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1.
Int J Behav Med ; 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies link psychological resources to better physical health. One reason may be that psychological resources are protective in stressful contexts. This study tested whether indeed psychological resources are protective against biological degradation for healthy mid-life women under the chronic stress of caring for a child with an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis ("caregivers"). METHODS: We tested whether five types of psychosocial resources (i.e., eudaimonic well-being, autonomy, purpose in life, self-acceptance, and mastery) were associated with biological indices of aging in a sample of mid-life women stratified by chronic stress; half were caregivers (n = 92) and half were mothers of neurotypical children (n = 91; controls). Selected stress and age related biological outcomes were insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), systemic inflammation (IL-6, CRP), and cellular aging (leukocyte telomere length). We tested whether each resource was associated with these biomarkers, and whether caregiving status and high parenting stress moderated that relationship. RESULTS: All the psychological resources except mastery were significantly negatively associated with insulin resistance, while none were related to systemic inflammation or telomere length. The relationships between eudaimonic well-being and HOMA-IR, and self-acceptance and HOMA-IR, were moderated by parental stress; lower resources were associated with higher insulin resistance, but only for women reporting high parental stress. The well-known predictors of age and BMI accounted for 46% of variance in insulin resistance, and psychological resources accounted for an additional 13% of variance.  CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that higher eudaimonic well-being and greater self-acceptance may be protective for the metabolic health of mid-life women, and particularly in the context of high parenting stress. This has important implications given the rising rates of both parental stress and metabolic disease, and because psychological interventions can increase eudaimonic well-being and self-acceptance.

2.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 391, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282132

RESUMO

Early childhood and pregnancy are two sensitive periods of heightened immune plasticity, when exposure to adversity may disproportionately increase health risks. However, we need deeper phenotyping to disentangle the impact of adversity during sensitive periods from that across the total lifespan. This study examined whether retrospective reports of adversity during childhood or pregnancy were associated with inflammatory imbalance, in an ethnically diverse cohort of 53 low-income women seeking family-based trauma treatment following exposure to interpersonal violence. Structured interviews assessed early life adversity (trauma exposure ≤ age 5), pregnancy adversity, and total lifetime adversity. Blood serum was assayed for pro-inflammatory (TNF-a, IL-1ß, IL-6, and CRP) and anti-inflammatory (IL-1RA, IL-4, and IL-10) cytokines. CD14+ monocytes were isolated in a subsample (n = 42) and gene expression assayed by RNA sequencing (Illumina HiSeq 4000; TruSeq cDNA library). The primary outcome was a macrophage-associated M1/M2 gene expression phenotype. To evaluate sensitivity and specificity, we contrasted M1/M2 gene expression with a second, clinically-validated macrophage-associated immunosuppressive phenotype (endotoxin tolerance) and with pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels. Adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic status, and psychopathology, higher adversity in early life (ß = .337, p = 0.029) and pregnancy (ß = .332, p = 0.032) were each associated with higher M1/M2 gene expression, whereas higher lifetime adversity (ß = -.341, p = 0.031) was associated with lower immunosuppressive gene expression. Adversity during sensitive periods was uniquely associated with M1/M2 imbalance, among low-income women with interpersonal violence exposure. Given that M1/M2 imbalance is found in sepsis, severe COVID-19 and myriad chronic diseases, these findings implicate novel immune mechanisms underlying the impact of adversity on health.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pré-Escolar , Citocinas , Feminino , Humanos , Macrófagos , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Violência
4.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(7): 3034-3042, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875799

RESUMO

Higher levels of omega-3 track with longer telomeres, lower inflammation, and blunted sympathetic and cardiovascular stress reactivity. Whether omega-3 supplementation alters the stress responsivity of telomerase, cortisol, and inflammation is unknown. This randomized, controlled trial examined the impact of omega-3 supplementation on cellular aging-related biomarkers following a laboratory speech stressor. In total, 138 sedentary, overweight, middle-aged participants (n = 93 women, n = 45 men) received either 2.5 g/d of omega-3, 1.25 g/d of omega-3, or a placebo for 4 months. Before and after the trial, participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test. Saliva and blood samples were collected once before and repeatedly after the stressor to measure salivary cortisol, telomerase in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and serum anti-inflammatory (interleukin-10; IL-10) and pro-inflammatory (interleukin-6; IL-6, interleukin-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha) cytokines. Adjusting for pre-supplementation reactivity, age, sagittal abdominal diameter, and sex, omega-3 supplementation altered telomerase (p = 0.05) and IL-10 (p = 0.05) stress reactivity; both supplementation groups were protected from the placebo group's 24% and 26% post-stress declines in the geometric means of telomerase and IL-10, respectively. Omega-3 also reduced overall cortisol (p = 0.03) and IL-6 (p = 0.03) throughout the stressor; the 2.5 g/d group had 19% and 33% lower overall cortisol levels and IL-6 geometric mean levels, respectively, compared to the placebo group. By lowering overall inflammation and cortisol levels during stress and boosting repair mechanisms during recovery, omega-3 may slow accelerated aging and reduce depression risk. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00385723.

5.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652807

RESUMO

Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages increases risk factors associated with cardiometabolic disease, in part due to hepatic fructose overload. However, it is not clear whether consumption of beverages containing fructose as naturally occurring sugar produces equivalent metabolic dysregulation as beverages containing added sugars. We compared the effects of consuming naturally-sweetened orange juice (OJ) or sucrose-sweetened beverages (sucrose-SB) for two weeks on risk factors for cardiometabolic disease. Healthy, overweight women (n = 20) were assigned to consume either 3 servings of 100% orange juice or sucrose-SB/day. We conducted 16-hour serial blood collections and 3-h oral glucose tolerance tests during a 30-h inpatient visit at baseline and after the 2-week diet intervention. The 16-h area under the curve (AUC) for uric acid increased in subjects consuming sucrose-SB compared with subjects consuming OJ. Unlike sucrose-SB, OJ did not significantly increase fasting or postprandial lipoproteins. Consumption of both beverages resulted in reductions in the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (OJ: -0.40 ± 0.18, p = 0.04 within group; sucrose-SB: -1.0 ± 0.38, p = 0.006 within group; p = 0.53 between groups). Findings from this pilot study suggest that consumption of OJ at levels above the current dietary guidelines for sugar intake does not increase plasma uric acid concentrations compared with sucrose-SB, but appears to lead to comparable decreases of insulin sensitivity.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sacarose/análise , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/terapia , Projetos Piloto , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Ácido Úrico/sangue
6.
Ann Behav Med ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33778854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Environmental and behavioral interventions hold promise to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage (SSBs) consumption. PURPOSE: To test, among frequent SSB consumers, whether motivations to consume SSBs moderated the effects of (a) a workplace SSB sales ban (environmental intervention) alone, and (b) a "brief motivational intervention" (BI) in addition to the sales ban, on changes in SSB consumption. METHODS: We assessed whether (1) baseline motivations to consume SSBs (craving, psychological stress, or taste enjoyment) impacted changes in daily SSB consumption at 6-month follow-up among frequent (>12oz of SSBs/day) SSB consumers (N = 214); (2) participants randomized to the BI (n = 109) versus to the sales ban only (n = 105) reported greater reductions in SSB consumption at follow-up; and (3) motivations to consume SSBs moderated any changes in SSB consumption. RESULTS: In response to the sales ban alone, individuals with stronger SSB cravings (+1 SD) at baseline showed significantly smaller reductions in daily SSB consumption at 6-month follow-up relative to individuals with weaker (-1 SD) SSB cravings (2.5 oz vs. 22.5 oz), p < .01. Receiving the BI significantly increased reductions for those with stronger SSB cravings: Among individuals with stronger cravings, those who received the BI evidenced significantly greater reductions in daily SSB consumption [M(SE) = -19.2 (2.74) oz] than those who did not [M(SE) = -2.5 (2.3) oz, p < .001], a difference of 16.72 oz. CONCLUSIONS: Frequent SSB consumers with stronger SSB cravings report minimal reductions in daily SSB consumption with a sales ban only, but report greater reductions if they also receive a motivational intervention. Future multilevel interventions for institutions should consider both environmental and individualized multi-level interventions. CLINICAL TRIAL INFORMATION: NCT02585336.

7.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood trauma (CT) increases the risk of adult depression. Buffering effects require an understanding of the underlying persistent risk pathways. This study examined whether daily psychological stress processes - how an individual interprets and affectively responds to minor everyday events - mediate the effect of CT on adult depressive symptoms. METHODS: Middle-aged women (N = 183) reported CT at baseline and completed daily diaries of threat appraisals and negative evening affect for 7 days at baseline, 9, and 18 months. Depressive symptoms were measured across the 1.5-year period. Mediation was examined using multilevel structural equation modeling. RESULTS: Reported CT predicted greater depressive symptoms over the 1.5-year time period (estimate = 0.27, s.e. = 0.07, 95% CI 0.15-0.38, p < 0.001). Daily threat appraisals and negative affect mediated the effect of reported CT on depressive symptoms (estimate = 0.34, s.e. = 0.08, 95% CI 0.22-0.46, p < 0.001). Daily threat appraisals explained more than half of this effect (estimate = 0.19, s.e. = 0.07, 95% CI 0.08-0.30, p = 0.004). Post hoc analyses in individuals who reported at least moderate severity of CT showed that lower threat appraisals buffered depressive symptoms. A similar pattern was found in individuals who reported no/low severity of CT. CONCLUSIONS: A reported history of CT acts as a latent vulnerability, exaggerating threat appraisals of everyday events, which trigger greater negative evening affect - processes that have important mental health consequences and may provide malleable intervention targets.

8.
Acad Emerg Med ; 28(3): 314-324, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492755

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective was to provide a longitudinal assessment of anxiety levels and work and home concerns of U.S. emergency physicians during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We performed a longitudinal, cross-sectional email survey of clinically active emergency physicians (attending, fellow, and resident) at seven academic emergency departments. Follow-up surveys were sent 4 to 6 weeks after the initial survey and assessed the following: COVID-19 patient exposure, availability of COVID-19 testing, levels of home and workplace anxiety/stress, changes in behaviors, and performance on a primary care posttraumatic stress disorder screen (PC-PTSD-5). Logistic regression explored factors associated with a high PC-PTSD-5 scale score (≥3), indicating increased risk for PTSD. RESULTS: Of the 426 surveyed initial respondents, 262 (61.5%) completed the follow-up survey. While 97.3% (255/262) reported treating suspected COVID-19 patients, most physicians (162/262, 61.8%) had not received testing themselves. In follow-up, respondents were most concerned about the relaxing of social distancing leading to a second wave (median score = 6, IQR = 4-7). Physicians reported a consistently high ability to order COVID-19 tests for patients (median score = 6, IQR = 5-7) and access to personal protective equipment (median score = 6, IQR = 5-6). Women physicians were more likely to score ≥ 3 than men on the PC-PTSD-5 screener on the initial survey (43.3% vs. 22.5%; Δ 20.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.3% to 31.5%), and despite decreases in overall proportions, this discrepancy remained in follow-up (34.7% vs. 16.8%; Δ 17.9%, 95% CI = 7.1% to 28.1%). In examining the relationship between demographics, living situations, and institution location on having a PC-PTSD-5 score ≥ 3, only female sex was associated with a PC-PTSD-5 score ≥ 3 (adjusted odds ratio = 2.48, 95% CI = 1.28 to 4.79). CONCLUSIONS: While exposure to suspected COVID-19 patients was nearly universal, stress levels in emergency physicians decreased with time. At both initial and follow-up assessments, women were more likely to test positive on the PC-PTSD-5 screener compared to men.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Médicos , Teste para COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Dev Psychobiol ; 63(5): 890-902, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given associations linking early life adversity, pubertal timing, and biological aging, we examined the direct and indirect effects of early life trauma on adult biological aging (via age of menarche). METHODS: Participants were premenopausal women (N = 183). Path models evaluated whether early life trauma predicted early pubertal timing and thereby, adult epigenetic age acceleration (indexed via four epigenetic clocks: Horvath DNAm Age, Hannum DNAm Age, DNAm PhenoAge, and DNAm GrimAge). Secondary analyses explored the effects of type of trauma (abuse and neglect) and adult chronic stress status (caregiver of child with autism and non-caregiver). RESULTS: Early life trauma and earlier age at menarche independently predicted accelerated aging based on one of the four epigenetic clocks, DNAm GrimAge, though early life trauma was not associated with age of menarche. Childhood abuse, but not neglect, predicted faster epigenetic aging; results did not differ by chronic stress status. CONCLUSIONS: Early trauma and early menarche appear to exert independent effects on DNAm GrimAge, which has been shown to be the strongest epigenetic predictor of mortality risk. This study identifies a potential correlate or determinant of accelerated epigenetic aging-menarcheal age. Future research should address the limitations of this study by using racially diverse samples.

10.
Ann Surg ; 273(3): 424-432, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773637

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of ESRT (an iteratively adapted and tailored MBI) on perceived stress, executive cognitive function, psychosocial well-being (ie, burnout, mindfulness), and pro-inflammatory gene expression in surgical (ESRT-1) and mixed specialty (ESRT-2) PGY-1 volunteers. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND AND DATA: Tailored MBIs have proven beneficial in multiple high-stress and high-performance populations. In surgeons, tailored MBIs have been shown to be feasible and potentially beneficial, but whether mindfulness-based cognitive training can improve perceived stress, executive function, well-being or physiological distress in surgical and nonsurgical trainees is unknown. METHODS: In 2 small single-institution randomized clinical trials, ESRT, a tailored mindfulness-based cognitive training program, was administered and iteratively adapted for first-year surgical (ESRT-1, 8 weekly, 2-hour classes, n = 44) and mixed specialty (ESRT-2, 6 weekly, 90-minute classes, n = 45) resident trainees. Primary and secondary outcomes were, respectively, perceived stress and executive function. Other prespecified outcomes were burnout (assessed via Maslach Burnout Inventory), mindfulness (assessed via Cognitive Affective Mindfulness Scale - Revised), and pro-inflammatory gene expression (assessed through the leukocyte transcriptome profile "conserved transcriptional response to adversity"). RESULTS: Neither version of ESRT appeared to affect perceived stress. Higher executive function and mindfulness scores were seen in ESRT-1, and lower emotional exhaustion and depersonalization scores in ESRT-2, at pre-/postintervention and/or 50-week follow-up (ESRT-1) or at 32-week follow-up (ESRT-2), compared to controls. Pooled analysis of both trials found ESRT-treated participants had reduced pro-inflammatory RNA expression compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot work suggests ESRT can variably benefit executive function, burnout, and physiologic distress in PGY-1 trainees, with potential for tailoring to optimize effects.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Estresse Ocupacional/patologia , Estresse Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Resiliência Psicológica , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Adulto , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Feminino , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
11.
Ann Behav Med ; 55(1): 65-76, 2021 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The responsibility and stress of being a family caregiver are associated with reduced physical and mental health. PURPOSE: To examine whether a 24-week aerobic exercise program improves multiple aspects of psychological functioning in family caregivers. METHODS: Family caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease and other dementias (n = 68) were recruited and randomized into either an aerobic exercise group (n = 34) or a waitlist control group (n = 34). The exercise group was assigned a 24-week aerobic training program that incrementally increased the intensity, duration, and frequency of the exercise program until 150 min of moderate to vigorous activity were completed per week by the ninth week. Twelve measures of psychological functioning were administered at baseline and compared with responses completed following the intervention. RESULTS: Multilevel modeling revealed significant decreases in caregiver burden (ß = -4.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [-8.82, -0.38], RLMM2 = 0.11) and depression (ß = -2.59, 95% CI = [-4.79, -0.38], RLMM2 = 0.13), as well as increases in mastery (ß = 1.78, 95% CI = [0.09, 3.46], RLMM2 = .04) in the exercise intervention group compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: Family caregivers report high levels of depression and caregiver burden. Engagement in a 24-week exercise intervention can ameliorate the perceived burden of caregiving, symptoms of depression, and their sense of mastery.

12.
Brain Behav Immun ; 92: 49-56, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221485

RESUMO

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation has been associated with altered immune function, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation, respond to the glucocorticoid end-products of the HPA axis (cortisol in humans) and could be involved in this neuroendocrine-immune crosstalk. Here we examined the extent to which variations in HPA axis regulation are associated with peripheral blood DNA (CpG) methylation changes in 57 chronically stressed caregivers and 67 control women. DNA methylation was determined with the Illumina 450k array for a panel of genes involved in HPA axis and immune function. HPA axis feedback was assessed with the low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (DST), measuring the extent to which cortisol secretion is suppressed by the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone. After multiple testing correction in the entire cohort, higher post-DST cortisol, reflecting blunted HPA axis negative feedback, but not baseline waking cortisol, was associated with lower DNA methylation at eight TNF and two FKBP5 CpG sites. Caregiver group status was associated with lower methylation at two IL6 CpG sites. Since associations were most robust with TNF methylation (32% of the 450k-covered sites), we further examined functionality of this epigenetic signature in cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells in 33 participants; intriguingly, lower TNF methylation resulted in higher ex vivo TNF mRNA following immune stimulation. Taken together, our findings link chronic stress and HPA axis regulation with epigenetic signatures at immune-related genes, thereby providing novel insights into how aberrant HPA axis function may contribute to heightened inflammation and disease risk.


Assuntos
Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Dexametasona , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Leucócitos Mononucleares
13.
Psychosom Med ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214537

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: People of color and lower socioeconomic groups have higher obesity prevalence, lose less weight compared with Whites and higher socioeconomic groups, and are underrepresented in randomized controlled trials of mindfulness-based interventions. We examined whether mindfulness approaches reduce disparities in weight loss interventions. METHODS: We analyzed data from a randomized controlled trial of 194 participants with obesity (41% participants of color, 36% without college degree) comparing a 5.5-month mindfulness-based weight loss intervention to an active-control with identical diet-exercise guidelines. We assessed attendance, 18-month attrition, and weight change at 6, 12, and 18 months by race/ethnicity and education level using linear mixed models, adjusting for baseline body mass index, age, and education or race/ethnicity, respectively. RESULTS: Participants without versus with a college degree attended fewer sessions and had higher attrition across interventions. Participants of color attended fewer intervention sessions in the mindfulness compared with the control intervention. Overall, participants of color lost significantly less weight at 12 and 18 months compared with Whites. However, during the 6- to 18-month maintenance period, we found an interaction of intervention arm, race/ethnicity, and time (p = .035), indicating that participants of color compared with Whites regained more weight in the control (0.33 kg/mo; p = .005) but not mindfulness intervention (0.06 kg/mo; p = .62). Participants without a college degree had greater initial weight loss in the mindfulness compared to control intervention from 0 to 6 months (-0.46 kg/mo; p = .039). CONCLUSIONS: Although disparities persist, mindfulness approaches may mitigate some racial/ethnic and socioeconomic differences in weight loss compared with conventional diet-exercise programs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov registration: NCT00960414.

14.
Ageing Res Rev ; 63: 101167, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979553

RESUMO

Geroscience offers a counterpoint to the challenged pursuit of curing diseases of aging, by focusing on slowing the biological aging process for extended healthspan earlier in life. Remarkable progress has led this field toward animal trials and the next challenge lies with translation to humans. There is an emerging number of small human trials that can take advantage of new models integrating behavioral and social factors. Understanding dynamic aging mechanisms, given the powerful social determinants of aging (Crimmins, 2020) and human variability and environmental contexts (Moffitt, 2020), will be critical. Behavioral and social factors are intrinsic to aging. Toxic stressors broadly defined can lead to stress-acceleration of aging, either directly impacting aging processes or by shaping poor behavioral health, and underlie the socioeconomic disparities of aging. In contrast, hormetic stressors, acute intermittent stressors of moderate intensity, can produce stress resilience, the ability for quick recovery and possibly rejuvenation of cells and tissues. Although health research usually examines static biomarkers, aging is reflected in dynamic ability to recover from challenges pointing to new interventions and targets for examining mechanisms. A fuller model incorporating stress resilience provides innovative biobehavioral interventions, both for bolstering response to challenges, such as COVID-19, and for improving healthspan.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Hormese , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Rejuvenescimento , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with increased allostatic load (AL; a measure of physiological costs of repeated/chronic stress-responding) and metabolic dysregulation (MetD; a measure of metabolic health and precursor to many medical illnesses). Though AL and MetD are associated with poor somatic health outcomes, little is known regarding their relationship with antidepressant-treatment outcomes. METHODS: We determined pre-treatment AL and MetD in 67 healthy controls and 34 unmedicated, medically healthy MDD subjects. Following this, MDD subjects completed 8-weeks of open-label selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant treatment and were categorized as 'Responders' (⩾50% improvement in depression severity ratings) or 'Non-responders' (<50% improvement). Logistic and linear regressions were performed to determine if pre-treatment AL or MetD scores predicted SSRI-response. Secondary analyses examined cross-sectional differences between MDD and control groups. RESULTS: Pre-treatment AL and MetD scores significantly predicted continuous antidepressant response (i.e. absolute decreases in depression severity ratings) (p = 0.012 and 0.014, respectively), as well as post-treatment status as a Responder or Non-responder (p = 0.022 and 0.040, respectively), such that higher pre-treatment AL and MetD were associated with poorer SSRI-treatment outcomes. Pre-treatment AL and MetD of Responders were similar to Controls, while those of Non-responders were significantly higher than both Responders (p = 0.025 and 0.033, respectively) and Controls (p = 0.039 and 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary findings suggest that indices of metabolic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis dysregulation are associated with poorer SSRI-treatment response. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that these markers of medical disease risk also predict poorer antidepressant outcomes.

17.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 120(3): 395-403, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity, a condition of inadequate household food availability, affects 15.7% of US households with children. Food insecurity is generally believed to affect the quantity and quality of food consumed. However, an understudied but important aspect of the experience of food insecurity is psychological distress. OBJECTIVE: To critically explore the psychological distress associated with children's food insecurity using children's own reports of their experiences. DESIGN: In-depth qualitative interviews conducted with children to better understand the psychological distress associated with food insecurity. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Sixty children (aged 7 to 14 years) were recruited from the San Francisco Bay Area. Children were eligible in the case that they spoke English fluently and their parent reported any experience of household food insecurity during the past year. RESULTS: Children discussed six themes related to the psychological distress associated with food insecurity: worrying about not having enough food, worrying about their parents' well-being, anger and frustration about not having enough food, embarrassment about their family's food situation, strain on the family's dynamics due to food insecurity, and sadness over not having enough food. After describing their experiences, children described strategies they employed to tolerate or cope with food insecurity, including distracting from or using their imagination to cope with food insecurity, increasing tolerance of their family's food situation, and appreciating their parents for providing food and resources. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity contributes to children's psychological distress. Given the known effects of chronic stress in childhood, the psychological distress of food insecurity may represent an important mechanism by which food insecurity adversely influences children's growth and development and deserves investigation in future studies.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Pobreza/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , São Francisco
18.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 77(5): 484-492, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968068

RESUMO

Importance: Despite the prevalence and adverse consequences of prenatal insomnia, a paucity of research is available regarding interventions to improve insomnia symptoms during pregnancy. Objective: To test the efficacy of digital cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) compared with standard treatment among pregnant women with insomnia symptoms. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial enrolled pregnant women from November 23, 2016, to May 22, 2018. Of the 2258 women assessed for eligibility using an online self-report questionnaire, 208 were randomized to receive digital CBT-I (n = 105) or standard treatment (n = 103) for insomnia. Participants were pregnant up to 28 weeks' gestation, and they either had elevated insomnia symptom severity or met the criteria for insomnia caseness as determined by self-report questionnaires. Participants completed outcome measures at 10 weeks (postintervention) and 18 weeks (follow-up) after randomization. All study visits were completed remotely, and the intervention was delivered digitally. Data were analyzed between December 12, 2018, and July 2, 2019. Interventions: Digital CBT-I consisted of 6 weekly sessions of approximately 20 minutes each. Standard treatment reflected standard care. Women receiving standard treatment had no limits placed on the receipt of nonstudy treatments, including medication and psychotherapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: All outcomes were assessed remotely using self-report questionnaires administered via online survey. The primary outcome was the change in insomnia symptom severity (measured by the Insomnia Severity Index) from baseline to postintervention. Secondary outcomes were sleep efficiency and nightly sleep duration (defined by sleep diary), global sleep quality (measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), depressive symptom severity (measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), and anxiety symptom severity (measured by the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7). For each outcome, we also examined the change from baseline to follow-up. Results: The 208 participants had a mean (SD) age of 33.6 (3.7) years and a mean (SD) gestational age of 17.6 (6.3) weeks at baseline. Most of the participants were white (138 [66.3%]), married or cohabiting (196 [94.2%]), had a college degree (180 [86.5%]), and earned $100 000 or more per year (141 [67.8%]). Women randomized to receive digital CBT-I experienced statistically significantly greater improvements in insomnia symptom severity from baseline to postintervention compared with women randomized to receive standard treatment (time-by-group interaction, difference = -0.36; 95% CI, -0.48 to -0.23; χ2 = 29.8; P < .001; d = -1.03). Improvements from baseline to postintervention for all secondary outcomes, with the exception of sleep duration, were statistically significant. A similar pattern of results was evident for the change from baseline to follow-up. Conclusions and Relevance: In this trial, digital CBT was an effective, scalable, safe, and acceptable intervention for improving insomnia symptoms during pregnancy. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02805998.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia , Telemedicina/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Health Psychol ; 39(3): 209-219, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928029

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Telomeres are protective sequences of DNA capping the ends of chromosomes that shorten over time. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is posited to reflect the replicative history of cells and general systemic aging of the organism. Chronic stress exposure leads to accelerated LTL shortening, which has been linked to increased susceptibility to and faster progression of aging-related diseases. This study examined longitudinal associations between LTL and experiences of racial discrimination, a qualitatively unique source of minority psychosocial stress, among African Americans. METHOD: Data are from 391 African Americans in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Telomere Ancillary Study. We examined the number of domains in which racial discrimination was experienced in relation to LTL collected in Years 15 and 25 (Y15: 2000/2001; Y25: 2010/2011). Multivariable linear regression examined if racial discrimination was associated with LTL. Latent change score analysis (LCS) examined changes in racial discrimination and LTL in relation to one another. RESULTS: Controlling for racial discrimination at Y15, multivariable linear regression analyses indicated that racial discrimination at Y25 was significantly associated with LTL at Y25. This relationship remained robust after adjusting for LTL at Y15 (b = -.019, p = .015). Consistent with this finding, LCS revealed that increases in experiences of racial discrimination were associated with faster 10-year LTL shortening (b = -.019, p = .015). CONCLUSIONS: This study adds to evidence that racial discrimination contributes to accelerated physiologic weathering and health declines among African Americans through its impact on biological systems, including via its effects on telomere attrition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Racismo/psicologia , Encurtamento do Telômero/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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