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1.
J Surg Oncol ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic, with high rate of asymptomatic infections and increased perioperative complications, prompted widespread adoption of screening methods. We analyzed the incidence of asymptomatic infection and perioperative outcomes in patients undergoing cancer surgery. We also studied the impact on subsequent cancer treatment in those with COVID-19. METHODS: All patients who underwent elective and emergency cancer surgery from April to September 2020 were included. After screening for symptoms, a preoperative test was performed from nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs before the procedure. Patients were followed up for 30 days postoperatively and complications were noted. RESULTS: 2108 asymptomatic patients were tested, of which 200 (9.5%) tested positive. Of those who tested positive, 140 (70%) underwent the planned surgery at a median of 30 days from testing positive, and 20 (14.3%) had ≥ Grade III complications. Forty (20%) patients did not receive the intended treatment; 110 patients were retested in the Postoperative period, and 41 (37.3%) tested positive and 9(22%) patients died of COVID-related complications. CONCLUSION: Routine preoperative testing for COVID-19 helps to segregate patients with asymptomatic infection. Higher complications occur in those who develop COVID-19 in postoperative period. Prolonged delay in surgery after COVID infection may influence planned treatment.

3.
Neurol India ; 69(4): 894-901, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507408

RESUMO

Background: Biomarkers of systemic inflammation (BMSIs), including haemogram cell counts (CC, e.g., absolute neutrophil count) and cell count-ratios (CCR, e.g., the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, etc.), have been found to have prognostic significance in many solid-organ cancers. Aims: In this three-part study, we first examined if the CCs and CCRs were altered in patients with glioblastoma (GBM) when compared with healthy controls. Second, we evaluated for any correlation between the BMSIs and patient- and tumour-related factors. Third, we evaluated the influence of the CCs and CCRs on survival. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent surgery/biopsy for a newly diagnosed brain tumour that was subsequently confirmed to be GBM (Cases). Controls were healthy individuals who underwent pre-employment screening blood tests. Statistical Methods: Parametric tests were used to compare normally distributed continuous variables, whereas non-normally distributed variables were compared using non-parametric tests. Thresholds for the BMSIs were determined using X-tile analysis. Cox regression using the proportional hazards model was used for survival analyses around the determined thresholds. Results: All CCs and CCRs were altered in Cases compared with Controls. Presentation with raised intracranial pressure, altered sensorium, poor performance status, loss of ATRX, and lack of p53 overexpression was associated with an inflammatory phenotype of changes in the BMSIs. The inflammatory phenotype of changes was associated with poor survival. Conclusions: A significant inflammatory response was found in patients with GBM and correlated with clinical features, the molecular profile of the tumour and poor survival.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Inflamação , Linfócitos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
STAR Protoc ; 2(3): 100678, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355202

RESUMO

Extracellular traps (ETs) are composed of decondensed chromatin and are embedded with various antimicrobial proteins like myeloperoxidase and histones. Recently, we reported that dopamine (DA) induces ETs in BV2 microglia cell line and primary adult human microglia in a manner independent of cell death, reactive oxygen species, and actin polymerization. This protocol details how to characterize DA-induced ETs in BV2 microglia and human microglia. The protocols for characterization of ETs may also be used for other adherent cell lines. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Agrawal et al. (2021).

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endolymphatic sac tumour (ELST) is a rare low-grade locally aggressive neoplasm arising from the endolymphatic duct or sac. It presents mostly with vestibulo-cochlear symptoms either sporadically or as part of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome. Micro-neurosurgical excision remains the cornerstone of therapy with the role of radiotherapy (RT) being controversial. This is a clinico-pathological analysis of consecutive ELST patients presenting to a single-institution in India. METHODS: Neuropathology database of a tertiary-care comprehensive cancer centre was searched electronically to identify consecutive patients with histopathological diagnosis of ELST registered at the institute over last one decade. Data regarding demographic profile, clinical presentation, histopathological features, treatment details and outcomes were retrieved from electronic medical records for this retrospective analysis. RESULTS: Electronic search identified seven unique patients with biopsy-proven ELST registered at the institute between 2009 and 2020. Median age of the study cohort was 39 years (range 24-65 years) with strong male predilection (5:2 ratio) and left-sided preponderance (71%). Most common presenting symptoms were hearing loss (86%) and earache (71%) on affected side followed by headache (43%). All patients underwent maximal safe resection at initial diagnosis and were followed-up closely with periodic surveillance imaging. Two patients underwent salvage RT using high-precision conformal techniques at recurrence/progression. CONCLUSION: ELST is a rare low-grade locally aggressive neoplasm that arises generally as part of VHL syndrome or sometimes sporadically. Gross total resection provides the best chance of cure with RT being reserved for unresectable disease, large residue, medical inoperability, or as salvage therapy for recurrent/progressive tumor.

6.
World Neurosurg ; 154: e176-e184, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245877

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report clinical outcomes of temozolomide (TMZ)-based radio-chemotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with aggressive/high-risk low-grade glioma (LGG). METHODS: Medical records of patients defined as aggressive/high-risk LGG based on clinicoradiologic and/or histomorphologic features treated between 2009 and 2016 in an academic neuro-oncology unit with upfront postoperative radiotherapy at time of initial diagnosis with concurrent and adjuvant TMZ were reviewed, retrospectively. RESULTS: In total, 64 patients with median age of 38 years at initial diagnosis were included. Histomorphologically, patients were classified into oligodendroglioma, mixed oligoastrocytoma, and astrocytoma. Molecular markers such as isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation and 1p/19q codeletion were used to classify 37 of 64 (58%) patients into molecularly defined entities comprising oligodendroglioma (IDH-mutant with 1p/19q codeletion), IDH-mutant astrocytoma (immunohistochemistry or gene sequencing), and IDH-wild-type astrocytoma (gene sequencing). All 64 patients completed planned conventionally fractionated focal conformal radiotherapy (median dose 55.8 Gy) with concurrent TMZ. Fifty-nine patients received further adjuvant TMZ for a median of 12 cycles. Adjuvant TMZ was stopped prematurely in 6 (9%) patients due to toxicity or early disease progression. At a median follow-up of 56.7 months, 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of progression-free survival and overall survival for the study cohort were 74.6% and 84.3%, respectively. Five-year overall survival was 87.5%, 90.4%, and 71.9% for oligodendroglioma, mixed oligoastrocytoma, and astrocytoma, respectively (P = 0.42) Similar estimates for molecularly defined oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant astrocytoma, and IDH-wild-type astrocytoma were 85.8%, 90%, and 66.7%, respectively (P = 0.87). CONCLUSIONS: Upfront TMZ-based concurrent radio-chemotherapy and adjuvant TMZ chemotherapy provides acceptable survival outcomes in aggressive/high-risk LGG with modest toxicity.

7.
J Proteomics ; 246: 104303, 2021 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174477

RESUMO

Meningiomas are brain tumors that originate from the meninges and has been primarily classified into three grades by the current WHO guidelines. Although widely prevalent and can be managed by surgery there are instances when the tumors are located in difficult regions. This results in considerable challenges for complete surgical resection and further clinical management. While the genetic signature of the skull base tumors is now known to be different from the non-skull base tumors, there is a lack of information at the functional aspects of these tumors at the proteomic level. Thus, the current study thereby aims to obtain mechanistic insights between the two radiologically distinct groups of meningiomas, namely the skull base & supratentorial (non-skull base-NSB) regions. We have employed a comprehensive mass spectrometry-based label-free quantitative proteomic analysis in Skull base and supratentorial meningiomas. Further, we have used an Artificial Neural Networking employing a sparse Multilayer perceptron (MLP) architecture to predict protein concordance. A patient-derived spectral library has been employed for a novel peptide-level validation of proteins that are specific to the radiological regions using the SRM assay based targeted proteomics approach. The comprehensive proteomics enabled the identification of nearly 4000 proteins with high confidence (1%FDR ≥ 2 unique peptides) among which 170 proteins were differentially abundant in Skull base vs Supratentorial tumors (p-value ≤0.05). In silico analysis enabled mapping of the major alterations and hinted towards an overall perturbation of extracellular matrix and collagen biosynthesis components in the non-skull base meningiomas and a prominent perturbation of molecular trafficking in the skull base meningiomas. Therefore, this study has yielded novel insights into the functional association of the proteins that are differentially abundant in the two radiological subgroups. SIGNIFICANCE: In the current study, we have performed label-free proteomic analysis on fresh frozen tissue of 14 Supratentorial (NSB) and 7 Skull base meningiomas to assess perturbations in the global proteome, we have further employed an in-depth in silico analysis to map the pathways that have enabled functional mapping of the differentially abundant proteins in the Skull base and Supratentorial tumors. The findings from the above were also subjected to a machine learning-based neural networking to find out the proteins that have the most concordance of occurrence to determine the most influential proteins of the network. We further validated the differential abundance of identified protein markers in a larger patient cohort of Skull base and Supratentorial employing targeted proteomics approach to validate key protein candidates emerging from ours and other recent studies. The previous studies that have explored the skull base and convexity meningiomas have been able to reveal alterations in the genetic mutations in these tumor types. However, there are not many studies that have explored the functional aspects of these tumors, especially at the proteome level. We have attempted for the first time to map the functional modules associated with altered proteins in these tumors and have been able to identify that there is a possibility that the Skull base meningiomas to be considerably different from the Non-skull base (NSB) tumors in terms of the perturbed pathways. Our study employed global as well as targeted proteomics to examine the proteomic alterations in these two tumor groups. The study indicates that proteins that were more abundant in Skull base tumors were part of molecular transport components, non-skull base proteins majorly mapped to the components of extracellular matrix remodeling pathways. In conclusion, this study substantiates the distinction in the proteomic signatures in the skull base and supratentorial meningiomas paving way for further investigation of the identified markers for determining if some of these proteins can be used for therapeutic interventions for cases that pose considerable challenges for complete resection.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Meníngeas , Meningioma , Neoplasias Supratentoriais , Colágeno , Humanos , Neoplasias Meníngeas/diagnóstico por imagem , Meningioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Proteômica , Base do Crânio
8.
Front Oncol ; 11: 548243, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34055594

RESUMO

The emergence of omics technologies over the last decade has helped in advancement of research and our understanding of complex diseases like brain cancers. However, barring genomics, no other omics technology has been able to find utility in clinical settings. The recent advancements in mass spectrometry instrumentation have resulted in proteomics technologies becoming more sensitive and reliable. Targeted proteomics, a relatively new branch of mass spectrometry-based proteomics has shown immense potential in addressing the shortcomings of the standard molecular biology-based techniques like Western blotting and Immunohistochemistry. In this study we demonstrate the utility of Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), a targeted proteomics approach, in quantifying peptides from proteins like Apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1), Apolipoprotein E (APOE), Prostaglandin H2 D-Isomerase (PTGDS), Vitronectin (VTN) and Complement C3 (C3) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from Glioma and Meningioma patients. Additionally, we also report transitions for peptides from proteins - Vimentin (VIM), Cystatin-C (CST3) and Clusterin (CLU) in surgically resected Meningioma tissues; Annexin A1 (ANXA1), Superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and VIM in surgically resected Glioma tissues; and Microtubule associated protein-2 (MAP-2), Splicing factor 3B subunit 2 (SF3B2) and VIM in surgically resected Medulloblastoma tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the use of MRM to validate proteins from three types of brain malignancies and two different bio-specimens. Future studies involving a large cohort of samples aimed at accurately detecting and quantifying peptides of proteins with roles in brain malignancies could potentially result in a panel of proteins showing ability to classify and grade tumors. Successful application of these techniques could ultimately offer alternative strategies with increased accuracy, sensitivity and lower turnaround time making them translatable to the clinics.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891492

RESUMO

Purpose: Medulloblastomas, comprising 20%-25% of all primary brain tumors in children are much rarer in adulthood. Disease biology varies substantially across different age groups; however, owing to rarity, adults with medulloblastoma are traditionally treated using pediatric protocols. This is a retrospective audit of adolescent and adult medulloblastoma from a comprehensive cancer center. Methods: Data regarding demography, clinical presentation, imaging characteristics, histopathological features, molecular profiling, risk stratification, treatment details, and outcomes were retrieved from medical records. All time-to-event outcomes were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analysis of relevant prognostic factors was done with p value <0.05 being considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 162 patients ≥15 years of age with medulloblastoma were included. The median age was 25 years (range: 15-59 years) with leptomeningeal metastases seen in 31 (19%) patients at initial diagnosis. Following surgery, patients were treated with appropriate risk-stratified adjuvant therapy comprising of craniospinal irradiation plus boost with or without systemic chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 50 months, 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of progression-free survival and overall survival were 53.5% and 59.5%, respectively. The addition of adjuvant systemic chemotherapy did not impact upon survival in standard-risk medulloblastoma. High-risk (HR) disease and anaplastic histology emerged as significant and independent predictors of poor survival on multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Medulloblastoma is a rare tumor in adolescents and adults with key differences in disease biology and resultant outcomes compared with the pediatric population. Contemporary management comprising maximal safe resection followed by appropriate risk-stratified adjuvant therapy provides acceptable survival outcomes.

10.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 64(2): 302-309, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851624

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder manifesting as multiple lymphadenopathy, multiorgan involvement, and inflammatory symptoms. This study aims at highlighting some unique features of MCD in Indian patients. Materials and Methods: These 17 patients from review of 78 cases of Castleman's disease (CD) diagnosed. Besides routine tissue sections were stained for Human Herpes Virus 8 latency associated nuclear antigen (HHV8-LANA) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Epstein Barr virus latent membrane protein (EBV-LMP) or Epstein Barr Virus by in situ hybridization (EBER-ISH). Result: The cases included Plasma cell variant (11 cases), mixed MCD (4 cases) and two concurrent MCD with large B cell lymphoma in HIV positive patients. Median age of disease onset was 47 years and female predominance was seen. Out of 15 MCD uncomplicated by lymphoma, 5 had POEMS (Polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, myeloma protein, skin changes) and one also had TAFRO (Thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever, marrow reticulin fibrosis, organomegaly, normal or slightly elevated immunoglobulin) syndrome. Out of 10 MCD without lymphoma, 2 cases showed few EBV positive large cells, both have features of POEMS. All 17 MCD cases were negative for HHV8-LANA IHC. Two HIV patients with MCD had large cell lymphoma, intrasinusoidal pattern, of which one was EBV positive. Though four relapses were seen, none died from disease. One of the two patients complicated by lymphoma died from disease. Conclusion: Indian patients with MCD show female preponderance and are negative for HHV8 but show EBV positive cells. This makes a case for role of EBV in etiopathogenesis of MCD in India.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/diagnóstico , Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/isolamento & purificação , Herpesvirus Humano 8/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/patologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome POEMS/complicações , Síndrome POEMS/patologia , Plasmócitos/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
11.
Neurol India ; 69(1): 126-134, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33642283

RESUMO

Background: Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter (pTERT) mutation is a dominant altered telomere maintenance mechanism in primary glioblastomas (GBMs). Objective: The aim of this study was to correlate pTERT mutations with clinico-histological features and other molecular markers (p53 protein-expression, ATRX protein-expression, IDH mutations, EGFR gene amplification and MGMT methylation) in adult GBMs. Materials and Methods: Evaluated for histological patterns, p53 and ATRX protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC), IDH mutations by IHC followed by sequencing in IHC negative cases, EGFR gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization, MGMT promoter methylation by methylation-specific PCR and pTERT mutation by sequencing. Results: A total of 155 adult supratentorial GBMs [age-range 20-80 years] formed study cohort. 15.6% were IDH1R132 mutated, none were IDH2R172 mutated and 27% were EGFR amplified. 43% were MGMT methylated and were more common with IDH-mutation (mIDH) than EGFR amplification. 90% of mIDH (but no EGFR amplified) cases showed ATRX-loss. 43.5% were pTERT mutated (C228T was the commonest type) and were mutually exclusive with ATRX-loss. 14% of mIDH and 42% of EGFR amplified cases showed pTERT mutation, the latter was more commonly pMGMT unmethylated (63.6%). Conclusions: 43.5% of the GBMs showed pTERT mutation (C228T was commonest; 72%). pTERT mutations were mutually exclusive with ATRX protein loss, more commonly associated with IDH wild type and EGFR amplified GBMs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioblastoma , Telomerase , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Glioblastoma/genética , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Prognóstico , Telomerase/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto Jovem
12.
World Neurosurg ; 149: e758-e765, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) survive 3-5 years (or longer) after diagnosis. The goal of this study was to identify differences between the long-term survivors (LTS) and those who had a shorter overall survival (non-LTS groups). METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of prospectively maintained surgical databases. All patients who underwent safe maximal resection for GBM were included. Demographic, clinical, radiologic, and pathologic data were obtained from electronic medical records. Values of the biomarkers of systemic inflammation were computed from the preoperative hemogram reports. Patients with an overall survival (OS) ≥36 months were defined as the LTS group and were compared with the non-LTS groups (OS<36 months). RESULTS: Patients in the LTS group were younger, had a better baseline performance status, and were more likely to have undergone near- or gross-total resection. LTS was associated with lower Ki67 labeling, MGMT methylation, IDH mutation, and lack of p53 overexpression. Several novel findings were generated by this study. A longer pretreatment duration of symptoms was associated with a longer OS. Higher pretreatment levels of the absolute neutrophil count, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, monocyte-lymphocyte ratio, derived neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and systemic index of inflammation, and lower levels of the absolute eosinophil count and eosinophil-lymphocyte ratio all correlated with a shorter OS. CONCLUSIONS: Several differences were identified between the LTS and non-LTS groups. These differences will likely be incorporated into future prognostic models. They may also aid in differentiation between recurrent disease and treatment-related changes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Glioblastoma/cirurgia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Neoplasias Encefálicas/sangue , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Metilação de DNA , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Eosinófilos , Feminino , Glioblastoma/sangue , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Avaliação de Estado de Karnofsky , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Contagem de Leucócitos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Margens de Excisão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos , Mutação , Neutrófilos , Contagem de Plaquetas , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
13.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 68(5): e28925, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533557

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the safety and efficacy of concurrent carboplatin during craniospinal irradiation (CSI) in high-risk/metastatic medulloblastoma defined as either residual tumor >1.5 cm2 or leptomeningeal metastases. METHODS: This single-arm combined prospective (2005-2011) and retrospective (2011-2019) study was undertaken at a tertiary care cancer center in India. Following surgery, patients with newly diagnosed high-risk/metastatic medulloblastoma received concurrent carboplatin (35 mg/m2 ) for 15 days (day 1 to day 15) during CSI plus posterior fossa/tumor bed boost, followed by six cycles of standard adjuvant chemotherapy. RESULTS: All 97 patients completed their planned course of radiotherapy without interruptions, except for two (2.1%) patients who had brief gaps due to treatment-related toxicity. Grade 3-4 anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and febrile neutropenia were seen in four (4.1%), 41 (42.2%) 21 (21.6%), and 18 (18.6%) patients, necessitating packed cell transfusion, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and platelet support in five (5.1%), 41 (42.2%), and five (5.1%) patients, respectively, during the concurrent phase. Following myelorecovery, 92 (94.9%) patients completed the planned six cycles of standard adjuvant systemic chemotherapy. There were no treatment-related deaths during the concurrent chemo-radiotherapy phase, while three (3.1%) toxic deaths were ascribed to adjuvant chemotherapy-related complications. At a median follow-up of 82 months, the 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of progression-free survival and overall survival were 60.2% and 62.1%, respectively. On univariate analysis, leptomeningeal metastases (M0/M1 vs. M2/M3) and histological subtype (large cell/anaplastic vs. others) emerged as significant prognostic factors for survival. CONCLUSION: Addition of concurrent carboplatin to RT as radiosensitizing chemotherapy is a simple and effective way of treatment intensification in high-risk/metastatic medulloblastoma.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Cerebelares/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia/métodos , Meduloblastoma/terapia , Adolescente , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Criança , Radiação Cranioespinal/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
iScience ; 24(1): 101968, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33458617

RESUMO

Dopamine (DA) plays many roles in the brain, especially in movement, motivation, and reinforcement of behavior; however, its role in regulating innate immunity is not clear. Here, we show that DA can induce DNA-based extracellular traps in primary, adult, human microglia and BV2 microglia cell line. These DNA-based extracellular traps are formed independent of reactive oxygen species, actin polymerization, and cell death. These traps are functional and capture fluorescein (FITC)-tagged Escherichia coli even when reactive oxygen species production or actin polymerization is inhibited. We show that microglial extracellular traps are present in Glioblastoma multiforme. This is crucial because Glioblastoma multiforme cells are known to secrete DA. Our findings demonstrate that DA plays a significant role in sterile neuro-inflammation by inducing microglia extracellular traps.

15.
Brain Tumor Pathol ; 38(2): 96-108, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438046

RESUMO

Medulloblastoma, a common malignant brain tumor in children, comprises four molecular subgroups WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4. In the present study, we performed a deep proteome-based investigation of SHH, Group 3 and Group 4 tumors. The adult SHH medulloblastomas were found to have a distinct proteomic profile. Several RNA metabolism-related pathways including mRNA splicing, 5' to 3' RNA decay, 3' to 5' RNA decay by the RNA exosome, and the N6-methyladenosine modification of RNA were enriched in adult SHH tumors. The heightened expression of the RNA surveillance pathways is likely to be essential for the viability of adult SHH subgroup medulloblastomas, which carry mutations in U1snRNA encoding gene and thus could be a vulnerability of these tumors. Group 3 and Group 4 medulloblastomas, on the other hand, are known to have an overlap in their expression profiles and underlying genetic alterations. Group 3 proteome was found to be distinctively enriched in several metabolic pathways including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glutamine anabolism, glutathione-mediated anti-oxidant pathway, and drug metabolism pathway suggests that the extensive metabolic rewiring is likely to be responsible for the aggressive clinical behavior of Group 3 tumors. This comprehensive proteomic analysis has provided valuable insight into the biology of Group 3 and adult SHH medulloblastomas, which could be further explored for effective treatment of these tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Meduloblastoma/genética , Meduloblastoma/metabolismo , Proteômica , RNA Neoplásico/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/classificação , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meduloblastoma/classificação , Meduloblastoma/terapia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Mutação/genética , RNA Neoplásico/genética
16.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 37(3): 839-849, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761378

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose is to highlight the primary intracranial (meningeal-based) occurrence of Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET). METHODS: This report is a collation of clinicopathological features of eight cases of molecularly and clinicoradiologically confirmed primary (non-metastatic) intracranial (non-osseous) meningeal ES/PNET. RESULTS: The age range was 1 to 33 years with a median age of 9 years. Male to female ratio was 0.6:1. All patients were diagnosed on the debulking surgical material (gross total resection, 2 cases; subtotal resection, 6 cases) and showed primitive embryonal histomorphology with diffuse membranous CD99 immunoexpression and EWSR1 gene rearrangement by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Seven of them showed a typical FISH pattern of split signals with break-apart probe, while one showed an unusual signal pattern of loss of green signals. EFT-2001 adjuvant protocol was followed along with focal radiotherapy (RT) in all cases (except case 8, full course of chemotherapy could not be completed). Two cases had local recurrence-one of them died of disease recurrence before the administration of further treatment. CONCLUSION: This series adds non-osseous intracranial site to the list of uncommon sites of occurrence for ES/PNET and more importantly emphasizes the need to be considered in a differential list of primary intracranial primitive embryonal tumors before embarking as primary central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumor, NOS.


Assuntos
Tumores Neuroectodérmicos Primitivos Periféricos , Tumores Neuroectodérmicos Primitivos , Sarcoma de Ewing , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Lactente , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Tumores Neuroectodérmicos Primitivos/diagnóstico por imagem , Tumores Neuroectodérmicos Primitivos/terapia , Tumores Neuroectodérmicos Primitivos Periféricos/diagnóstico por imagem , Tumores Neuroectodérmicos Primitivos Periféricos/genética , Tumores Neuroectodérmicos Primitivos Periféricos/terapia , Sarcoma de Ewing/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcoma de Ewing/genética , Sarcoma de Ewing/terapia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Surg Pathol ; 29(2): 155-164, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703045

RESUMO

Objectives. Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a rare malignant pediatric brain tumor, characterized by inactivation of INI1/hSNF5 gene and loss of its protein. We studied the histomorphological and immunohistochemical spectrum of this tumor including cyclin D1 expression and MYC gene amplification. Methods. Cases with INI1 loss by immunohistochemistry (IHC; from 2005 to 2018) were retrieved, reviewed, and evaluated for cyclin D1 expression by additional IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization for MYC genes. Results. A total of 66 cases were identified. Age ranged from 1 to 20 years (≤3 years, 44 cases; >3 years, 22). Male to female ratio was 1.7:1. Tumor locations were as follows: posterior fossa: 30; supratentorial: 31; spinal: 5. AT/RT in patient ≤3 years was frequently located in the posterior fossa, composed of primitive embryonal morphology (P = .02), rarely had ample rhabdoid cells (P = .05), and had a negative impact on overall survival (P = .04). The rhabdoid cells was a conspicuous component of posterior fossa tumors compared with the supratentorial ones (P = .06). The supratentorial tumors (P = .06), absence of rhabdoid cells (P = .06), and the presence of immunological divergent differentiation (P = .11) had a comparatively better outcome. Cyclin D1 overexpression (n = 46) was noted in 32 cases and was frequently seen in the posterior fossa tumors (P = .02). CMYC (n = 42) amplification was seen in 1 case and the NMYC (n = 42) amplification in none. Conclusion. AT/RT can occur in the noninfantile age group, at nonconventional sites and frequently overexpress cyclin D1. The MYC alterations are almost nonexistent in AT/RT.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Ciclina D1/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Tumor Rabdoide/patologia , Teratoma/patologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Amplificação de Genes , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Lactente , Masculino , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/genética , Tumor Rabdoide/genética , Proteína SMARCB1/genética , Teratoma/genética , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Clin Neurosci ; 84: 91-96, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358093

RESUMO

Central neurocytoma is a rare benign brain tumor that typically arises from the subependymal lining of the lateral ventricles in young adults and is generally associated with excellent survival following neurosurgical excision alone. This is a retrospective clinical audit of biopsy-proven neurocytoma registered between 2004 and 2019 at a single institution in India. All time-to event outcomes were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. Any p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 66 patients with neurocytoma were included in the descriptive analysis. Median age of study cohort was 31 years with equitable gender ratio. Majority (83%) of tumors were intraventricular, lateral ventricle being the commonest location. Following maximal safe resection, patients were generally kept on close clinico-radiological surveillance. Most patients (80%) had typical World Health Organization (WHO) grade II neurocytoma with remaining 20% showing histological atypia and/or high-grade features. Outcome analysis was restricted to 35 patients with relevant treatment details and adequate follow-up information. Six patients experienced recurrent/progressive disease with 2 documented deaths. At a median follow up of 52 months, 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of progression-free survival and overall survival were 93.3% and 96.8% respectively. Three patients developed delayed recurrence (>5-years after initial diagnosis) underscoring the importance of long-term follow-up. Atypical/high-grade histology was associated with inferior survival that may stand to benefit with upfront adjuvant radiotherapy. This represents the largest single-institution series of central neurocytoma and demonstrates excellent outcomes with adequate surgical resection alone, reserving radiotherapy for large residual tumor, recurrent disease, and/or atypical high-grade histology.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neurocitoma/patologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Neurocitoma/mortalidade , Neurocitoma/cirurgia , Radioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090916

RESUMO

Purpose: There is lack of consensus on management of adolescent and young adult (AYA) Hodgkin lymphoma with respect to chemotherapy approach (adult or pediatric). Hence we sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vinblastine and Dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy in AYA Hodgkin lymphoma. Patients and Methods: It is a retrospective, observational, single-center study. From January 2013 to December 2016, all consecutive patients with AYA (15-25 years, all stages) were analyzed. The primary endpoint of the study was event-free survival (EFS). Secondary endpoints were complete response rates (CR) and overall survival (OS). Results: A total of 220 patients (70% men) with median age 20 years were evaluated. A significant proportion of patients had adverse features such as stage III/IV disease (63%), bulky disease (63%), extranodal involvement (37%), and marrow involvement (22%). After two cycles and end of therapy, 77% patients achieved complete response. Primary progressive disease was seen in 6% patients. With a median follow-up of 2.6 years, 19 (8.6%) patients relapsed, 1 patient developed second malignancy, and 6 patients died. Three-year EFS and OS were 81.3% and 97%, respectively. Bleomycin-induced lung injury was seen in 16% patients. On multivariate analysis stage at presentation, bone marrow involvement, partial response at interim positron emission tomography and International prognosis score (IPS) >3 were predictors of poor EFS. Conclusion: ABVD is an effective and safe regimen in AYA Hodgkin lymphoma. Advanced disease with high IPS (>3) score needs an early escalation approach to escBEACOPP regimen.

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