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1.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional count-based measures of comorbidity are unlikely to capture the complexity of multiple chronic conditions (multimorbidity) in older adults with cancer. We aimed to define patterns of multimorbidity and their impact in older United States Veterans with multiple myeloma (MM). METHODS: We measured 66 chronic conditions in 5,076 Veterans age ≥ 65 years newly-treated for MM in the national Veterans Affairs healthcare system from 2004 to 2017. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify patterns of multimorbidity among these conditions. These patterns were then assessed for their association with overall survival, our primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included emergency department visits and hospitalizations. RESULTS: Five patterns of multimorbidity emerged from the LCA, and survival varied across these patterns (log-rank two-sided p < .001). Older Veterans with cardiovascular and metabolic disease (30.9%, hazard ratio [HR] = 1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21 to 1.45); psychiatric and substance use disorders (9.7%, HR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.39 to 1.79); chronic lung disease (15.9%, HR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.53 to 1.87); and multisystem impairment (13.8%, HR = 2.25, 95% CI = 2.03 to 2.50) had higher mortality compared to Veterans with minimal comorbidity (29.7%, reference). Associations with mortality were maintained after adjustment for socio-demographic variables, measures of disease risk, and the count-based Charlson Comorbidity Index. Multimorbidity patterns were also associated with emergency department visits and hospitalizations. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate the need to move beyond count-based measures of comorbidity and consider cancer in the context of multiple chronic conditions.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0240039, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284845

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a tool for estimating the 10-year risk of death from other causes in men with localized prostate cancer. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We identified 2,425 patients from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare Health Outcomes Survey database, age <80, newly diagnosed with clinical stage T1-T3a prostate cancer from 1/1/1998-12/31/2009, with follow-up through 2/28/2013. We developed a Fine and Gray competing-risks model for 10-year other cause mortality considering age, patient-reported comorbid medical conditions, component scores and items of the SF-36 Health Survey, activities of daily living, and sociodemographic characteristics. Model discrimination and calibration were compared to predictions from Social Security life table mortality risk estimates. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 7.7 years, 76 men died of prostate-specific causes and 465 died of other causes. The strongest predictors of 10-year other cause mortality risk included increasing age at diagnosis, higher approximated Charlson Comorbidity Index score, worse patient-reported general health (fair or poor vs. excellent-good), smoking at diagnosis, and marital status (all other vs. married) (all p<0.05). Model discrimination improved over Social Security life tables (c-index of 0.70 vs. 0.59, respectively). Predictions were more accurate than predictions from the Social Security life tables, which overestimated risk in our population. CONCLUSIONS: We provide a tool for estimating the 10-year risk of dying from other causes when making decisions about treating prostate cancer using pre-treatment patient-reported characteristics.

3.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(6): 1576-1583, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trans fatty acid (TFA) intake persists in much of the world, posing ongoing threats to public health that warrant further elucidation. Published evidence suggests a positive association of self-reported TFA intake with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. OBJECTIVES: To confirm those reports, we conducted a prospective study of prediagnosis RBC membrane TFA levels and risk of NHL and common NHL histologic subtypes. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study in Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study participants with archived RBC specimens and no history of cancer at blood draw (1989-1090 and 1994-1995, respectively). We confirmed 583 incident NHL cases (332 women and 251 men) and individually matched 583 controls on cohort (sex), age, race, and blood draw date/time. We analyzed RBC membrane TFA using GLC (in 2013-2014) and expressed individual TFA levels as a percentage of total fatty acids. We used unconditional logistic regression adjusted for the matching factors to estimate ORs and 95% CIs for overall NHL risk per 1 SD increase in TFA level and assessed histologic subtype-specific associations with multivariable polytomous logistic regression. RESULTS: Total and individual TFA levels were not associated with risk of all NHL or most subtypes. We observed a positive association of total TFA levels with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) risk [n = 98 cases; OR (95% CI) per 1 SD increase: 1.30 (1.05, 1.61); P = 0.015], driven by trans 18:1n-9(ω-9)/elaidic acid [OR (95% CI): 1.34 (1.08, 1.66); P = 0.007], trans 18:1n-7/vaccenic acid [OR (95% CI): 1.28 (1.04, 1.58); P = 0.023], and trans 18:2n-6t,t [OR (95% CI): 1.26 (1.01, 1.57); P = 0.037]. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings extended evidence for TFA intake and DLBCL risk but not for other NHL subtypes. Reduced TFA consumption through dietary choices or health policy measures may support prevention of DLBCL, an aggressive NHL subtype.

4.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(9): 861-867, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556947

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study describes longitudinal trends in the use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based testing in two geographically distinct healthcare systems following the 2011 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendations against routine PSA screening. METHODS: We analyzed population-based health claims data from 253,139 men aged 40-80 who were enrolled at two US healthcare systems. We assessed trends in the percentage of eligible men receiving ≥ 1 PSA test per year by time period (2000-2008, 2009-2011, 2012-2014), age (40-54, 55-69, 70-80), and race (white, black, other, unknown), and conducted a joinpoint regression analysis. RESULTS: Men aged 55-69 and 70-80 years of all races had similar use of PSA testing between 2000 and 2011, ranging between 47 and 56% of eligible men by year, while only 22-26% of men aged 40-54 had a PSA test per year during this period. Overall, the percentage of men receiving at least one PSA test per year decreased by 26% between 2009-2011 and 2012-2014, with similar trends across race and age groups. PSA testing declined significantly after 2011 (annual percent change = - 11.28). CONCLUSIONS: Following the 2011 USPSTF recommendations against routine PSA screening, declines in PSA testing were observed among men of all races and across all age groups in two large US healthcare systems.


Assuntos
Calicreínas/análise , Antígeno Prostático Específico/análise , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Adulto , Comitês Consultivos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Michigan/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Análise de Regressão , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383046

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess current estimates of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening practices in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) status and whether this association varies by race/ethnicity. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 2012, 2014, 2016, and 2018 among US adults aged 50-75 years (n = 807,937). Participants' self-reported CRC screening practices were categorized as being up-to-date, not up-to-date, or never screened. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess whether self-reported prevalent CVD was associated with CRC screening practices after adjusting for several potentially confounding variables; additional analyses were stratified by race/ethnicity. RESULTS: One-quarter of US adults had never been screened for CRC, while 67.0% reported being up-to-date with CRC screening. The proportion of Hispanics who had never been screened (35.3%) was higher than non-Hispanic Whites (23.5%) and Blacks (20.6%). Adults with CVD were less likely to never have been screened (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.88-0.95) or not to be up-to-date (aOR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.86-0.94) on CRC screening than those without CVD. CONCLUSION: The presence of CVD is associated with better adherence to CRC screening guidelines. Poor CRC screening utilization in Hispanics should be a priority for further investigation and intervention.

6.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 180(1): 219-226, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975315

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Reports suggest that up to 50% of women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer (BC) do not complete the recommended 5 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET). We examined the impact of an outreach program at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) on adherence and discontinuation of AET among patients who initiated AET. METHODS: We assembled a retrospective cohort of all KPNC patients diagnosed with HR+, stage I-III BC initiating AET before (n = 4287) and after (n = 3580) implementation of the outreach program. We compared adherence proportions and discontinuation rates before and after program implementation, both crude and adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and stage. We conducted a pooled analysis of data from six Cancer Research Network (CRN) sites that had not implemented programs for improving AET adherence, using identical methods and time periods, to assess possible secular trends. RESULTS: In the pre-outreach period, estimated adherence in years 1, 2, and 3 following AET initiation was 75.2%, 71.0%, and 67.3%; following the outreach program, the estimates were 79.4%, 75.6%, and 72.2% (p-values < .0001 for pairwise comparisons). Results were comparable after adjusting for clinical and demographic factors. The estimated cumulative incidence of discontinuation was 0.22 (0.21-0.24) and 0.18 (0.17-0.19) at 3 years for pre- and post-outreach groups (p-value < .0001). We found no evidence of an increase in adherence between the study periods at the CRN sites with no AET adherence program. CONCLUSION: Adherence and discontinuation after AET initiation improved modestly following implementation of the outreach program.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , California/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Melhoria de Qualidade , Programas Médicos Regionais , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Int J Cancer ; 146(1): 35-43, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30802944

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma (MM) survival has improved due to recent developments in MM treatment. As a result, other co-morbid conditions may be of increasing importance to MM patients' long-term survival. This study examines trends in common causes of death among patients with MM in Puerto Rico, and in the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population. We analyzed the primary cause of death among incident MM cases recorded in the Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry (n = 3,018) and the US SEER Program (n = 67,733) between 1987 and 2013. We calculated the cumulative incidence of death due to the eight most common causes and analyzed temporal trends in mortality rates using joinpoint regression. Analyses of SEER were also stratified by Hispanic ethnicity. MM accounted for approximately 72% of all reported deaths among persons diagnosed with MM in Puerto Rico and in SEER. In both populations, the proportion of patients who died from MM decreased with increasing time since diagnosis. Age-standardized temporal trends showed a decreased MM-specific mortality rate among US SEER (annual percent change [APC] = -5.0) and Puerto Rican (APC = -1.8) patients during the study period, and particularly after 2003 in non-Hispanic SEER patients. Temporal decline in non-MM causes of death was also observed among US SEER (APC = -2.1) and Puerto Rican (APC = -0.1) populations. MM-specific mortality decreased, yet remained the predominant cause of death for individuals diagnosed with MM over a 26-year period. The most pronounced decreases in MM-specific death occurred after 2003, which suggests a possible influence of more recently developed MM therapies.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Programa de SEER , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 17(10): 1166-1172, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been the standard of care for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) since 2001. However, few studies have evaluated changes in the treatment landscape of CML over time. This study assessed the long-term treatment patterns of oral anticancer therapies among patients with CML. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included patients newly diagnosed with CML between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2016, from 10 integrated healthcare systems. The proportion of patients treated with 5 FDA-approved oral TKI agents-bosutinib, dasatinib, imatinib, nilotinib, and ponatinib-in the 12 months after diagnosis were measured, overall and by year, between 2000 and 2017. We assessed the use of each oral agent through the fourth-line setting. Multivariable logistic regression estimated the odds of receiving any oral agent, adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Among 853 patients with CML, 81% received an oral agent between 2000 and 2017. Use of non-oral therapies decreased from 100% in 2000 to 5% in 2005, coinciding with imatinib uptake from 65% in 2001 to 98% in 2005. Approximately 28% of patients switched to a second-line agent, 9% switched to a third-line agent, and 2% switched to a fourth-line agent. Adjusted analysis showed that age at diagnosis, year of diagnosis, and comorbidity burden were statistically significantly associated with odds of receiving an oral agent. CONCLUSIONS: A dramatic shift was seen in CML treatments away from traditional, nonoral chemotherapy toward use of novel oral TKIs between 2000 and 2017. As the costs of oral anticancer agents reach new highs, studies assessing the long-term health and financial outcomes among patients with CML are warranted.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 3: 1-10, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487201

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate health care systems for the availability of population-level data on the frequency of use and results of clinical molecular marker tests to inform precision cancer care. METHODS: We assessed cancer-related molecular marker test data availability across 12 US health care systems in the Cancer Research Network. Overall, these systems provide care to a diverse population of more than 12 million people in the United States. We performed qualitative analyses of test data availability for five blood-based protein, nine germline, and 14 tissue-based tumor marker tests in each health care system's electronic health record and tumor registry using key informants, test code lists, and manual review of data types and output. We then performed quantitative analyses to estimate the proportion of patients with cancer with test utilization data and results for specific molecular marker tests. RESULTS: Health systems were able to systematically capture population-level data on all five blood protein markers, six of 14 tissue-based tumor markers, and none of the nine germline markers. Successful, systematic data capture was achievable for tests with electronic data feeds for test results (blood protein markers) or through prior manual abstraction by tumor registrars (select tumor-based markers). For test results stored in scanned image files (particularly germline and tumor marker tests), information on which test was performed and test results was not readily accessible in an electronic format. CONCLUSION: Even in health care systems with sophisticated electronic health records, there were few codified data elements available for evaluating precision cancer medicine test use and results at the population level. Health care organizations should establish standards for electronic reporting of precision medicine tests to expedite cancer research and facilitate the implementation of precision medicine approaches.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Coleta de Dados , Assistência à Saúde , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Medicina de Precisão , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Pesquisa , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(5): 996-999, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about factors associated with long-term survival (LTS) following a diagnosis of ovarian cancer. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) to explore predictors of LTS (defined as ≥7 years of survival) using electronic medical record data from a network of integrated health care systems. Multivariable logistic regression with forward selection was used to compare characteristics of women who survived ≥7 years after diagnosis (n = 148) to those who died within 7 years of diagnosis (n = 494). RESULTS: Our final model included study site, age, stage at diagnosis, CA-125, comorbidity score, receipt of chemotherapy, BMI, and four separate comorbid conditions: weight loss, depression, hypothyroidism, and liver disease. Of these, only younger age, lower stage, and depression were statistically significantly associated with LTS. CONCLUSIONS: We did not identify any new characteristics associated with HGSOC survival. IMPACT: Prognosis of ovarian cancer generally remains poor. Large, pooled studies of ovarian cancer are needed to identify characteristics that may improve survival.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , California/epidemiologia , Colorado/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/tratamento farmacológico , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Washington/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
EGEMS (Wash DC) ; 7(1): 16, 2019 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30984796

RESUMO

Context: In existence for nearly 25 years, the Healthcare Systems Research Network (HCSRN) is an established and sustainable network of health care systems that serves as a "real world" laboratory to enable the integration of research findings into practice. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate how the HCSRN serves as an ideal environment for studying dissemination and implementation of evidence-based practices into health care systems through the example of developing a multi-site study on the implementation of evidence-based precision medicine practices. Case description: The "Implementing Universal Lynch Syndrome Screening (IMPULSS)" study (NIH R01CA211723) involves seven HCSRN health care systems and two external health care systems. The IMPULSS study will describe and explain organizational variability around Lynch syndrome (LS) screening to identify which factors in different organizational contexts are important for successful implementation of LS screening programs and will create a toolkit to facilitate organizational decision making around implementation and improvement of precision medicine programs in health care systems. Major Themes: The strengths of the HCSRN that facilitate D&I research include: 1) a culture of collaboration, 2) standardization of data and processes across systems, and 3) researchers embedded in diverse health care systems. We describe how these strengths contributed to developing the IMPULSS study. Conclusion: Given the importance of conducting research in real world settings to improve patient outcomes, the unique strengths of the HCSRN are of vital importance. The IMPULSS study is one case example of how the strengths of the HCSRN make it an excellent environment for research on implementing evidence-based precision medicine practices in health care systems.

12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 824, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30376847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systematic screening of all colorectal tumors for Lynch Syndrome (LS) has been recommended since 2009. Currently, implementation of LS screening in healthcare systems remains variable, likely because LS screening involves the complex coordination of multiple departments and individuals across the healthcare system. Our specific aims are to (1) describe variation in LS screening implementation across multiple healthcare systems; (2) identify conditions associated with both practice variation and optimal implementation; (3) determine the relative effectiveness, efficiency, and costs of different LS screening protocols by healthcare system; and (4) develop and test in a real-world setting an organizational toolkit for LS screening program implementation and improvement. This toolkit will promote effective implementation of LS screening in various complex health systems. METHODS: This study includes eight healthcare systems with 22 clinical sites at varied stages of implementing LS screening programs. Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), we will conduct in-depth semi-structured interviews with patients and organizational stakeholders and perform economic evaluation of site-specific implementation costs. These processes will result in a comprehensive cross-case analysis of different organizational contexts. We will utilize qualitative data analysis and configurational comparative methodology to identify facilitators and barriers at the organizational level that are minimally sufficient and necessary for optimal LS screening implementation. DISCUSSION: The overarching goal of this project is to combine our data with theories and tools from implementation science to create an organizational toolkit to facilitate implementation of LS screening in various real-world settings. Our organizational toolkit will account for issues of complex coordination of care involving multiple stakeholders to enhance implementation, sustainability, and ongoing improvement of evidence-based LS screening programs. Successful implementation of such programs will ultimately reduce suffering of patients and their family members from preventable cancers, decrease waste in healthcare system costs, and inform strategies to facilitate the promise of precision medicine. TRIAL REGISTRATION: N/A.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/prevenção & controle , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Genômica , Medicina de Precisão , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
13.
Haematologica ; 103(10): 1679-1687, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29930163

RESUMO

Inflammation and B-cell hyperactivation have been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma development. This prospective analysis aimed to further elucidate pre-diagnosis plasma immune marker profiles associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk. We identified 598 incident lymphoma cases and 601 matched controls in Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study participants with archived pre-diagnosis plasma samples and measured 13 immune marker levels with multiplexed immunoassays. Using multivariable logistic regression we calculated Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) per standard deviation unit increase in biomarker concentration for risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and major histological subtype, stratifying additional models by years (<5, 5 to <10, ≥10) after blood draw. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor-α, CXC chemokine ligand 13, soluble CD30, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 were individually positively associated, and B-cell activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family inversely associated, with all non-Hodgkin lymphoma and one or more subtypes. The biomarker combinations associated independently with lymphoma varied somewhat by subtype and years after blood draw. Of note, the unexpected inverse association between B-cell activating factor and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma risk (OR: 95%CI: 0.51, 0.43-0.62) persisted more than ten years after blood draw (OR: 0.70; 95%CI: 0.52-0.93). In conclusion, immune activation precedes non-Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosis by several years. Decreased B-cell activating factor levels may denote nascent chronic lymphocytic leukemia many years pre-diagnosis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Linfoma não Hodgkin , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Linfoma não Hodgkin/sangue , Linfoma não Hodgkin/diagnóstico , Linfoma não Hodgkin/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/sangue , Proteínas de Neoplasias/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 9(6): 626-634, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29875079

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: United States (US) guidelines regarding when to stop routine breast cancer screening remain unclear. No national studies to-date have evaluated the use of screening mammography among US long-stay nursing home residents. This cross-sectional study was designed to identify prevalence, predictors, and geographic variation of screening mammography among that population in the context of current US guidelines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Screening mammography prevalence, identified with Physician/Supplier Part B claims and stratified by guideline age classification (65-74, ≥75 years), was estimated for all women aged ≥65 years residing in US Medicare- and Medicaid- certified nursing homes (≥1 year) with an annual Minimum Data Set (MDS) 3.0 assessment, continuous Medicare Part B enrollment, and no clinical indication for screening mammography as of 2011 (n = 389,821). The associations between resident- and regional- level factors, and screening mammography, were estimated by crude and adjusted prevalence ratios from robust Poisson regressions clustered by facility. RESULTS: Women on average were 85.4 (standard deviation ±8.1) years old, 77.9% were disabled, and 76.3% cognitively impaired. Screening mammography prevalence was 7.1% among those aged 65-74 years (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 6.8%-7.3%) and 1.7% among those ≥75 years (95% CI, 1.7%-1.8%), with geographic variation observed. Predictors of screening in both age groups included race, cognitive impairment, frailty, hospice, and some comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: These results shed light on the current screening mammography practices in US nursing homes. Thoughtful consideration about individual screening recommendations and the implementation of more clear guidelines for this special population are warranted to prevent overscreening.


Assuntos
Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Mamografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos
15.
Int J Cancer ; 143(8): 1914-1922, 2018 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29756258

RESUMO

Circulating saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), which are predominantly derived from endogenous metabolism, may influence non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk by modulating inflammation or lymphocyte membrane stability. However, few biomarker studies have evaluated NHL risk associated with these fats. We conducted a prospective study of 583 incident NHL cases and 583 individually matched controls with archived pre-diagnosis red blood cell (RBC) specimens in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS). RBC membrane fatty acid levels were measured using gas chromatography. Using multivariable logistic regression, we estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk of NHL and major NHL subtypes including T cell NHL (T-NHL), B cell NHL (B-NHL) and three individual B-NHLs: chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and follicular lymphoma. RBC SFA and MUFA levels were not associated with NHL risk overall. However, RBC very long chain SFA levels (VLCSFA; 20:0, 22:0, 23:0) were inversely associated with B-NHLs other than CLL/SLL; ORs (95% CIs) per standard deviation (SD) increase in level were 0.81 (0.70, 0.95) for 20:0, 0.82 (0.70, 0.95) for 22:0 and 0.82 (0.70, 0.96) for 23:0 VLCSFA. Also, both VLCSFA and MUFA levels were inversely associated with T-NHL [ORs (95% CIs) per SD: VLCSFA, 0.63 (0.40, 0.99); MUFA, 0.63 (0.40, 0.99)]. The findings of inverse associations for VLCSFAs with B-NHLs other than CLL/SLL and for VLCSFA and MUFA with T-NHL suggest an influence of fatty acid metabolism on lymphomagenesis.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/sangue , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Linfoma não Hodgkin/sangue , Linfoma não Hodgkin/etiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Cancer Causes Control ; 29(1): 143-156, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29192350

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Many studies suggest a role for cholesterol in cancer development. Serum cholesterol levels have been observed to be low in newly diagnosed lymphoma cases. The objective of these analyses was to examine the time-varying relationship of cholesterol with lymphomagenesis in the 10 years prior to diagnosis by lymphoma subtype. METHODS: Participants were selected from the combined membership of six National Cancer Institute-funded Cancer Research Network health plans from 1998 to 2008, excluding members with human immunodeficiency virus, cancer (except lymphoma), or organ transplants. Incident lymphoma cases within this population were ascertained and matched with up to five controls. Total serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein were collected from plan databases. Multilevel, multivariable longitudinal models were fit after choosing the best polynomial order by deviance statistics for selected lymphoma histotypes to examine pre-diagnosis cholesterol trajectories: Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 519) and all non-Hodgkin lymphomas combined (n = 12,635) as well as six subtypes of the latter. RESULTS: For all categories, lymphoma cases had statistically significantly lower estimated total serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein levels than controls in the years prior to diagnosis/index date. Between-group differences were most pronounced 3-4 years prior to diagnosis, when cases' cholesterol levels declined steeply. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis is the first to examine changes in serum cholesterol for a decade prior to lymphoma diagnosis. A drop in cholesterol levels was evident several years before diagnosis. Our results suggest that cholesterol-related pathways have an important relationship with lymphomagenesis and low cholesterol could be a preclinical lymphoma marker.


Assuntos
Colesterol/sangue , Linfoma/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Linfoma/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Int J Cancer ; 141(3): 480-487, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28425616

RESUMO

Animal and human data suggest statins may be protective against developing multiple myeloma; however, findings may be biased by the interrelationship with lipid levels. We investigated the association between statin use and risk of multiple myeloma in a large US population, with an emphasis on accounting for this potential bias. We conducted a case-control study nested within 6 US integrated healthcare systems participating in the National Cancer Institute-funded Cancer Research Network. Adults aged ≥40 years who were diagnosed with multiple myeloma from 1998-2008 were identified through cancer registries (N = 2,532). For each case, five controls were matched on age, sex, health plan, and membership duration prior to diagnosis/index date. Statin prescriptions were ascertained from electronic pharmacy records. To address potential biases related to lipid levels and medication prescribing practices, multivariable marginal structural models were used to model statin use (≥6 cumulative months) and risk of multiple myeloma, with examination of multiple latency periods. Statin use 48-72 months prior to diagnosis/index date was associated with a suggestive 20-28% reduced risk of developing multiple myeloma, compared to non-users. Recent initiation of statins was not associated with myeloma risk (risk ratio range 0.90-0.99 with 0-36 months latency). Older patients had more consistent protective associations across all latency periods (risk ratio range 0.67-0.87). Our results suggest that the association between statin use and multiple myeloma risk may vary by exposure window and age. Future research is warranted to investigate the timing of statin use in relation to myeloma diagnosis.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Mieloma Múltiplo/induzido quimicamente , Mieloma Múltiplo/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
J Cancer Educ ; 32(2): 283-292, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26490950

RESUMO

Expanding research capacity of large research networks within health care delivery systems requires strategically training both embedded and external investigators in necessary skills for this purpose. Researchers new to these settings frequently lack the skills and specialized knowledge conducive to multi-site and multi-disciplinary research set in delivery systems. This report describes the goals and components of the Cancer Research Network (CRN) Scholars Program, a 26-month training program developed to increase the capacity for cancer research conducted within the network's participating sites, its progression from training embedded investigators to a mix of internal and external investigators, and the content evolution of the training program. The CRN Scholars program was launched in 2007 to assist junior investigators from member sites develop independent and sustainable research programs within the CRN. Resulting from CRN's increased emphasis on promoting external collaborations, the 2013 Scholars program began recruiting junior investigators from external institutions committed to conducting delivery system science. Based on involvement of this broader population and feedback from prior Scholar cohorts, the program has honed its focus on specific opportunities and issues encountered in conducting cancer research within health care delivery systems. Efficiency and effectiveness of working within networks is accelerated by strategic and mentored navigation of these networks. Investing in training programs specific to these settings provides the opportunity to improve multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional collaboration, particularly for early-stage investigators. Aspects of the CRN Scholars Program may help inform others considering developing similar programs to expand delivery system research or within large, multi-disciplinary research networks.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Educação/organização & administração , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Oncologia/organização & administração , Objetivos Organizacionais , Humanos , Mentores , National Cancer Institute (U.S.) , Pesquisadores/organização & administração , Estados Unidos
19.
Curr Dev Nutr ; 1(11)2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29595830

RESUMO

Background: Specific foods and nutrients, including alcohol, may contribute to gut barrier dysfunction. However, to our knowledge, the influence of whole diets is currently unknown. Objective: We aimed to cross-sectionally investigate associations of dietary patterns with plasma soluble CD14 (sCD14), which is released by macrophages on stimulation with endotoxin and has been used as a marker of gut hyperpermeability. Methods: We used food-frequency questionnaire data collected from 689 women in the Nurses' Health Study and 509 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Our principal component analysis identified 2 dietary patterns: "Western" (higher intakes of red meat, processed meat, desserts, and refined grains) and "prudent" (higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, fish, and whole grains). In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses, we estimated ORs and 95% CIs for high (equal to or greater than the median compared with less than the median) sCD14 concentrations in quintiles of each dietary pattern. Using logistic regression, we also investigated the joint association of the Western dietary pattern and alcohol intake or C-reactive protein (CRP) with sCD14 concentrations. Results: Western dietary pattern scores were positively associated with sCD14 concentrations (OR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.24, 2.79; P-trend = 0.0005; comparing extreme quintiles). Analyses of joint associations suggested that the strongest associations with higher sCD14 concentrations were for persons with both high Western pattern scores and high alcohol intake compared with participants with low scores for both (OR: 2.96; 95% CI: 1.61, 5.45) or for participants with both high Western pattern scores and high CRP values compared with those with low scores for both (OR: 4.11; 95% CI: 2.57, 6.58). The prudent pattern was not associated with sCD14 concentrations. Conclusions: Higher consumption of the Western dietary pattern is associated with a marker of macrophage activation and gut hyperpermeability, especially when coupled with high alcohol intake and heightened systemic inflammation. Our findings need confirmation in studies with additional markers of gut barrier dysfunction.

20.
Am J Epidemiol ; 182(5): 405-16, 2015 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26182945

RESUMO

Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) has few known modifiable risk factors, and the relationship between diet and cHL risk is unclear. We performed the first investigation of an association between dietary pattern and cHL risk in 435 cHL cases and 563 population-based controls from Massachusetts and Connecticut (1997-2000) who completed baseline diet questionnaires. We identified 4 major dietary patterns ("vegetable," "high meat," "fruit/low-fat dairy," "desserts/sweets") using principal components analysis. We computed multivariable odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations of dietary pattern score (quartiles) with younger-adult (age <50 years), older-adult (age ≥50 years), and overall cHL risk. Secondary analyses examined associations by histological subtype and tumor Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status. A diet high in desserts/sweets was associated with younger-adult (odds ratio(quartile 4 vs. quartile 1) = 1.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 2.45; Ptrend = 0.008) and EBV-negative, younger-adult (odds ratio = 2.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.31, 3.41; Ptrend = 0.007) cHL risk. A high meat diet was associated with older-adult (odds ratio = 3.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 10.91; Ptrend = 0.04) and EBV-negative, older-adult (odds ratio = 4.64, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 20.86; Ptrend = 0.04) cHL risk. Other dietary patterns were not clearly associated with cHL. We report the first evidence for a role of dietary pattern in cHL etiology. Diets featuring high intake of meat or desserts and sweets may increase cHL risk.


Assuntos
Dieta , Doença de Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Connecticut/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Frutas , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Herpesvirus Humano 4/isolamento & purificação , Doença de Hodgkin/virologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Carne , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Verduras , Adulto Jovem
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