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1.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 170: 61-4, 2014 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24291182

RESUMO

Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMOs) are α-(1→6)-linked oligodextrans that show a prebiotic effect on Bifidobacterium spp. This study sought to improve IMO synthesis during lactate fermentation in kimchi by inoculating the kimchi fermentation mix with a starter and sugars; the psychrotrophic Leuconostoc citreum KACC 91035 strain with high dextransucrase activity was used as a starter and sucrose (58 mM) and maltose (56 mM) were added as the donor and acceptor for the glucose-transferring reaction of the dextransucrase, respectively. With the addition of both the starter and the sugars and incubation at 10°C, IMOs were produced in kimchi after 3d. Without the starter, the IMO production rate and maximal concentration in kimchi were 15.05 mM/d and 75.27 mM, respectively, whereas with the starter, the rate and concentration increased to 22.04 mM/d and 110.19 mM, respectively. In addition, the sucrose-maltose mix gave an appropriate level of sweetness by releasing fructose and prevented unfavorable polymer synthesis by IMO production. This result suggests that lactic acid bacteria expressing a highly active glycosyltransferase can be used for the synthesis of beneficial oligosaccharides in various fermented foods.


Assuntos
Brassica/microbiologia , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Leuconostoc/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/biossíntese , Carboidratos/química , Sacarose/metabolismo
2.
J Microbiol ; 51(6): 881-5, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24385369

RESUMO

Histamine is mainly produced by microorganisms that are found in fermented foods, and is frequently involved in food poisoning. Two histamine-producing bacteria were isolated from fermented fish products, anchovy sauce, and sand lance sauce by using a histidine decarboxylating medium. The species were identified as Bacillus licheniformis A7 and B. coagulans SL5. Multiplex PCR analysis showed the presence of the conserved histidine decarboxylase (hdc) gene in the chromosome of these bacteria. B. licheniformis A7 and B. coagulans SL5 produced the maximum amount of histamine (22.3±3.5 and 15.1±1.5 mg/L, respectively). As such, they were determined to be potential histamine-producing bacteria among the tested cultures.


Assuntos
Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus/metabolismo , Produtos Pesqueiros/microbiologia , Histamina/biossíntese , Animais , Bacillus/classificação , Bacillus/genética , Fermentação , Peixes , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia
3.
Food Microbiol ; 33(2): 262-70, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23200660

RESUMO

Prebiotics are non-digestible substrates that stimulate the growth of beneficial microbial populations in the intestine, especially Bifidobacterium species. Among them, fructo- and galacto-oligosaccharides are commonly used in the food industry, especially as a supplement for infant formulas. Mechanistic details on the enrichment of bifidobacteria by these prebiotics are important to understand the effects of these dietary interventions. In this study the consumption of galactooligosaccharides was studied for 22 isolates of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, one of the most representative species in the infant gut microbiota. In general all isolates showed a vigorous growth on these oligosaccharides, but consumption of larger galactooligosaccharides was variable. Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 15697 has five genes encoding ß-galactosidases, and three of them were induced during bacterial growth on commercial galactooligosaccharides. Recombinant ß-galactosidases from B. infantis ATCC 15697 displayed different preferences for ß-galactosides such as 4' and 6'-galactobiose, and four ß-galactosidases in this strain released monosaccharides from galactooligosaccharides. Finally, we determined the amounts of short chain fatty acids produced by strain ATCC 15697 after growth on different prebiotics. We observed that biomass and product yields of substrate were higher for lactose and galactooligosaccharides, but the amount of acids produced per cell was larger after growth on human milk oligosaccharides. These results provide a molecular basis for galactooligosaccharide consumption in B. infantis, and also represent evidence for physiological differences in the metabolism of prebiotics that might have a differential impact on the host.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium/enzimologia , Bifidobacterium/genética , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Prebióticos/análise , beta-Galactosidase/genética , beta-Galactosidase/metabolismo
4.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 22(11): 1518-22, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23124343

RESUMO

Leuconostoc mesenteroides is a heterofermentative Grampositive bacterium that plays key roles in fermentation of foods such as kimchi, sauerkraut, and milk, leading to the production of various organic acids and aromatic compounds. To study the microbiological and genomic characteristics of L. mesenteroides, we have developed a new chemically defined minimal medium by using the single omission technique. During the exponential cell growth, this species required glutamine, methionine, valine, and nicotinic acid as essential nutrients and 8 amino acids (arginine, cysteine, histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, proline, threonine, and tryptophan), 5 vitamins (ascorbic acid, folic acid, inosine, calcium panthothenate, and thiamine), and others (manganese, magnesium, adenine, uracil, and Tween 80) as supplemental nutrients. This medium is useful to study the metabolic characteristics of L. mesenteroides and to explain its role in food fermentation.


Assuntos
Meios de Cultura/química , Leuconostoc/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Fermentação , Leuconostoc/metabolismo , Vitaminas/metabolismo
5.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 51(5): 274-9, 2012 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22975125

RESUMO

Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides ATCC 8293 is a lactic acid bacterium that converts pyruvate mainly to d-(-)-lactic acid by using d-(-)-lactate dehydrogenase (ldhD). The aim of this study was to identify the gene responsible for d-lactic acid formation in this organism and to characterize the enzyme to facilitate the production of optically pure d-lactic acid. A genomic analysis of L. mesenteroides ATCC 8293 revealed that 7 genes encode lactate-related dehydrogenase. According to transcriptomic, proteomic, and phylogenetic analyses, LEUM_1756 was the major gene responsible for the production of d-lactic acid. The LEUM_1756 gene, of 996bp and encoding 332 amino acids (36.5kDa), was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) Star from an inducible pET-21a(+) vector. The enzyme was purified by Ni-NTA column chromatography and showed a specific activity of 4450U/mg, significantly higher than those of other previously reported ldhDs. The gel permeation chromatography analysis showed that the purified enzyme exists as tetramers in solution and this was the first report among lactic acid bacteria. The pH and temperature optima were pH 8.0 and 30°C, respectively, for the pyruvate reduction reaction, and pH 11.0 and 20°C, respectively, for the lactate oxidation reaction. The K(m) kinetic parameters for pyruvate and lactate were 0.58mM and 260mM, respectively. In addition, the k(cat) values for pyruvate and lactate were 2900s(-1) and 2280s(-1), respectively. The enzyme was not inhibited by Ca(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Na(+), or urea, but was inhibited by 1mM Zn(2+) and 1mM SDS.


Assuntos
L-Lactato Desidrogenase/genética , Ácido Láctico/biossíntese , Leuconostoc/enzimologia , Biotecnologia/métodos , Clonagem Molecular , Cinética , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Leuconostoc/genética , Filogenia , Proteômica , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
6.
Biotechnol Lett ; 34(4): 683-7, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22160366

RESUMO

Leuconostoc mesenteroides is a commercially important lactic acid bacterium currently used as a starter for kimchi and kefir. However, its sensitivity to acid stress limits its performance. L. mesenteroides was grown in a medium supplemented with 3.2 or 6.4 mM glutathione (GSH), and cell survival rates were measured during a long-term mild acid challenge (pH 4.0). As a result, GSH was imported by the cells and protected against acid stress; thereafter it was consumed as a nutrient. Acid stress resistance of starter cultures of this bacterium can thus be improved by cultivating it in media supplemented with GSH.


Assuntos
Ácidos/toxicidade , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Leuconostoc/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Meios de Cultura/química , Leuconostoc/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico
7.
Plasmid ; 67(1): 35-43, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22133745

RESUMO

The pCB42 plasmid from Leuconostoc citreum CB2567, a strain isolated from kimchi, was characterized, and a shuttle vector for Escherichia coli and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was constructed. The pCB42 plasmid has a circular structure of 4312bp, a low G+C content, and no single-stranded DNA intermediates during replication, which indicates that pCB42 replicates via the theta-type replication mechanism. In silico analysis of this plasmid revealed 6 open reading frames: 1 transposase gene, 1 DNA-binding gene, 2 putative replication genes, and 2 unknown genes. The fragment encompassing ORF5 contains a functional plasmid replicon. This plasmid was capable of replicating in various LAB, including L. citreum, L. mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lb. reuteri, Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Weissella confusa, and Oenococcus oeni. The LAB-E. coli shuttle vector was constructed by ligating pCB42 and pEK104, and the resulting shuttle vector, pLeuCM42, showed a high segregational stability in L. citreum CB2567 after 100 generations of cell division. By using this shuttle vector, the ß-gal gene from Lb. plantarum was successfully expressed in the host strain, L. citreum CB2567. The pLeuCM42 shuttle vector can serve as a useful gene-delivery and expression tool for the genetic study or metabolic engineering of various strains of LAB.


Assuntos
Vetores Genéticos/genética , Lactobacillaceae/genética , Lactobacillaceae/isolamento & purificação , Leuconostoc/genética , Leuconostoc/isolamento & purificação , Plasmídeos/genética , Replicon/genética , Verduras/microbiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Western Blotting , Replicação do DNA , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA de Cadeia Simples/genética , Lactobacillaceae/classificação , Lactobacillaceae/metabolismo , Leuconostoc/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica , Dados de Sequência Molecular , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Transformação Bacteriana , beta-Galactosidase/metabolismo
8.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 78(3): 795-803, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22138995

RESUMO

Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 utilizes several small-mass neutral human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), several of which are fucosylated. Whereas previous studies focused on endpoint consumption, a temporal glycan consumption profile revealed a time-dependent effect. Specifically, among preferred HMOs, tetraose was favored early in fermentation, with other oligosaccharides consumed slightly later. In order to utilize fucosylated oligosaccharides, ATCC 15697 possesses several fucosidases, implicating GH29 and GH95 α-L-fucosidases in a gene cluster dedicated to HMO metabolism. Evaluation of the biochemical kinetics demonstrated that ATCC 15697 expresses three fucosidases with a high turnover rate. Moreover, several ATCC 15697 fucosidases are active on the linkages inherent to the HMO molecule. Finally, the HMO cluster GH29 α-L-fucosidase possesses a crystal structure that is similar to previously characterized fucosidases.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium/enzimologia , Leite Humano/química , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , alfa-L-Fucosidase/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium/química , Bifidobacterium/genética , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Fermentação , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , alfa-L-Fucosidase/química , alfa-L-Fucosidase/genética
9.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 21(9): 968-71, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21952374

RESUMO

Leuconostoc genus, which comprise heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, reduces fructose to mannitol by recycling intracellular NADH. To evaluate the mannitol productivities of different Leuconostoc species, 5 stock cultures and 4 newly isolated strains were cultivated in MRS and simplified media containing glucose and fructose (1:2 ratio). Among them, L. citreum KACC 91348P, which was isolated from kimchi, showed superior result in cell growth rate, mannitol production rate, and yield in both media. The optimal condition for mannitol production of this strain was pH 6.5 and 30°C. When L. citreum KACC was cultured in simplified medium in a 2 l batch fermenter under optimal conditions, the maximum volumetric productivity was 14.83 g·l(-1)h(-1) and overall yield was 86.6%. This strain is a novel and efficient mannitol producer originated from foods to be used for fermentation of fructose-containing foods.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Leuconostoc/metabolismo , Manitol/metabolismo , Verduras/microbiologia , Fermentação , Frutose/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Leuconostoc/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leuconostoc/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura
10.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 19(8): 829-35, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19734722

RESUMO

A dextransucrase (LcDS) gene from Leuconostoc citreum HJ-P4 has been amplified and cloned in E. coli. The LcDS gene consists of 4,431 nucleotides encoding 1,477 amino acid residues sharing 63-98% of amino acid sequence identities with other known dextransucrases from Leuc. mesenteroides. Interestingly, 0.1 mM of IPTG induction at 15 degrees remarkably increased the LcDS productivity to 19,187 U/l culture broth, which was over 330-fold higher than that induced at 37 degrees. Optimal reaction temperature and pH of LcDS were determined as 35 degrees and pH 5.5 in 20 mM sodium acetate buffer, respectively. Meanwhile, 0.1 mM CaCl(2) increased its activity to the maximum of 686 U/mg, which was 2.1-fold higher than that in the absence of calcium ion. Similar to the native Leuconostoc dextransucrase, recombinant LcDS could successfully produce a series of isomaltooligosaccharides from sucrose and maltose, on the basis of its transglycosylation activity.


Assuntos
Indução Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Glucosiltransferases/biossíntese , Leuconostoc/enzimologia , Cloreto de Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Clonagem Molecular , Temperatura Baixa , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Bacterianos , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Glucosiltransferases/isolamento & purificação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microbiologia Industrial , Isopropiltiogalactosídeo/administração & dosagem , Leuconostoc/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo
11.
J Biotechnol ; 144(2): 160-4, 2009 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19699768

RESUMO

D-form lactate is often found in fermented foods and excessive dietary intake of D-lactate may cause metabolic stress in both infants and patients. Leuconostoc citreum is a major lactic acid bacterium that produces D-lactate in fermented foods. The aim of this study was to change the pyruvate carbon flux in L. citreum from D-lactate into L-lactate by heterologous expression of L-lactate dehydrogenase (ldhL) gene. For this, ldhL from Lactobacillus plantarum was cloned and introduced into L. citreum using a shuttle vector pLeuCM. In the transformant, ldhL was successfully transcribed and L-lactate dehydrogenase was expressed. As a consequence of transformation, the ratio between D- and L-isomers was changed due to the increment of L-lactate and the decrement of D-lactate, but no significant differences were found in total lactate concentration between the host and transformant cells. This is the first report of metabolic engineering in Leuconostoc by modulating the central carbon flux into health-favored way.


Assuntos
L-Lactato Desidrogenase/genética , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/biossíntese , Ácido Láctico/química , Lactobacillus plantarum/enzimologia , Leuconostoc/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Expressão Gênica , Genes Bacterianos , Isomerismo , Lactobacillus plantarum/genética , Leuconostoc/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plasmídeos/genética , Transformação Bacteriana
12.
Biotechnol Lett ; 31(11): 1783-8, 2009 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19618275

RESUMO

To develop a gene expression system for Leuconostoc genus, construction of expression vector and expression of a heterologus protein in Leuconostoc was performed. Alpha-amylase gene from Lactobacillus amylovorus was cloned into a Leuconostoc cloning vector, pLeuCM, with its own signal peptide. pLeuCMamy was introduced into Leuconostoc citreum CB2567 and a successful expression of alpha-amy gene was confirmed by enzyme activity assays. About 90% of alpha-amylase activity was detected in the culture broth, revealing most of expressed alpha-amylase was secreted out cells. The signal sequence of alpha-amy gene is a good candidate for the secretion of heterologous protein by using Leuconostoc host-vector system.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus acidophilus/enzimologia , Leuconostoc/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Genes Bacterianos , Lactobacillus acidophilus/genética , Leuconostoc/citologia , Leuconostoc/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plasmídeos/genética , Mapeamento por Restrição , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transformação Genética , alfa-Amilases/genética
13.
Microbiol Immunol ; 53(6): 331-9, 2009 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19493201

RESUMO

Leuconostoc citreum (L. citreum) HJ-P4 (KACC 91035) is one of the major predominant species in kimchi fermentation in Korea. The purpose of the present study was to test the immunomodulatory capacity of L. citreum to modulate the IgE-mediated allergic response and to examine the involvement of NF-kappaB and MAPK in IL-12 production in macrophages. Balb/c mice were sensitized with OVA/alum and oral administration of L. citreum to the mice began before or after the OVA sensitization. Protein and mRNA expression of Th1 cytokines in splenocytes by L. citreum in vitro was measured. The role of NF-kappaB and MAPK such as p38, ERK1/2 and JNK in L. citreum-induced IL-12 was investigated in peritoneal macrophages and RAW264.7 cell lines. L. citreum inhibited the serum levels of total IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a altogether and increased OVA-specific IFN-gamma production in splenocytes from pre- and post-sensitized animals. However, the downregulation of IL-4 and IL-5 production was observed only in the pre-sensitization group. The ability of L. citreum to stimulate IFN-gamma was dependent on its induction of IL-12. NF-kappaB, p38 and JNK were mainly involved in L. citreum-induced IL-12 production. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that L. citreum is able to regulate serum IgE generation at the induction and effector phases of allergic response through overall control over antibody production and that its involvement of IL-12 production was mediated through NF-kappaB and p38/JNK. Taken together, the use of L. citreum can be useful in preventing the development and progression of IgE production.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/biossíntese , Interleucina-12/biossíntese , Leuconostoc , Macrófagos Peritoneais/microbiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Verduras/microbiologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/biossíntese , Fermentação , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Interleucina-12/genética , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Coreia (Geográfico) , Leuconostoc/classificação , Leuconostoc/imunologia , Leuconostoc/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/biossíntese , NF-kappa B/genética , Ovalbumina , Células Th1/imunologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
14.
Cytokine ; 46(2): 283-9, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19299163

RESUMO

Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides (LMM) KCTC 3100, is one of the prominent species in the fermentation of kimchi, a traditional Korean food. In the present study, we investigated the capacity of this microorganism in inducing Th1 cytokines in the presence of Th2 signals in vitro and in vivo and the requirement of NF-kappaB and MAPK signaling. Stimulation with heat-killed LMM in mouse splenocytes induced the expression of IFN-gamma, which was dependent on IL-12 production by LMM. Pre-treatment with LMM in vitro augmented the production of IFN-gamma and IL-4 in response to anti-CD3 plus recombinant IL-4 (rIL-4). LMM administration to mice, beginning either before or after the development of OVA sensitization, increased OVA-restimulated IFN-gamma production in the splenocytes and reduced serum total and OVA-specific IgE levels. However, only the pre-sensitization treatment induced a slight reduction in IL-4 from the same cells, but the post-sensitization treatment did not. Induction of IL-12 by LMM in peritoneal macrophages involved NF-kappaB, p38 and JNK, but not ERK1/2. In conclusion, our data presented the upregulation of IFN-gamma by LMM under the pro-Th2 conditions and the requirement of NF-kappaB, p38 and JNK for IL-12 production. These observations suggest that this microorganism can be a useful Th1-inducing agent in modulating the Th1/Th2 imbalance.


Assuntos
Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-12/imunologia , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Leuconostoc/imunologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Células Th1/imunologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Alérgenos/imunologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Interleucina-4/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/citologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Baço/citologia , Baço/imunologia , Células Th1/citologia , Células Th2/citologia , Células Th2/imunologia
15.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 19(12): 1644-9, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20075632

RESUMO

This study investigates the buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi on total acidity, microbial population, and dextransucrase activity. Calcium chloride or calcium carbonate was added in dongchimi-kimchi, a watery-radish kimchi, and their effects on various biochemical attributes were analyzed. The addition of 0.1% calcium chloride produced a milder decrease in the pH after 24 days of incubation, which allowed the lactic acid bacteria to survive longer than in the control. In particular, the heterofermentative Leuconostoc genus population was 10-fold higher than that in the control. When sucrose and maltose were also added along with the calcium salts, the dextransucrase activity in the kimchi was elevated and a higher concentration of isomaltooligosaccharides was synthesized when compared with the control. Calcium chloride was determined as a better activator compound of dextransucrase than calcium carbonate, probably because of its higher solubility. Therefore, the results of this study confirm the ability of the proposed approach to modulate the kimchi fermentation process and possibly enhance the quality of kimchi based on the addition of dietary calcium salts.


Assuntos
Brassica/microbiologia , Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Cloreto de Cálcio/química , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Leuconostoc/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica/química , Tampões (Química) , Ativação Enzimática , Fermentação , Glucosiltransferases/química , Glucosiltransferases/isolamento & purificação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Leuconostoc/metabolismo , Maltose/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/biossíntese , Solubilidade , Sacarose/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
16.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 18(10): 1678-82, 2008 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18955819

RESUMO

To investigate the lactic acid bacterial population in Korean traditional rice wines, biotyping was performed using cell morphology and whole-cell protein pattern analysis by SDSPAGE, and then the isolates were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. Based on the morphological characteristics, 103 LAB isolates were detected in wine samples, characterized by whole-cell protein pattern analysis, and they were then divided into 18 patterns. By gene sequencing of 16S rRNA, the isolates were identified as Lactobacillus paracasei, Lb. arizonensis, Lb. plantarum, Lb. harbinensis, Lb. parabuchneri, Lb. brevis, and Lb. hilgardii when listed by their frequency of occurrence. It was found that the difference in bacterial diversity between rice and grape wines depends on the raw materials, especially the composition of starch and glucose.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lactobacillaceae/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillaceae/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Vinho/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Fermentação , Coreia (Geográfico) , Lactobacillaceae/classificação , Lactobacillaceae/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Vinho/análise
17.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 18(6): 1141-5, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18600060

RESUMO

Isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO) is a promising dietary component with prebiotic effect, and the long-chain IMOs are preferred to short chain ones owing to the longer persistence in the colon. To establish the optimal process for synthesis of long-chain IMOs, we systematically examined the reaction condition of dextransucrase of Leuconostoc mesenteroides B-512F by changing the ratio of sucrose to maltose (varying as 1:4, 1:2, 1:1, and 2:1) and amount of each sugar (from 2% to 20%). As a result, a ratio of 2:1 (sucrose to maltose, 10:5% or 20:10%, w/v) was determined as an optimal condition for long-chain IMO synthesis (DP3-DP9) with relatively higher yields (70-90%, respectively).


Assuntos
Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Leuconostoc/enzimologia , Oligossacarídeos/biossíntese , Meios de Cultura , Fermentação , Maltose/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato , Sacarose/metabolismo
18.
J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(9): 953-9, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18500545

RESUMO

In 2004, Leuconostoc mesenteroides DRC was first used as a starter culture for achieving higher organoleptic effects in Korean kimchi manufacture. For a better understanding of starter growth in a mixed culture system, and for predicting starter predominance in kimchi, a monitoring system for the starter was established. The chloramphenicol resistance marker gene (cat) was randomly integrated into chromosomal DNA of L. mesenteroides DRC using a viral transposon and transposase. The DRC mutant, tDRC2, had a similar growth pattern to the host strain, with no major alteration in phenotypic characteristics. The mutant strain was inoculated into real kimchi, and monitoring of the starter population was successfully achieved. The overall predominance of Leuconostoc in kimchi inoculated with DRC followed the general growth pattern of this genus during kimchi fermentation. Our results also demonstrate the competitive ability of the DRC starter against Leuconostoc from natural flora, maintaining its predominance above 88% during the whole fermentation period. Based on this experiment, the random gene integration method using a transposon was shown to be of utility in transferring any commercial starter into a selectable and monitorable strain for simulation purposes.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Cloranfenicol O-Acetiltransferase/genética , Fermentação , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Leuconostoc/enzimologia , Leuconostoc/genética , Mutagênese Insercional/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Cloranfenicol O-Acetiltransferase/química , Cloranfenicol O-Acetiltransferase/metabolismo , Cromossomos Bacterianos/genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Leuconostoc/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fatores de Tempo
19.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 17(11): 1758-64, 2007 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18092458

RESUMO

Synthesis of oligosaccharides during milk fermentation was attempted by inoculating Leuconostoc citreum with Lactobacillus casei, Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus as starters. Dextransucrase of Ln. citreum worked as a catalyst for the transglycosylation reaction of sugars; sucrose was added as the glucose donor, and lactose or maltose acted as the acceptor compound for the reaction. When 4% sucrose was added in milk, glucosyl-lactose was synthesized (about 1%, w/v) after 1-2 days of fermentation at 15 or 25 degrees C. Alternatively, when sucrose and maltose (2% each, w/v) were added, panose (about 1%, w/v) and other isomaltooligosaccharides were made in a day at 15-35 degrees C. Growth patterns of lactobacilli and streptococci starters were not affected by the coculture of leuconostoc starter, but the rate of acid synthesis was slightly slowed at every temperature. Addition of sugars in milk did not give any adverse effect on the lactate fermentation. Accordingly, the use of leuconostoc starter and addition of sugars in milk allowed the production of oligosaccharides-containing fermented milk, and application of this method will facilitate the extensive development of synbiotic lactate foods.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Fermentação , Leuconostoc/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/biossíntese , Animais , Bovinos , Lactose/metabolismo
20.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 117(1): 61-7, 2007 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17482304

RESUMO

Leuconostoc is the major bacterial genus in the initial phase of the lactate fermentation of vegetables. The dextransucrase elaborated from this bacterium is used to synthesize dextran polymers or prebiotic oligosaccharides. To use Leuconostoc as a starter culture in the manufacture of the kimchi-like fermented foods at low temperature, we isolated microbial flora that showed fast growth rates and high enzyme activity under the test conditions. Nine hundred colonies of Leuconostoc were collected from kimchi, sauerkraut, and pickled cucumber using three consecutive selection media; after batch culture and enzyme activity assays, four strains were selected. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes of the strains revealed that HJ-S7 and HJ-S13 were Leuconostoc (Ln.) mesenteroides and HJ-P4 and HJ-P5 were Ln. citreum. When compared to the type strain, Ln. mesenteroides B-512F, HJ-P4 showed a more than twofold faster growth rate and 20-fold higher enzyme activity during cultivation at 8 degrees C. These strains are suitable as oligosaccharide-synthesizing starters for the fermentation of not only kimchi but also sauerkraut and pickled cucumbers.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Leuconostoc/enzimologia , Leuconostoc/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Verduras/microbiologia , Brassica/microbiologia , Fermentação , Cinética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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