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1.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 31(1): 10-15, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30045096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is defined as a triad characterized by arterial deoxygenation, intrapulmonary vascular dilatations (IPVDs), and liver disorder. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of HPS in children with cirrhosis, the clinical characteristics of patients with HPS, and the tests used for the diagnosis of IPVD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study of 40 children with cirrhosis (median age: 44 months). Investigations of HPS included arterial blood gas analysis, contrast-enhanced transthoracic echocardiography (CE-TTE), and perfusion lung scanning using technetium-99m-labeled macroaggregated albumin (Tc-MMA). Patients' clinical characteristics (age, etiology of cirrhosis, and severity of hepatopathy) were assessed. HPS was defined as liver disease; alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient of at least 15 mmHg and/or partial pressure of arterial oxygen less than 80 mmHg; and detection of IPVD by CE-TTE or Tc-MMA scanning. Statistical significance was indicated by a P value less than 0.05. RESULTS: The prevalence of HPS was 42.5% (17/40). Eight patients had moderate HPS (47%) and two patients had severe HPS (12%). In bivariate analysis, biliary atresia (P=0.033) and median age (10 months; P=0.005) were associated with HPS. In multivariate analysis, only age remained statistically significant (prevalence ratio=0.99; 95% confidence interval=0.98-0.99; P=0.010). Sixteen patients with HPS had IPVD detected by CE-TTE (94.1%) and six patients had IPVD detected by Tc-MMA scanning (35.3%), with no significant agreement between these methods (κ=-0.12; P=0.163). CONCLUSION: HPS is a common complication of cirrhosis in children. A combination of clinical and imaging criteria should be used to diagnose HPS.


Assuntos
Síndrome Hepatopulmonar/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Gasometria , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Síndrome Hepatopulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome Hepatopulmonar/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Imagem de Perfusão/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Agregado de Albumina Marcado com Tecnécio Tc 99m/administração & dosagem
2.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 36(4): 457-465, out.-dez. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-977093

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar a espessura muscular e a gordura subcutânea entre pacientes com fibrose cística (FC) e controles saudáveis e correlacionar os achados ultrassonográficos com variáveis nutricionais, clínicas e de função pulmonar. Métodos: Foram incluídos sujeitos (6 a 18 anos) com o diagnóstico de FC e indivíduos saudáveis. Foram realizadas medidas antropométricas, avaliação ultrassonográfica da espessura muscular e da gordura subcutânea do tríceps, quadríceps e da região do gastrocnêmio, além da quantificação das pregas cutâneas. O percentual de gordura corporal foi estimado pelas pregas cutâneas. Osindivíduos com FC também tiveram a função pulmonar avaliada por espirometria. Resultados: Foram incluídos 39 pacientes com FC e 45 controles. Ossujeitos com FC apresentaram do índice de massa corporal menor (p=0,011). Acomposição corporal e a espessura muscular foram similares entre os grupos. Apenas a circunferência da panturrilha (p=0,023) e o diâmetro do fêmur (p<0,001) foram menores nos pacientes com FC. Embora sem diferença na comparação dos achados ultrassonográficos da gordura subcutânea, os pacientes com FC apresentaram redução das dobras cutâneas do tríceps (p=0,0031) e do quadríceps (p=0,019). Além disso, observaram-se correlações fracas e moderadas da espessura do quadríceps pelo ultrassom com a capacidade vital forçada (CVF) e massa magra, respectivamente. Também houve correlações moderadas das pregas cutâneas do tríceps, quadríceps e gastrocnêmio com a gordura subcutânea avaliada pela ultrassonografia. Conclusões: Pacientes com FC apresentaram menor espessura da gordura subcutânea. A espessura muscular se correlacionou com a CVF e os parâmetros nutricionais, e a ultrassonografia apresentou correlação positiva com as pregas cutâneas.


ABSTRACT Objective: To compare muscle thickness and subcutaneous fat in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and healthy controls using ultrasonography (US), and to correlate US findings with nutritional, clinical and functional variables. Methods: Patients aged 6 to 18 years old with a diagnosis of CF and healthy controls were included. Participants underwent anthropometric measurements, an ultrasonographic evaluation of muscle thickness and subcutaneous fat in the triceps, quadriceps, and gastrocnemius regions, and skinfold thickness measurements. Body fat percentage was estimated using skinfold measurement. Subjects with CF also underwent a pulmonary function assessment using spirometry. Results: We studied 39 CF patients and 45 controls. Alower body mass index was observed in CF patients (p=0.011). Body composition and muscle thickness were similar between the groups. Only calf (p=0.023) circumference and femur diameter (p<0.001) were lower in CF patients. Although there were no significant between-group differences in the comparison of US measurements of subcutaneous fat, CF patients exhibited decreased skinfold thickness in the triceps (p=0.031) and quadriceps (p=0.019). Moreover, there were weak and moderate correlations of US quadricep thickness with forced vital capacity (FVC) and lean mass, respectively. Moderate correlations of the triceps, quadriceps and gastrocnemius between US subcutaneous fat and skinfold measurements were found. Conclusions: Patients with CF presented a reduction in subcutaneous fat content. Muscle thickness correlated with FVC and nutritional parameters. In addition, US findings correlated positively with skinfold measurements.

3.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 36(4): 457-465, 2018 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30540111

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare muscle thickness and subcutaneous fat in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and healthy controls using ultrasonography (US), and to correlate US findings with nutritional, clinical and functional variables. METHODS: Patients aged 6 to 18 years old with a diagnosis of CF and healthy controls were included. Participants underwent anthropometric measurements, an ultrasonographic evaluation of muscle thickness and subcutaneous fat in the triceps, quadriceps, and gastrocnemius regions, and skinfold thickness measurements. Body fat percentage was estimated using skinfold measurement. Subjects with CF also underwent a pulmonary function assessment using spirometry. RESULTS: We studied 39 CF patients and 45 controls. Alower body mass index was observed in CF patients (p=0.011). Body composition and muscle thickness were similar between the groups. Only calf (p=0.023) circumference and femur diameter (p<0.001) were lower in CF patients. Although there were no significant between-group differences in the comparison of US measurements of subcutaneous fat, CF patients exhibited decreased skinfold thickness in the triceps (p=0.031) and quadriceps (p=0.019). Moreover, there were weak and moderate correlations of US quadricep thickness with forced vital capacity (FVC) and lean mass, respectively. Moderate correlations of the triceps, quadriceps and gastrocnemius between US subcutaneous fat and skinfold measurements were found. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CF presented a reduction in subcutaneous fat content. Muscle thickness correlated with FVC and nutritional parameters. In addition, US findings correlated positively with skinfold measurements.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Gordura Subcutânea/anatomia & histologia , Gordura Subcutânea/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Ultrassonografia
4.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 64(11): 1032-1037, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30570057

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to assess the progression of pediatric cystic fibrosis (CF) patients' nutritional status during the first 12 months after diagnosis and to establish its association with neonatal screening and clinical variables. Patients were recruited from two reference centers in Southern Brazil. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study was carried out with all the patients diagnosed between 2009 and 2014. Anthropometric, clinic and neonatal screening were collected from medical files. Analysis of anthropometric markers over time was performed by generalized estimating equations. A multivariate regression analysis model to predict the Δ percentile body mass index (BMI) (BMI percentile difference between one year after the treatment and BMI percentile at diagnosis) was done. RESULTS: Forty-seven patients were included in the study. Analysis of nutritional data over the period between six months and one year after diagnosis showed significant improvement of BMI, weight/age and weight/height percentiles and Z scores. The neonatal screening was associated with a significant increase of 31.2 points in ΔBMI percentile at the one-year evaluation (p<0.05). On the other hand, a one-point increase of initial BMI percentile was associated with a reduction of 0.6 points in ΔBMI percentile. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the role of neonatal screening in the nutritional status of patients diagnosed with CF in the first year after diagnosis. Early diagnosis can significantly contribute to the achievement of appropriate anthropometric indicators and important nutritional recovery of CF patients.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Transtornos Nutricionais/diagnóstico , Estado Nutricional , Antropometria , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Brasil , Pré-Escolar , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Transtornos Nutricionais/etiologia , Transtornos Nutricionais/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Cien Saude Colet ; 23(12): 4209-4219, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30540004

RESUMO

This article aims to review systematically the evidence on nutritional assessment techniques and parameters used to determine the nutritional status of children and adolescents. The literature review and the selection of publications were performed using the Medline, Lilacs, SciELO, Embase, personal files. 17 studies were identified, 7 addressed the anthropometric indices as the main outcome, 7 analyzed the growth and development of children and adolescents through growth curves, and the remainder surveyed body composition. In general, all met the quality criteria, unless 6 of the articles who did not discuss the limitations. The literature review suggests several techniques and parameters that can be applied to determine the nutritional status of children and adolescents from different countries. Growth graphs are essential to assess the health of children, but depend greatly of the growth tables used. Although BMI can be practical, it does not distinguish body fat from lean mass. The best interpretation of anthropometry will depend of valid reference values for age range of the study population. BIA is a quick feasible method, but the measurement has some various nationalities.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Antropometria , Criança , Humanos , Valores de Referência
6.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(12): 4209-4219, Dec. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-974786

RESUMO

Abstract This article aims to review systematically the evidence on nutritional assessment techniques and parameters used to determine the nutritional status of children and adolescents. The literature review and the selection of publications were performed using the Medline, Lilacs, SciELO, Embase, personal files. 17 studies were identified, 7 addressed the anthropometric indices as the main outcome, 7 analyzed the growth and development of children and adolescents through growth curves, and the remainder surveyed body composition. In general, all met the quality criteria, unless 6 of the articles who did not discuss the limitations. The literature review suggests several techniques and parameters that can be applied to determine the nutritional status of children and adolescents from different countries. Growth graphs are essential to assess the health of children, but depend greatly of the growth tables used. Although BMI can be practical, it does not distinguish body fat from lean mass. The best interpretation of anthropometry will depend of valid reference values for age range of the study population. BIA is a quick feasible method, but the measurement has some various nationalities.


Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é revisar sistematicamente as evidências sobre as técnicas de avaliação nutricional e parâmetros utilizados para determinar o estado nutricional em crianças e adolescentes. Revisão da literatura com busca nas bases de dados, Medline, Lilacs, SciELO e Embase, além de arquivos pessoais. Identificamos 17 artigos que relatavam dados de diferentes populações, sete estudos abordaram os índices antropométricos, quatro o crescimento e o desenvolvimento de crianças e adolescentes por meio de curvas de crescimento, e o restante a composição corporal. Todos preencheram os critérios de qualidade, com exceção das limitações. A revisão da literatura sugere diversas técnicas e parâmetros que podem ser aplicados para determinar o estado nutricional de crianças e adolescentes de diferentes países. Gráficos de crescimento são essenciais para avaliar a saúde de crianças, mas depende muito das tabelas de crescimento utilizadas. Embora o IMC seja prático, não distingue a gordura corporal de massa magra. Existem várias técnicas para avaliar proporções, tamanho e composição corporal. A melhor interpretação da antropometria dependerá de valores de referência válidos para a faixa etária da população estudada. BIA é um método factível, mas tem algumas limitações para a realização do exame.

7.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(11): 1032-1037, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-976796

RESUMO

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: to assess the progression of pediatric cystic fibrosis (CF) patients' nutritional status during the first 12 months after diagnosis and to establish its association with neonatal screening and clinical variables. Patients were recruited from two reference centers in Southern Brazil. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study was carried out with all the patients diagnosed between 2009 and 2014. Anthropometric, clinic and neonatal screening were collected from medical files. Analysis of anthropometric markers over time was performed by generalized estimating equations. A multivariate regression analysis model to predict the Δ percentile body mass index (BMI) (BMI percentile difference between one year after the treatment and BMI percentile at diagnosis) was done. RESULTS: Forty-seven patients were included in the study. Analysis of nutritional data over the period between six months and one year after diagnosis showed significant improvement of BMI, weight/age and weight/height percentiles and Z scores. The neonatal screening was associated with a significant increase of 31.2 points in ΔBMI percentile at the one-year evaluation (p<0.05). On the other hand, a one-point increase of initial BMI percentile was associated with a reduction of 0.6 points in ΔBMI percentile. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the role of neonatal screening in the nutritional status of patients diagnosed with CF in the first year after diagnosis. Early diagnosis can significantly contribute to the achievement of appropriate anthropometric indicators and important nutritional recovery of CF patients.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: Avaliar a evolução do estado nutricional de pacientes pediátricos com fibrose cística (FC), provenientes de dois centros de referência do sul do Brasil, durante os 12 primeiros meses após o diagnóstico e estabelecer associação com a triagem neonatal e com variáveis clínicas. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo realizado com todos os pacientes diagnosticados entre 2009 e 2014. Foram coletados dados antropométricos, clínicos e de realização da triagem neonatal a partir dos prontuários dos pacientes. A análise dos indicadores antropométricos ao longo do tempo foi realizada por equações de estimativas generalizadas. Utilizou-se o modelo de análise de regressão multivariada para predizer o D percentil índice de massa corporal - IMC/I (diferença entre percentil de IMC/I um ano após o tratamento e percentil de IMC/I no momento do diagnóstico). RESULTADOS: Participaram do estudo 47 pacientes. A análise dos dados antropométricos ao longo do período de seis meses e um ano após o diagnóstico demonstrou melhora significativa dos parâmetros de percentil e escore Z de IMC/I, peso/idade e peso/estatura em cada período analisado. A realização da triagem neonatal foi associada com um aumento significativo de 31,2 pontos no Δ percentil de IMC/I durante o período de um ano (p<0,05). Por outro lado, um ponto a mais de percentil de IMC/I inicial foi associado com uma redução de 0,6 ponto no Δ percentil de IMC/I (p<0,01). CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo evidencia o papel da triagem neonatal na evolução antropométrica de pacientes com FC no primeiro ano após o diagnóstico. O diagnóstico precoce pode contribuir significativamente para a recuperação nutricional desses pacientes.

8.
Ann Hepatol ; 17(3): 345-354, 2018 May-June.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29735796

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIM: This manuscript seeks to analyze the impact of lifestyle changes on body mass index (BMI), aminotransferases and steatosis in children and adolescents with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of PubMed, BIREME, Scopus, EMBASE, Medline and Web of Science databases 2015 was performed seeking studies addressing the impact of lifestyle interventions on children and/or adolescents with NAFLD. Inclusion were manuscripts written in Portuguese, English and Spanish, as well as age less than 18 years. Two reviewers performed the data extraction independently and differences were resolved by consensus. Outcome measures were BMI, serum aminotransferase levels and the presence of hepatic steatosis. RESULTS: The literature search identified 71,012 articles. After excluding 46,397 duplicates and other clearly irrelevant studies, 89 publications were reviewed in detail. Another 55 studies were excluded at this stage. Subsequently, 18 were excluded due to lack of data and three new articles were found in the review of the references of previously identified manuscripts. Therefore, 19 studies that had evaluated 923 subjects (477 boys and 446 girls) aged 6-18 years were included in the review. In most studies, the intervention included aerobic exercise and diet. In nine studies, BMI improved significantly following the intervention. The vast majority of studies reported a benefit from the intervention on aminotransferase levels. Lifestyle changes also had a significant impact on steatosis, reducing the risk by 61%. CONCLUSIONS: Lifestyle changes lead to significant improvements in BMI, aminotransferase levels and hepatic steatosis in children and adolescents with NAFLD.

9.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 16(1): eAO4143, 2018.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29694616

RESUMO

Objective We evaluated the association between vitamin D levels and nutritional status, pulmonary function and pulmonary exacerbations in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis. Methods 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels of 37 children and adolescents were retrospectively evaluated. Pulmonary function, body mass index, height for age, and pulmonary exacerbations episodes were associated with vitamin D levels divided into two groups: sufficient (≥30ng/mL) and hypovitaminosis (<30ng/mL). Results Hypovitaminosis D (25(OH)D <30ng/mL) was observed in 54% of subjects. The mean level of 25(OH)D was 30.53±12.14ng/mL. Pulmonary function and nutritional status were not associated with vitamin D levels. Pulmonary exacerbations over a 2-year period (p=0.007) and the period from measurement up to the end of the follow-up period (p=0.002) were significantly associated with vitamin D levels. Conclusion Hypovitaminosis D was associated with higher rates of pulmonary exacerbations in this sample of children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis. Hypovitaminosis D should be further studied as a marker of disease severity in cystic fibrosis. Further prospective and randomized studies are necessary to investigate causality of this association.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/fisiopatologia , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Fibrose Cística/sangue , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espirometria , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Adulto Jovem
10.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 94(1): 62-68, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-894099

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: To compare the effectiveness of a single intramuscular dose of bromopride, metoclopramide, or ondansetron for treating vomiting. Methods: Randomized controlled trial including children 1-12 years of age presenting with acute vomiting at the pediatric emergency department. Outcomes: Number of children that stopped vomiting at one, six, and 24 h following treatment; episodes of diarrhea; acceptance of oral liquids; intravenous rehydration; return to hospital and side effects. Results: There were 175 children who completed the study. Within the first hour after treatment, all drugs were equally effective, with ondansetron preventing vomiting in 100%, bromopride in 96.6%, and metoclopramide in 94.8% of children (p = 0.288). Within six hours, ondansetron was successful in preventing vomiting in 98.3% of children, compared to bromopride and metoclopramide, which were successful in 91.5% and 84.4% of patients, respectively (p = 0.023). Within 24 h, ondansetron was superior to both other agents, as it remained efficacious in reducing vomiting in 96.6% of children, as opposed to 67.8% and 67.2% with bromopride and metoclopramide, respectively (p = 0.001). The ondansetron group showed better acceptance of oral liquids (p = 0.05) when compared to the bromopride and metoclopramide. The ondansetron group did not show any side effects in 75.9% of cases, compared to 54.2% and 53.5% in the bromopride and metoclopramide groups, respectively. Somnolence was the most common side effect. Conclusions: A single dose of ondansetron is superior to bromopride and metoclopramide in preventing vomiting six hours and 24 h following treatment. Oral fluid intake after receiving medication was statistically better with Ondansetronwhile also having less side effects compared to the other two agents.


Resumo Objetivo: Para comparar a eficacia de uma unica dose intramuscular de bromoprida, metoclopramida ou ondansetrona no tratamento de vomito. Métodos: Ensaio controlado randomizado incluindo crianc¸as de 1 a 12 anos de idade que apresentam vomito agudo no departamento de emergencia pediatrica. Desfechos: Numero de crianças que pararam de vomitar 1, 6 e 24 horas apos o tratamento; episodios de diarreia; aceitac¸ao de liquidos orais; reidratac¸ao intravenosa, retorno ao hospital e efeitos colaterais. Resultados: 175 crianças concluiram o estudo. Na primeira hora apos o tratamento, todos os medicamentos foram igualmente eficazes, sendo que a ondansetrona preveniu vomito em 100%, a bromoprida em 96,6% e metoclopramida em 94,8% das crianças (p = 0,288). Em 6 horas, a ondansetrona mostrou sucesso na prevençao do vomito em 98,3% das crianças, em comparac¸ao a bromoprida e a metoclopramida, que mostraram sucesso em 91,5% e 84,4% dos pacientes, respectivamente (p = 0,023). Em 24 horas, a ondansetrona foi superior aos dois outros agentes, pois ela continuou eficaz na reduçao do vomito em 96,6% das crianças, diferente de 67,8% e 67,2% com bromoprida e metoclopramida, respectivamente (p = 0,001). O grupo de ondansetrona mostrou melhor aceitaçao de liquidos orais (p = 0,05) em comparaçao a bromoprida e metoclopramida. O grupo de ondansetrona nao mostrou efeitos colaterais em 75,9% dos casos, em comparaçao a 54,2% e 53,5% dos grupos de bromoprida e metoclopramida. O efeito colateral mais comum foi sonolencia. Conclusões: Uma unica dose de ondansetrona e superior a bromoprida e metoclopramida no tratamento de vomito 6 horas e 24 horas apos o tratamento. A ingestao de fluidos orais apos receber medicaçao foi estatisticamente melhor com ondansetrona, ao mesmo tempo em que tambem apresentando menos efeitos colaterais em comparaçao aos outros dois agentes.

11.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 94(1): 62-68, 2018 Jan - Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28778685

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of a single intramuscular dose of bromopride, metoclopramide, or ondansetron for treating vomiting. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial including children 1-12 years of age presenting with acute vomiting at the pediatric emergency department. OUTCOMES: Number of children that stopped vomiting at one, six, and 24h following treatment; episodes of diarrhea; acceptance of oral liquids; intravenous rehydration; return to hospital and side effects. RESULTS: There were 175 children who completed the study. Within the first hour after treatment, all drugs were equally effective, with ondansetron preventing vomiting in 100%, bromopride in 96.6%, and metoclopramide in 94.8% of children (p=0.288). Within six hours, ondansetron was successful in preventing vomiting in 98.3% of children, compared to bromopride and metoclopramide, which were successful in 91.5% and 84.4% of patients, respectively (p=0.023). Within 24h, ondansetron was superior to both other agents, as it remained efficacious in reducing vomiting in 96.6% of children, as opposed to 67.8% and 67.2% with bromopride and metoclopramide, respectively (p=0.001). The ondansetron group showed better acceptance of oral liquids (p=0.05) when compared to the bromopride and metoclopramide. The ondansetron group did not show any side effects in 75.9% of cases, compared to 54.2% and 53.5% in the bromopride and metoclopramide groups, respectively. Somnolence was the most common side effect. CONCLUSIONS: A single dose of ondansetron is superior to bromopride and metoclopramide in preventing vomiting six hours and 24h following treatment. Oral fluid intake after receiving medication was statistically better with Ondansetronwhile also having less side effects compared to the other two agents.


Assuntos
Antieméticos/administração & dosagem , Metoclopramida/análogos & derivados , Metoclopramida/administração & dosagem , Ondansetron/administração & dosagem , Vômito/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 16(1): eAO4143, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-891452

RESUMO

Abstract Objective We evaluated the association between vitamin D levels and nutritional status, pulmonary function and pulmonary exacerbations in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis. Methods 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels of 37 children and adolescents were retrospectively evaluated. Pulmonary function, body mass index, height for age, and pulmonary exacerbations episodes were associated with vitamin D levels divided into two groups: sufficient (≥30ng/mL) and hypovitaminosis (<30ng/mL). Results Hypovitaminosis D (25(OH)D <30ng/mL) was observed in 54% of subjects. The mean level of 25(OH)D was 30.53±12.14ng/mL. Pulmonary function and nutritional status were not associated with vitamin D levels. Pulmonary exacerbations over a 2-year period (p=0.007) and the period from measurement up to the end of the follow-up period (p=0.002) were significantly associated with vitamin D levels. Conclusion Hypovitaminosis D was associated with higher rates of pulmonary exacerbations in this sample of children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis. Hypovitaminosis D should be further studied as a marker of disease severity in cystic fibrosis. Further prospective and randomized studies are necessary to investigate causality of this association.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a associação entre níveis de vitamina D e estado nutricional, função pulmonar e exacerbações pulmonares em crianças e adolescentes com fibrose cística. Métodos Os níveis de 25-hidroxivitamina D (25(OH)D) de 37 crianças e adolescentes foram avaliados retrospectivamente. Função pulmonar, índice de massa corporal, altura para a idade, e episódios de exacerbações pulmonares foram associados aos níveis de vitamina D divididos em dois grupos: suficiente (≥30ng/mL) e hipovitaminose (<30ng/mL). Resultados Hipovitaminose D (25(OH)D <30ng/mL) foi observada em 54% dos pacientes. O nível médio de 25(OH)D foi de 30,53±12,14ng/mL. A função pulmonar e o estado nutricional não foram associados aos níveis de vitamina D. As exacerbações pulmonares durante um período de 2 anos (p = 0,007) e do período de medição até o final do período de seguimento (p=0,002) foram significativamente associadas aos níveis de vitamina D. Conclusão A hipovitaminose D esteve associada a maiores taxas de exacerbações pulmonares nesta amostra de crianças e adolescentes com fibrose cística. A hipovitaminose D deve ser mais estudada como marcador da gravidade da doença na fibrose cística. Outros estudos prospectivos e randomizados são necessários para investigar a relação causal desta associação.

13.
J Bras Pneumol ; 43(3): 219-245, 2017 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28746534

RESUMO

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by dysfunction of the CFTR gene. It is a multisystem disease that most often affects White individuals. In recent decades, various advances in the diagnosis and treatment of CF have drastically changed the scenario, resulting in a significant increase in survival and quality of life. In Brazil, the current neonatal screening program for CF has broad coverage, and most of the Brazilian states have referral centers for the follow-up of individuals with the disease. Previously, CF was limited to the pediatric age group. However, an increase in the number of adult CF patients has been observed, because of the greater number of individuals being diagnosed with atypical forms (with milder phenotypic expression) and because of the increase in life expectancy provided by the new treatments. However, there is still great heterogeneity among the different regions of Brazil in terms of the access of CF patients to diagnostic and therapeutic methods. The objective of these guidelines was to aggregate the main scientific evidence to guide the management of these patients. A group of 18 CF specialists devised 82 relevant clinical questions, divided into five categories: characteristics of a referral center; diagnosis; treatment of respiratory disease; gastrointestinal and nutritional treatment; and other aspects. Various professionals working in the area of CF in Brazil were invited to answer the questions devised by the coordinators. We used the PubMed database to search the available literature based on keywords, in order to find the best answers to these questions. RESUMO A fibrose cística (FC) é uma doença genética autossômica recessiva caracterizada pela disfunção do gene CFTR. Trata-se de uma doença multissistêmica que ocorre mais frequentemente em populações descendentes de caucasianos. Nas últimas décadas, diversos avanços no diagnóstico e tratamento da FC mudaram drasticamente o cenário dessa doença, com aumento expressivo da sobrevida e qualidade de vida. Atualmente, o Brasil dispõe de um programa de ampla cobertura para a triagem neonatal de FC e centros de referência distribuídos na maior parte desses estados para seguimento dos indivíduos. Antigamente confinada à faixa etária pediátrica, tem-se observado um aumento de pacientes adultos com FC tanto pelo maior número de diagnósticos de formas atípicas, de expressão fenotípica mais leve, assim como pelo aumento da expectativa de vida com os novos tratamentos. Entretanto, ainda se observa uma grande heterogeneidade no acesso aos métodos diagnósticos e terapêuticos para FC entre as diferentes regiões brasileiras. O objetivo dessas diretrizes foi reunir as principais evidências científicas que norteiam o manejo desses pacientes. Um grupo de 18 especialistas em FC elaborou 82 perguntas clínicas relevantes que foram divididas em cinco categorias: características de um centro de referência; diagnóstico; tratamento da doença respiratória; tratamento gastrointestinal e nutricional; e outros aspectos. Diversos profissionais brasileiros atuantes na área da FC foram convidados a responder as perguntas formuladas pelos coordenadores. A literatura disponível foi pesquisada na base de dados PubMed com palavras-chave, buscando-se as melhores respostas às perguntas dos autores.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico , Fibrose Cística/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Fatores Etários , Brasil , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Qualidade de Vida
14.
J. bras. pneumol ; 43(3): 219-245, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-893829

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by dysfunction of the CFTR gene. It is a multisystem disease that most often affects White individuals. In recent decades, various advances in the diagnosis and treatment of CF have drastically changed the scenario, resulting in a significant increase in survival and quality of life. In Brazil, the current neonatal screening program for CF has broad coverage, and most of the Brazilian states have referral centers for the follow-up of individuals with the disease. Previously, CF was limited to the pediatric age group. However, an increase in the number of adult CF patients has been observed, because of the greater number of individuals being diagnosed with atypical forms (with milder phenotypic expression) and because of the increase in life expectancy provided by the new treatments. However, there is still great heterogeneity among the different regions of Brazil in terms of the access of CF patients to diagnostic and therapeutic methods. The objective of these guidelines was to aggregate the main scientific evidence to guide the management of these patients. A group of 18 CF specialists devised 82 relevant clinical questions, divided into five categories: characteristics of a referral center; diagnosis; treatment of respiratory disease; gastrointestinal and nutritional treatment; and other aspects. Various professionals working in the area of CF in Brazil were invited to answer the questions devised by the coordinators. We used the PubMed database to search the available literature based on keywords, in order to find the best answers to these questions.


RESUMO A fibrose cística (FC) é uma doença genética autossômica recessiva caracterizada pela disfunção do gene CFTR. Trata-se de uma doença multissistêmica que ocorre mais frequentemente em populações descendentes de caucasianos. Nas últimas décadas, diversos avanços no diagnóstico e tratamento da FC mudaram drasticamente o cenário dessa doença, com aumento expressivo da sobrevida e qualidade de vida. Atualmente, o Brasil dispõe de um programa de ampla cobertura para a triagem neonatal de FC e centros de referência distribuídos na maior parte desses estados para seguimento dos indivíduos. Antigamente confinada à faixa etária pediátrica, tem-se observado um aumento de pacientes adultos com FC tanto pelo maior número de diagnósticos de formas atípicas, de expressão fenotípica mais leve, assim como pelo aumento da expectativa de vida com os novos tratamentos. Entretanto, ainda se observa uma grande heterogeneidade no acesso aos métodos diagnósticos e terapêuticos para FC entre as diferentes regiões brasileiras. O objetivo dessas diretrizes foi reunir as principais evidências científicas que norteiam o manejo desses pacientes. Um grupo de 18 especialistas em FC elaborou 82 perguntas clínicas relevantes que foram divididas em cinco categorias: características de um centro de referência; diagnóstico; tratamento da doença respiratória; tratamento gastrointestinal e nutricional; e outros aspectos. Diversos profissionais brasileiros atuantes na área da FC foram convidados a responder as perguntas formuladas pelos coordenadores. A literatura disponível foi pesquisada na base de dados PubMed com palavras-chave, buscando-se as melhores respostas às perguntas dos autores.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico , Fibrose Cística/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Fatores Etários , Brasil , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Estado Nutricional , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Qualidade de Vida
15.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 52(6): 833-843, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28052594

RESUMO

Probiotics have emerged as a promising intervention for the prevention of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children. Assess the effect of probiotics on prevention of RTIs in children and adolescents. MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, SCIELO, CINAHL, SCOPUS, and Web of Science. Key words: "respiratory tract infections" AND probiotics. Randomized controlled trials RCT assessing the effect of probiotics on RTIs in children and adolescents were included. Two reviewers, working independently, to identify studies that met the eligibility criteria. Main and secondary outcomes were RTIs and adverse effects, respectively. Twenty-one trials with 6.603 participants were included. Pairwise meta-analysis suggested that Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus (LCA) was the only effective probiotic to the rate of RTIs compared to placebo (RR0.38; Crl 0.19-0.45). Network analysis showed that the LCA exhibited 54.7% probability of being classified in first, while the probability of Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 (LFC) being last in the ranking was 15.3%. LCA showed no better effect compared to other probiotic strains by indirect analysis. This systematic review found a lack of evidence to support the effect of probiotic on the incidence rate of respiratory infections in children and adolescents. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:833-843. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Meta-Análise em Rede , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
16.
PLoS One ; 12(1): e0167625, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28129354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Computed tomography, which uses ionizing radiation and expensive software packages for analysis of scans, can be used to quantify abdominal fat. The objective of this study is to measure abdominal fat with 3T MRI using free software for image analysis and to correlate these findings with anthropometric and laboratory parameters in adolescents. METHODS: This prospective observational study included 24 overweight/obese and 33 healthy adolescents (mean age 16.55 years). All participants underwent abdominal MRI exams. Visceral and subcutaneous fat area and percentage were correlated with anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, glucose metabolism, and insulin resistance. Student's t test and Mann-Whitney's test was applied. Pearson's chi-square test was used to compare proportions. To determine associations Pearson's linear correlation or Spearman's correlation were used. RESULTS: In both groups, waist circumference (WC) was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.001 and P = 0.01 respectively), and triglycerides were associated with fat percentage (P = 0.046 and P = 0.071 respectively). In obese individuals, total cholesterol/HDL ratio was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.03) and percentage (P = 0.09), and insulin and HOMA-IR were associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.001) and percentage (P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: 3T MRI can provide reliable and good quality images for quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat by using a free software package. The results demonstrate that WC is a good predictor of visceral fat in obese adolescents and visceral fat area is associated with total cholesterol/HDL ratio, insulin and HOMA-IR.


Assuntos
Gordura Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Obesidade/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Gordura Abdominal/patologia , Adolescente , Antropometria , Glicemia , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Masculino , Obesidade/patologia , Software , Gordura Subcutânea/diagnóstico por imagem , Gordura Subcutânea/patologia , Circunferência da Cintura
18.
Public Health Genomics ; 20(5): 286-292, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29439273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine the effect of diet on telomere length. METHODS: We searched the following databases: MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, and Scopus, as well as the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the National Institutes of Health, from inception to December 2016. Articles that assessed effects of diet on telomere length were included. RESULTS: A total of 2,128 studies were identified, 30 were read in full, and 7 were systematically reviewed. Five RCTs were included in the meta-analysis, covering 9 diets; a total of 533 participants were included. Study heterogeneity (I2) was 89%, and differences were not identified regarding average telomere lengths (mean difference 1.06; 95% CI -1.53 to 3.65). CONCLUSION: The available evidence suggests that there is no effect of diet on telomere length, but the strong heterogeneity in the type and duration of dietary interventions does not allow any final statement on the absence of an effect of diet on telomere length.


Assuntos
Dieta/métodos , Encurtamento do Telômero/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estatística como Assunto , Telômero/fisiologia
19.
Am Surg ; 82(5): 390-6, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27215717

RESUMO

The objective of the present study is to evaluate a new diagnostic strategy using clinical findings followed by ultrasound (US) and, in selected cases, MRI. This study included 166 children presenting signs and symptoms suggesting acute appendicitis. Cases classified as suggesting appendicitis according to clinical exams had to be referred to surgery, whereas the other cases were discharged. Unclear cases were evaluated using US. If the US results were considered inconclusive, patients underwent MRI. Of the 166 patients, 78 (47%) had acute appendicitis and 88 (53%) had other diseases. The strategy under study had a sensitivity of 96 per cent, specificity of 100 per cent, positive predictive value of 100 per cent, negative predictive value of 97 per cent, and accuracy of 98 per cent. Eight patients remained undiagnosed and underwent MRI. After MRI two girls presented normal appendixes and were discharged. One girl had an enlarged appendix on MRI and appendicitis could have been confirmed by surgery. In the other five patients, no other sign of the disease was detected by MRI such as an inflammatory mass, free fluid or an abscess in the right iliac fossa. All of them were discharged after clinical observation. In the vast majority of cases the correct diagnosis was reached by clinical and US examinations. When clinical assessment and US findings were inconclusive, MRI was useful to detect normal and abnormal appendixes and valuable to rule out other abdominal pathologies that mimic appendicitis.


Assuntos
Apendicite/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Ultrassonografia Doppler/métodos , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Apendicectomia/métodos , Apendicectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Apendicite/cirurgia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Ultrassonografia Doppler/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Radiol Bras ; 48(4): 225-32, 2015 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26379321

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of computer-aided ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by means of hepatorenal gradient analysis in the evaluation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adolescents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective, cross-sectional study evaluated 50 adolescents (aged 11-17 years), including 24 obese and 26 eutrophic individuals. All adolescents underwent computer-aided US, MRI, laboratory tests, and anthropometric evaluation. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy were evaluated for both imaging methods, with subsequent generation of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and calculation of the area under the ROC curve to determine the most appropriate cutoff point for the hepatorenal gradient in order to predict the degree of steatosis, utilizing MRI results as the gold-standard. RESULTS: The obese group included 29.2% girls and 70.8% boys, and the eutrophic group, 69.2% girls and 30.8% boys. The prevalence of NAFLD corresponded to 19.2% for the eutrophic group and 83% for the obese group. The ROC curve generated for the hepatorenal gradient with a cutoff point of 13 presented 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. As the same cutoff point was considered for the eutrophic group, false-positive results were observed in 9.5% of cases (90.5% specificity) and false-negative results in 0% (100% sensitivity). CONCLUSION: Computer-aided US with hepatorenal gradient calculation is a simple and noninvasive technique for semiquantitative evaluation of hepatic echogenicity and could be useful in the follow-up of adolescents with NAFLD, population screening for this disease as well as for clinical studies.

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