*J Chem Theory Comput ; 15(11): 6164-6178, 2019 Nov 12.*

##### RESUMO

We present a heterogeneous central processing unit (CPU) + graphical processing unit (GPU) algorithm for the direct variational optimization of the two-electron reduced-density matrix (2RDM) under two-particle N-representability conditions. This variational 2RDM (v2RDM) approach is the driver for a polynomially scaling approximation to configuration-interaction-driven complete active-space self-consistent field (CASSCF) theory. For v2RDM-based CASSCF computations involving an active space consisting of 50 electrons in 50 orbitals, we observe a speedup of a factor of 3.7 when the code is executed on a combination of an NVIDIA TITAN V GPU and an Intel Core i7-6850k CPU, relative to the case when the code is executed on the CPU alone. We use this GPU-accelerated v2RDM-CASSCF algorithm to explore the electronic structure of the 3,k-circumacene and 3,k-periacene series (k = 2-7) and compare indicators of polyradical character in the lowest-energy singlet states to those observed for oligoacene molecules. The singlet states in larger circumacene and periacene molecules display the same polyradical characteristics observed in oligoacenes, with the onset of this behavior occurring at smallest k for periacenes, followed by the circumacenes and then the oligoacenes. However, the unpaired electron density that accumulates along the zigzag edge of the circumacenes is slightly less than that which accumulates in the oligoacenes, while periacenes clearly exhibit the greatest buildup of unpaired electron density in this region.

*J Chem Phys ; 151(3): 034106, 2019 Jul 21.*

##### RESUMO

Standard implementations of nonrelativistic excited-state calculations compute only one component of spin multiplets (i.e., Ms = 0 triplets); however, matrix elements for all components are necessary for deriving spin-dependent experimental observables. Wigner-Eckart's theorem allows one to circumvent explicit calculations of all multiplet components. We generate all other spin-orbit matrix elements by applying Wigner-Eckart's theorem to a reduced one-particle transition density matrix computed for a single multiplet component. In addition to computational efficiency, this approach also resolves the phase issue arising within Born-Oppenheimer's separation of nuclear and electronic degrees of freedom. A general formalism and its application to the calculation of spin-orbit couplings using equation-of-motion coupled-cluster wave functions are presented. The two-electron contributions are included via the mean-field spin-orbit treatment. Intrinsic issues of constructing spin-orbit mean-field operators for open-shell references are discussed, and a resolution is proposed. The method is benchmarked by using several radicals and diradicals. The merits of the approach are illustrated by a calculation of the barrier for spin inversion in a high-spin tris(pyrrolylmethyl)amine Fe(II) complex.

*J Chem Phys ; 151(1): 014110, 2019 Jul 07.*

##### RESUMO

We present a general formulation of analytic nuclear gradients for the coupled-cluster with single and double substitution (CCSD) and equation-of-motion (EOM) CCSD energies computed using Cholesky decomposition (CD) representations of the electron repulsion integrals. By rewriting the correlated energy and response equations such that the storage of the largest four-index intermediates is eliminated, CD leads to a significant reduction in disk storage requirements, reduced I/O penalties, and an improved parallel performance. CD thus extends the scope of the systems that can be treated by (EOM-)CCSD methods, although analytic gradients in the framework of CD are needed to extend the applicability of (EOM-)CCSD methods in the context of geometry optimizations. This paper presents a formulation of analytic (EOM-)CCSD gradient within the CD framework and reports on the salient details of the corresponding implementation. The accuracy and the capabilities of analytic CD-based (EOM-)CCSD gradients are illustrated by benchmark calculations and several illustrative examples.

*J Chem Theory Comput ; 15(5): 3117-3133, 2019 May 14.*

##### RESUMO

We present a fully analytical implementation of the core-valence separation (CVS) scheme for the equation-of-motion (EOM) coupled-cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) method for calculations of core-level states. Inspired by the CVS idea as originally formulated by Cederbaum, Domcke, and Schirmer, pure valence excitations are excluded from the EOM target space and the frozen-core approximation is imposed on the reference-state amplitudes and multipliers. This yields an efficient, robust, practical, and numerically balanced EOM-CCSD framework for calculations of excitation and ionization energies as well as state and transition properties (e.g., spectral intensities, natural transition, and Dyson orbitals) from both the ground and excited states. The errors in absolute excitation/ionization energies relative to the experimental reference data are on the order of 0.2-3.0 eV, depending on the K-edge considered and on the basis set used, and the shifts are systematic for each edge. Compared to a previously proposed CVS scheme where CVS was applied as a posteriori projection only during the solution of the EOM eigenvalue equations, the new scheme is computationally cheaper. It also achieves better cancellation of errors, yielding similar spectral profiles but with absolute core excitation and ionization energies that are systematically closer to the corresponding experimental data. Among the presented results are calculations of transient-state X-ray absorption spectra, relevant for interpretation of UV-pump/X-ray probe experiments.

*J Chem Phys ; 150(1): 014106, 2019 Jan 07.*

##### RESUMO

For future use in modeling photoexcited dynamics and intersystem crossing, we calculate spin-adiabatic states and their analytical nuclear gradients within configuration interaction singles theory. These energies and forces should be immediately useful for surface hopping dynamics, which are natural within an adiabatic framework. The resulting code has been implemented within the Q-Chem software and preliminary results suggest that the additional cost of including spin-orbit coupling within the singles-singles block is not large.

*J Chem Theory Comput ; 15(1): 276-289, 2019 Jan 08.*

##### RESUMO

Analytic energy gradients are presented for a variational two-electron reduced-density-matrix-driven complete active space self-consistent field (v2RDM-CASSCF) procedure that employs the density fitting (DF) approximation to the two-electron repulsion integrals. The DF approximation significantly reduces the computational cost of v2RDM-CASSCF gradient evaluation, in terms of both the number of floating-point operations and memory requirements, enabling geometry optimizations on much larger chemical systems than could previously be considered at this level of theory [ Maradzike et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. , 2017 , 13 , 4113 - 4122 ]. The efficacy of v2RDM-CASSCF for computing equilibrium geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies is assessed using a set of 25 small closed- and open-shell molecules. Equilibrium bond lengths from v2RDM-CASSCF differ from those obtained from configuration-interaction-driven CASSCF (CI-CASSCF) by 0.62 and 0.05 pm, depending on whether the optimal reduced-density matrices from v2RDM-CASSCF satisfy two-particle N-representability conditions (PQG) or PQG plus partial three-particle conditions (PQG+T2), respectively. Harmonic vibrational frequencies, which are obtained by finite differences of v2RDM-CASSCF analytic energy gradients, similarly demonstrate that quantitative agreement between v2RDM- and CI-CASSCF requires the consideration of partial three-particle N-representability conditions. Lastly, optimized geometries are obtained for the lowest-energy singlet and triplet states of the linear polyacene series up to dodecacene (C50H28), in which case the active space is comprised of 50 electrons in 50 orbitals. The v2RDM-CASSCF singlet-triplet energy gap extrapolated to an infinitely long linear acene molecule is found to be 7.8 kcal mol-1.

*J Comput Chem ; 39(26): 2173-2182, 2018 Oct 05.*

##### RESUMO

The most widely used quantum-chemical models for excited states are single-excitation theories, a category that includes configuration interaction with single substitutions, time-dependent density functional theory, and also a recently developed ab initio exciton model. When a large number of excited states are desired, these calculations incur a significant bottleneck in the "digestion" step in which two-electron integrals are contracted with density or density-like matrices. We present an implementation that moves this step onto graphical processing units (GPUs), and introduce a double-buffer scheme that minimizes latency by computing integrals on the central processing units (CPUs) concurrently with their digestion on the GPUs. An automatic code generation scheme simplifies the implementation of high-performance GPU kernels. For the exciton model, which requires separate excited-state calculations on each electronically coupled chromophore, the heterogeneous implementation described here results in speedups of 2-6× versus a CPU-only implementation. For traditional time-dependent density functional theory calculations, we obtain speedups of up to 5× when a large number of excited states is computed. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

*J Chem Theory Comput ; 14(8): 4088-4096, 2018 Aug 14.*

##### RESUMO

Using single-precision floating-point representation reduces the size of data and computation time by a factor of 2 relative to double precision conventionally used in electronic structure programs. For large-scale calculations, such as those encountered in many-body theories, reduced memory footprint alleviates memory and input/output bottlenecks. Reduced size of data can lead to additional gains due to improved parallel performance on CPUs and various accelerators. However, using single precision can potentially degrade the accuracy of the computed quantities. Here we report an implementation of coupled-cluster and equation-of-motion coupled-cluster methods with single and double excitations in single precision. We consider both standard implementation and one using Cholesky decomposition or resolution-of-the-identity representation of electron-repulsion integrals. Numerical tests illustrate that when single precision is used in correlated calculations, the loss of accuracy is insignificant, and pure single-precision implementation can be used for computing energies, analytic gradients, excited states, and molecular properties. In addition to pure single-precision calculations, our implementation allows one to follow a single-precision calculation by cleanup iterations, fully recovering double-precision results while retaining significant savings.

*J Phys Chem A ; 122(11): 3066-3075, 2018 Mar 22.*

##### RESUMO

Effective core potential (ECP) integrals are among the most difficult one-electron integrals to calculate due to the projection operators. The radial part of these operators may include r0, r-1, and r-2 terms. For the r0 terms, we exploit a simple analytic expression for the fundamental projected integral to derive new recurrence relations and upper bounds for ECP integrals. For the r-1 and r-2 terms, we present a reconstruction method that replaces these terms by a sum of r0 terms and show that the resulting errors are chemically insignificant for a range of molecular properties. The new algorithm is available in Q-Chem 5.0 and is significantly faster than the ECP implementations in Q-Chem 4.4, GAMESS (US) and Dalton 2016.

*J Chem Phys ; 146(23): 234107, 2017 Jun 21.*

##### RESUMO

The method of complex basis functions is applied to molecular resonances at correlated levels of theory. Møller-Plesset perturbation theory at second order and equation-of-motion electron attachment coupled-cluster singles and doubles (EOM-EA-CCSD) methods based on a non-Hermitian self-consistent-field reference are used to compute accurate Siegert energies for shape resonances in small molecules including N2-, CO-, CO2-, and CH2O-. Analytic continuation of complex ð-trajectories is used to compute Siegert energies, and the ð-trajectories of energy differences are found to yield more consistent results than those of total energies. The ability of such methods to accurately compute complex potential energy surfaces is investigated, and the possibility of using EOM-EA-CCSD for Feshbach resonances is explored in the context of e-helium scattering.

*J Chem Phys ; 146(4): 044111, 2017 01 28.*

##### RESUMO

Simulations of the n = 2 absorption spectra of HeN (N = 70, 150, 231, 300) clusters are reported, with nuclear configurations sampled by path integral molecular dynamics. The electronic structure is treated by a new approach, ALMO-CIS+CT, which is a formulation of configuration interaction singles (CIS) based on absolutely localized molecular orbitals (ALMOs). The method generalizes the previously reported ALMO-CIS model [K. D. Closser et al. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 11, 5791 (2015)] to include spatially localized charge transfer (CT) effects. It is designed to recover large numbers of excited states in atomic and molecular clusters, such as the entire n = 2 Rydberg band in helium clusters. ALMO-CIS+CT is shown to recover most of the error caused by neglecting charge transfer in ALMO-CIS and has comparable accuracy to standard CIS for helium clusters. For the n = 2 band, CT stabilizes states towards the blue edge by up to 0.5 eV. ALMO-CIS+CT retains the formal cubic scaling of ALMO-CIS with respect to system size. With improvements to the implementation over that originally reported for ALMO-CIS, ALMO-CIS+CT is able to treat helium clusters with hundreds of atoms using modest computing resources. A detailed simulation of the absorption spectra associated with the 2s and 2p bands of helium clusters up to 300 atoms is reported, using path integral molecular dynamics with a spherical boundary condition to generate atomic configurations at 3 K. The main features of experimentally reported fluorescence excitation spectra for helium clusters are reproduced.

*J Chem Theory Comput ; 13(2): 602-615, 2017 Feb 14.*

##### RESUMO

We demonstrate a block-tensor based implementation of coupled-cluster valence-bond singles and doubles (CCVB-SD) [Small, D. W.; Head-Gordon M. J. Chem. Phys. 2012, 137, 114103] which is a simple modification to restricted CCSD (RCCSD) that provides a qualitatively correct description of valence correlations even in strongly correlated systems. We derive the Λ-equation of CCVB-SD and the corresponding unrelaxed density matrices. The resulting production-level implementation is applied to oligoacenes, correlating up to 318 electrons in 318 orbitals. CCVB-SD shows a qualitative agreement with exact methods for short acenes and reaches the bulk limit of oligoacenes in terms of natural orbital occupation numbers, whereas RCCSD shows nonvariational behavior even for relatively short acenes. A significant reduction in polyradicaloid character is found when correlating all valence electrons instead of only the π-electrons.

*J Chem Theory Comput ; 13(3): 1108-1116, 2017 Mar 14.*

##### RESUMO

Linear-scaling algorithms must be developed in order to extend the domain of applicability of electronic structure theory to molecules of any desired size. However, the increasing complexity of modern linear-scaling methods makes code development and maintenance a significant challenge. A major contributor to this difficulty is the lack of robust software abstractions for handling block-sparse tensor operations. We therefore report the development of a highly efficient symbolic block-sparse tensor library in order to provide access to high-level software constructs to treat such problems. Our implementation supports arbitrary multi-dimensional sparsity in all input and output tensors. We avoid cumbersome machine-generated code by implementing all functionality as a high-level symbolic C++ language library and demonstrate that our implementation attains very high performance for linear-scaling sparse tensor contractions.

*J Comput Chem ; 37(12): 1059-67, 2016 May 05.*

##### RESUMO

We present an algorithm for reducing the computational work involved in coupled-cluster (CC) calculations by sparsifying the amplitude correction within a CC amplitude update procedure. We provide a theoretical justification for this approach, which is based on the convergence theory of inexact Newton iterations. We demonstrate by numerical examples that, in the simplest case of the CCD equations, we can sparsify the amplitude correction by setting, on average, roughly 90% nonzero elements to zeros without a major effect on the convergence of the inexact Newton iterations.

*J Chem Phys ; 143(6): 064102, 2015 Aug 14.*

##### RESUMO

We present a formalism and an implementation for calculating spin-orbit couplings (SOCs) within the EOM-CCSD (equation-of-motion coupled-cluster with single and double substitutions) approach. The following variants of EOM-CCSD are considered: EOM-CCSD for excitation energies (EOM-EE-CCSD), EOM-CCSD with spin-flip (EOM-SF-CCSD), EOM-CCSD for ionization potentials (EOM-IP-CCSD) and electron attachment (EOM-EA-CCSD). We employ a perturbative approach in which the SOCs are computed as matrix elements of the respective part of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian using zeroth-order non-relativistic wave functions. We follow the expectation-value approach rather than the response-theory formulation for property calculations. Both the full two-electron treatment and the mean-field approximation (a partial account of the two-electron contributions) have been implemented and benchmarked using several small molecules containing elements up to the fourth row of the periodic table. The benchmark results show the excellent performance of the perturbative treatment and the mean-field approximation. When used with an appropriate basis set, the errors with respect to experiment are below 5% for the considered examples. The findings regarding basis-set requirements are in agreement with previous studies. The impact of different correlation treatment in zeroth-order wave functions is analyzed. Overall, the EOM-IP-CCSD, EOM-EA-CCSD, EOM-EE-CCSD, and EOM-SF-CCSD wave functions yield SOCs that agree well with each other (and with the experimental values when available). Using an EOM-CCSD approach that provides a more balanced description of the target states yields more accurate results.

*J Chem Theory Comput ; 11(2): 518-27, 2015 Feb 10.*

##### RESUMO

An efficient new molecular orbital (MO) basis algorithm is reported implementing the pair atomic resolution of the identity approximation (PARI) to evaluate the exact exchange contribution (K) to self-consistent field methods, such as hybrid and range-separated hybrid density functionals. The PARI approximation, in which atomic orbital (AO) basis function pairs are expanded using auxiliary basis functions centered only on their two respective atoms, was recently investigated by Merlot et al. [J. Comput. Chem. 2013, 34, 1486]. Our algorithm is significantly faster than quartic scaling RI-K, with an asymptotic exchange speedup for hybrid functionals of (1 + X/N), where N and X are the AO and auxiliary basis dimensions. The asymptotic speedup is 2 + 2X/N for range separated hybrids such as CAM-B3LYP, ωB97X-D, and ωB97X-V which include short- and long-range exact exchange. The observed speedup for exchange in ωB97X-V for a C68 graphene fragment in the cc-pVTZ basis is 3.4 relative to RI-K. Like conventional RI-K, our method greatly outperforms conventional integral evaluation in large basis sets; a speedup of 19 is obtained in the cc-pVQZ basis on a C54 graphene fragment. Negligible loss of accuracy relative to exact integral evaluation is demonstrated on databases of bonded and nonbonded interactions. We also demonstrate both analytically and numerically that the PARI-K approximation is variationally stable.

##### Assuntos

Teoria Quântica , Algoritmos*J Chem Phys ; 141(2): 024102, 2014 Jul 14.*

##### RESUMO

A production-level implementation of equation-of-motion coupled-cluster singles and doubles (EOM-CCSD) for electron attachment and excitation energies augmented by a complex absorbing potential (CAP) is presented. The new method enables the treatment of metastable states within the EOM-CC formalism in a similar manner as bound states. The numeric performance of the method and the sensitivity of resonance positions and lifetimes to the CAP parameters and the choice of one-electron basis set are investigated. A protocol for studying molecular shape resonances based on the use of standard basis sets and a universal criterion for choosing the CAP parameters are presented. Our results for a variety of π(*) shape resonances of small to medium-size molecules demonstrate that CAP-augmented EOM-CCSD is competitive relative to other theoretical approaches for the treatment of resonances and is often able to reproduce experimental results.

##### Assuntos

Elétrons , Modelos Teóricos , Teoria Quântica , Adsorção*J Phys Chem Lett ; 5(2): 310-5, 2014 Jan 16.*

##### RESUMO

A new strategy of using complex absorbing potentials (CAPs) within electronic structure calculations of metastable electronic states, which are ubiquitous in chemistry and physics, is presented. The stumbling block in numerical applications of CAPs is the necessity to optimize the CAP strength for each system, state, and one-electron basis set, while there is no clear metric to assess the quality of the results and no simple algorithm of achieving numerical convergence. By analyzing the behavior of resonance wave functions, we found that robust results can be obtained when considering fully stabilized resonance states characterized by constant density at large Î· (parameter determining the CAP strength). Then the perturbation due to the finite-strength CAP can be removed by a simple energy correction derived from energy decomposition analysis and response theory. The utility of this approach is illustrated by CAP-augmented calculations of several shape resonances using EOM-EA-CCSD with standard Gaussian basis sets.