data from the nationwide Austrian Stroke Unit Registry and multivariate regularized logistic regression analysis to identify demographic and clinical variables associated with early (≤7 days poststroke) mortality of patients admitted with ischemic stroke. These variables were then used to develop the Predicting Early Mortality of Ischemic Stroke score that was validated both by bootstrapping and temporal validation. Results- In total, 77 653 ischemic stroke patients were included in the analysis (median age: 74 years, 47% women). The mortality rate at the stroke unit was 2% and median stay of deceased patients was 3 days. Age, stroke severity measured by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, prestroke functional disability (modified Rankin Scale >0), preexisting heart disease, diabetes mellitus, posterior circulation stroke syndrome, and nonlacunar stroke cause were associated with mortality and served to build the Predicting Early Mortality of Ischemic Stroke score ranging from 0 to 12 points. The area under the curve of the score was 0.879 (95% CI, 0.871-0.886) in the derivation cohort and 0.884 (95% CI, 0.863-0.905) in the validation sample. Patients with a score ≥10 had a 35% (95% CI, 28%-43%) risk to die within the first days at the stroke unit. Conclusions- We developed a simple score to estimate early mortality of ischemic stroke patients treated at a stroke unit. This score could help clinicians in short-term prognostication for management decisions and counseling.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Áustria/epidemiologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
Neurology ; 92(4): 180-192, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587516

RESUMO

Over the last few decades, the improved diagnostic criteria, the wide use of MRI, and the growing availability of effective pharmacologic treatments have led to substantial advances in the management of multiple sclerosis (MS). The importance of early diagnosis and treatment is now well-established, but there is still no consensus on how to define and monitor response to MS treatments. In particular, the clinical relevance of the detection of minimal MRI activity is controversial and recommendations on how to define and monitor treatment response are warranted. An expert panel of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging in MS Study Group analyzed and discussed published studies on treatment response in MS. The evolving concept of no evidence of disease activity and its effect on predicting long-term prognosis was examined, including the option of defining a more realistic target for daily clinical practice: minimal evidence of disease activity. Advantages and disadvantages associated with the use of MRI activity alone and quantitative scoring systems combining on-treatment clinical relapses and MRI active lesions to detect treatment response in the real-world setting were also discussed. While most published studies on this topic involved patients treated with interferon-ß, special attention was given to more recent studies providing evidence based on treatment with other and more efficacious oral and injectable drugs. Finally, the panel identified future directions to pursue in this research field.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Humanos
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