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1.
Elife ; 102021 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632981

RESUMO

Gut enzymes can metabolize plant defense compounds and thereby affect the growth and fitness of insect herbivores. Whether these enzymes also influence feeding preference is largely unknown. We studied the metabolization of taraxinic acid ß-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G), a sesquiterpene lactone of the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) that deters its major root herbivore, the common cockchafer larva (Melolontha melolontha). We have demonstrated that TA-G is rapidly deglucosylated and conjugated to glutathione in the insect gut. A broad-spectrum M. melolontha ß-glucosidase, Mm_bGlc17, is sufficient and necessary for TA-G deglucosylation. Using cross-species RNA interference, we have shown that Mm_bGlc17 reduces TA-G toxicity. Furthermore, Mm_bGlc17 is required for the preference of M. melolontha larvae for TA-G-deficient plants. Thus, herbivore metabolism modulates both the toxicity and deterrence of a plant defense compound. Our work illustrates the multifaceted roles of insect digestive enzymes as mediators of plant-herbivore interactions.


Assuntos
Besouros/enzimologia , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Herbivoria , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Lactonas/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Taraxacum/metabolismo , beta-Galactosidase/metabolismo , Animais , Besouros/embriologia , Besouros/genética , Digestão , Glucosídeos/toxicidade , Glutationa/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Inativação Metabólica , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Lactonas/toxicidade , Larva/enzimologia , Larva/genética , Metabolismo Secundário , Sesquiterpenos/toxicidade , Taraxacum/toxicidade , beta-Galactosidase/genética
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(43)2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675080

RESUMO

Plant secondary (or specialized) metabolites mediate important interactions in both the rhizosphere and the phyllosphere. If and how such compartmentalized functions interact to determine plant-environment interactions is not well understood. Here, we investigated how the dual role of maize benzoxazinoids as leaf defenses and root siderophores shapes the interaction between maize and a major global insect pest, the fall armyworm. We find that benzoxazinoids suppress fall armyworm growth when plants are grown in soils with very low available iron but enhance growth in soils with higher available iron. Manipulation experiments confirm that benzoxazinoids suppress herbivore growth under iron-deficient conditions and in the presence of chelated iron but enhance herbivore growth in the presence of free iron in the growth medium. This reversal of the protective effect of benzoxazinoids is not associated with major changes in plant primary metabolism. Plant defense activation is modulated by the interplay between soil iron and benzoxazinoids but does not explain fall armyworm performance. Instead, increased iron supply to the fall armyworm by benzoxazinoids in the presence of free iron enhances larval performance. This work identifies soil chemistry as a decisive factor for the impact of plant secondary metabolites on herbivore growth. It also demonstrates how the multifunctionality of plant secondary metabolites drives interactions between abiotic and biotic factors, with potential consequences for plant resistance in variable environments.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(37)2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507981

RESUMO

In high-risk environments with frequent predator encounters, efficient antipredator behavior is key to survival. Parental effects are a powerful mechanism to prepare offspring for coping with such environments, yet clear evidence for adaptive parental effects on offspring antipredator behaviors is missing. Rapid escape reflexes, or "C-start reflexes," are a key adaptation in fish and amphibians to escape predator strikes. We hypothesized that mothers living in high-risk environments might induce faster C-start reflexes in offspring by modifying egg composition. Here, we show that offspring of the cichlid fish Neolamprologus pulcher developed faster C-start reflexes and were more risk averse if their parents had been exposed to cues of their most dangerous natural predator during egg production. This effect was mediated by differences in egg composition. Eggs of predator-exposed mothers were heavier with higher net protein content, and the resulting offspring were heavier and had lower igf-1 gene expression than control offspring shortly after hatching. Thus, changes in egg composition can relay multiple putative pathways by which mothers can influence adaptive antipredator behaviors such as faster escape reflexes.

4.
Plant Cell Environ ; 44(12): 3502-3514, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505297

RESUMO

Plant-soil feedbacks refer to effects on plants that are mediated by soil modifications caused by the previous plant generation. Maize conditions the surrounding soil by secretion of root exudates including benzoxazinoids (BXs), a class of bioactive secondary metabolites. Previous work found that a BX-conditioned soil microbiota enhances insect resistance while reducing biomass in the next generation of maize plants. Whether these BX-mediated and microbially driven feedbacks are conserved across different soils and response species is unknown. We found the BX-feedbacks on maize growth and insect resistance conserved between two arable soils, but absent in a more fertile grassland soil, suggesting a soil-type dependence of BX feedbacks. We demonstrated that wheat also responded to BX-feedbacks. While the negative growth response to BX-conditioning was conserved in both cereals, insect resistance showed opposite patterns, with an increase in maize and a decrease in wheat. Wheat pathogen resistance was not affected. Finally and consistent with maize, we found the BX-feedbacks to be cultivar-specific. Taken together, BX-feedbacks affected cereal growth and resistance in a soil and genotype-dependent manner. Cultivar-specificity of BX-feedbacks is a key finding, as it hides the potential to optimize crops that avoid negative plant-soil feedbacks in rotations.

5.
J Chem Ecol ; 47(10-11): 889-906, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415498

RESUMO

How climate change will modify belowground tritrophic interactions is poorly understood, despite their importance for agricultural productivity. Here, we manipulated the three major abiotic factors associated with climate change (atmospheric CO2, temperature, and soil moisture) and investigated their individual and joint effects on the interaction between maize, the banded cucumber beetle (Diabrotica balteata), and the entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Changes in individual abiotic parameters had a strong influence on plant biomass, leaf wilting, sugar concentrations, protein levels, and benzoxazinoid contents. Yet, when combined to simulate a predicted climate scenario (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5, RCP 8.5), their effects mostly counter-balanced each other. Only the sharp negative impact of drought on leaf wilting was not fully compensated. In both current and predicted scenarios, root damage resulted in increased leaf wilting, reduced root biomass, and reconfigured the plant sugar metabolism. Single climatic variables modulated the herbivore performance and survival in an additive manner, although slight interactions were also observed. Increased temperature and CO2 levels both enhanced the performance of the insect, but elevated temperature also decreased its survival. Elevated temperatures and CO2 further directly impeded the EPN infectivity potential, while lower moisture levels improved it through plant- and/or herbivore-mediated changes. In the RCP 8.5 scenario, temperature and CO2 showed interactive effects on EPN infectivity, which was overall decreased by 40%. We conclude that root pest problems may worsen with climate change due to increased herbivore performance and reduced top-down control by biological control agents.

6.
Curr Opin Biotechnol ; 70: 262-265, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242994

RESUMO

Plant secondary (or specialized) metabolites determine multitrophic interaction dynamics. Herbivore natural enemies exploit plant volatiles for host location and are negatively affected by plant defense chemicals that are transferred through herbivores. Recent work shows that herbivore natural enemies can evolve resistance to plant defense chemicals, and that generating plant defense resistance through forward evolution enhances their capacity to prey on herbivores. Here, we discuss how this knowledge can be used to engineer better biocontrol agents. We argue that herbivore natural enemies which are adapted to plant chemistry will likely enhance the efficacy of future pest control efforts. Detailed phenotyping and field experiments will be necessary to quantify costs and benefits of optimizing chemical links between plants and higher trophic levels.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Herbivoria , Plantas
7.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 103, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plants influence their root and rhizosphere microbial communities through the secretion of root exudates. However, how specific classes of root exudate compounds impact the assembly of root-associated microbiotas is not well understood, especially not under realistic field conditions. Maize roots secrete benzoxazinoids (BXs), a class of indole-derived defense compounds, and thereby impact the assembly of their microbiota. Here, we investigated the broader impacts of BX exudation on root and rhizosphere microbiotas of adult maize plants grown under natural conditions at different field locations in Europe and the USA. We examined the microbiotas of BX-producing and multiple BX-defective lines in two genetic backgrounds across three soils with different properties. RESULTS: Our analysis showed that BX secretion affected the community composition of the rhizosphere and root microbiota, with the most pronounced effects observed for root fungi. The impact of BX exudation was at least as strong as the genetic background, suggesting that BX exudation is a key trait by which maize structures its associated microbiota. BX-producing plants were not consistently enriching microbial lineages across the three field experiments. However, BX exudation consistently depleted Flavobacteriaceae and Comamonadaceae and enriched various potential plant pathogenic fungi in the roots across the different environments. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal that BXs have a selective impact on root and rhizosphere microbiota composition across different conditions. Taken together, this study identifies the BX pathway as an interesting breeding target to manipulate plant-microbiome interactions. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Zea mays , Benzoxazinas , Europa (Continente) , Microbiota/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo
8.
New Phytol ; 231(3): 957-962, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826755

RESUMO

Plants are systemically relevant to our planet not only by constituting a major part of its biomass, but also because they produce a vast diversity of bioactive phytochemicals. These compounds often modulate interactions between plants and the environment, and can have substantial effects on plant consumers and their health. By taking a food web perspective, we highlight the role of bioactive phytochemicals in linking soils, plants, animals and humans and discuss their contributions to systems health. The analysis of connections among food web components revealed an underexplored potential of phytochemicals to optimize food web health and productivity.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Animais , Plantas
9.
Curr Opin Insect Sci ; 44: 82-88, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894408

RESUMO

Plants release distinct blends of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) upon herbivore attack. HIPVs have long been known to influence the behavior of herbivores and natural enemies. In addition, HIPVs can act as physiological regulators that induce or prime plant defenses. Recent work indicates that the regulatory capacity of HIPVs may extend to herbivore immunity: herbivores that are exposed to HIPVs can become more resistant or susceptible to parasitoids and pathogens. While the mechanisms of HIPV-mediated plant defense regulation are being unraveled, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of herbivore immunity are unclear. Evidence so far suggests a high degree of context dependency. Here, we review the mechanisms by which HIPVs regulate plant defense and herbivore immunity. We address major gaps of knowledge and discuss directions for future mechanistic research to facilitate efforts to use the regulatory capacity of HIPVs for the biological control of insect pests.


Assuntos
Herbivoria , Insetos/imunologia , Defesa das Plantas contra Herbivoria , Plantas/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Animais
10.
Elife ; 102021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875133

RESUMO

Insect herbivores use different cues to locate host plants. The importance of CO2 in this context is not well understood. We manipulated CO2 perception in western corn rootworm (WCR) larvae through RNAi and studied how CO2 perception impacts their interaction with their host plant. The expression of a carbon dioxide receptor, DvvGr2, is specifically required for dose-dependent larval responses to CO2. Silencing CO2 perception or scrubbing plant-associated CO2 has no effect on the ability of WCR larvae to locate host plants at short distances (<9 cm), but impairs host location at greater distances. WCR larvae preferentially orient and prefer plants that grow in well-fertilized soils compared to plants that grow in nutrient-poor soils, a behaviour that has direct consequences for larval growth and depends on the ability of the larvae to perceive root-emitted CO2. This study unravels how CO2 can mediate plant-herbivore interactions by serving as a distance-dependent host location cue.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Herbivoria , Mariposas/fisiologia , Zea mays/metabolismo , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
11.
Insects ; 12(2)2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671118

RESUMO

The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is resistant to four separate classes of traditional insecticides, all Bacillius thuringiensis (Bt) toxins currently registered for commercial use, crop rotation, innate plant resistance factors, and even double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) targeting essential genes via environmental RNA interference (RNAi), which has not been sold commercially to date. Clearly, additional tools are needed as management options. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art knowledge about biotic factors influencing herbivore success, including host location and recognition, plant defensive traits, plant-microbe interactions, and herbivore-pathogens/predator interactions. We then translate this knowledge into potential new management tools and improved biological control.

12.
PLoS Biol ; 19(2): e3001114, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600420

RESUMO

Plants produce complex mixtures of primary and secondary metabolites. Herbivores use these metabolites as behavioral cues to increase their fitness. However, how herbivores combine and integrate different metabolite classes into fitness-relevant foraging decisions in planta is poorly understood. We developed a molecular manipulative approach to modulate the availability of sugars and benzoxazinoid secondary metabolites as foraging cues for a specialist maize herbivore, the western corn rootworm. By disrupting sugar perception in the western corn rootworm and benzoxazinoid production in maize, we show that sugars and benzoxazinoids act as distinct and dynamically combined mediators of short-distance host finding and acceptance. While sugars improve the capacity of rootworm larvae to find a host plant and to distinguish postembryonic from less nutritious embryonic roots, benzoxazinoids are specifically required for the latter. Host acceptance in the form of root damage is increased by benzoxazinoids and sugars in an additive manner. This pattern is driven by increasing damage to postembryonic roots in the presence of benzoxazinoids and sugars. Benzoxazinoid- and sugar-mediated foraging directly improves western corn rootworm growth and survival. Interestingly, western corn rootworm larvae retain a substantial fraction of their capacity to feed and survive on maize plants even when both classes of chemical cues are almost completely absent. This study unravels fine-grained differentiation and combination of primary and secondary metabolites into herbivore foraging and documents how the capacity to compensate for the lack of important chemical cues enables a specialist herbivore to survive within unpredictable metabolic landscapes.


Assuntos
Benzoxazinas/metabolismo , Besouros/fisiologia , Açúcares/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Apetitivo/fisiologia , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Herbivoria , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Metaboloma , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Zea mays/genética
13.
Plant Cell Environ ; 44(4): 1165-1177, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996129

RESUMO

Upon herbivore attack, plants emit herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs). HIPVs can prime defences and resistance of intact plants. However, how HIPVs are decoded and translated into functional defence responses is not well understood, especially in long-lived woody plants. Here, we investigated the impact of the aromatic HIPV indole on defence-related early signalling, phytohormone accumulation, secondary metabolite biosynthesis and herbivore resistance in tea plants. We find that tea plants infested with tea geometrid caterpillars release indole at concentrations >450 ng*hr-1 . Exposure to corresponding doses of synthetic indole primes the expression of early defence genes involved in calcium (Ca2+ ) signalling, MPK signalling and jasmonate biosynthesis. Indole exposure also primes the production of jasmonates and defence-related secondary metabolites. These changes are associated with higher herbivore resistance of indole-exposed tea plants. Chemical inhibition of Ca2+ and jasmonate signalling provides evidence that both are required for indole-mediated defence priming and herbivore resistance. Our systematic assessment of the impact of indole on defence signalling and deployment shows that indole acts by boosting Ca2+ signalling, resulting in enhanced jasmonate-dependent defence and resistance in a woody plant. Our work extends the molecular basis of HIPV-induced defence priming from annual plants to an economically important tree species.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Indóis/farmacologia , Defesa das Plantas contra Herbivoria , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Camellia sinensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Camellia sinensis/fisiologia , Catequina/metabolismo , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Larva , Mariposas , Defesa das Plantas contra Herbivoria/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
14.
Plant Physiol ; 184(1): 39-52, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636341

RESUMO

The plant kingdom produces hundreds of thousands of low molecular weight organic compounds. Based on the assumed functions of these compounds, the research community has classified them into three overarching groups: primary metabolites, which are directly required for plant growth; secondary (or specialized) metabolites, which mediate plant-environment interactions; and hormones, which regulate organismal processes and metabolism. For decades, this functional trichotomy of plant metabolism has shaped theory and experimentation in plant biology. However, exact biochemical boundaries between these different metabolite classes were never fully established. A new wave of genetic and chemical studies now further blurs these boundaries by demonstrating that secondary metabolites are multifunctional; they can function as potent regulators of plant growth and defense as well as primary metabolites sensu lato. Several adaptive scenarios may have favored this functional diversity for secondary metabolites, including signaling robustness and cost-effective storage and recycling. Secondary metabolite multifunctionality can provide new explanations for ontogenetic patterns of defense production and can refine our understanding of plant-herbivore interactions, in particular by accounting for the discovery that adapted herbivores misuse plant secondary metabolites for multiple purposes, some of which mirror their functions in plants. In conclusion, recent work unveils the limits of our current functional classification system for plant metabolites. Viewing secondary metabolites as integrated components of metabolic networks that are dynamically shaped by environmental selection pressures and transcend multiple trophic levels can improve our understanding of plant metabolism and plant-environment interactions.


Assuntos
Plantas/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/fisiologia , Plantas/genética , Metabolismo Secundário/genética , Metabolismo Secundário/fisiologia
15.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 20(6): 1558-1571, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599660

RESUMO

The 'One Health' framework emphasizes the ecological relationships between soil, plant, animal and human health. Microbiomes play important roles in these relationships, as they modify the health and performance of the different compartments and influence the transfer of energy, matter and chemicals between them. Standardized methods to characterize microbiomes along food chains are, however, currently lacking. To address this methodological gap, we evaluated the performance of DNA extraction kits and commonly recommended primer pairs targeting different hypervariable regions (V3-V4, V4, V5-V6, V5-V6-V7) of the 16S rRNA gene, on microbiome samples along a model food chain, including soils, maize roots, cattle rumen, and cattle and human faeces. We also included faeces from gnotobiotic mice colonized with defined bacterial taxa and mock communities to confirm the robustness of our molecular and bioinformatic approaches on these defined low microbial diversity samples. Based on Amplicon Sequence Variants, the primer pair 515F-806R led to the highest estimates of species richness and diversity in all sample types and offered maximum diversity coverage of reference databases in in silico primer analysis. The influence of the DNA extraction kits was negligible compared to the influence of the choice of primer pairs. Comparing microbiomes using 515F-806R revealed that soil and root samples have the highest estimates of species richness, while lowest richness was observed in human faeces. Primer pair choice directly influenced the estimation of community changes within and across compartments and may give rise to preferential detection of specific taxa. This work demonstrates why a standardized approach is necessary to analyse microbiomes within and between source compartments along food chains in the context of the One Health framework.


Assuntos
Primers do DNA/genética , Microbiota , Saúde Única , Animais , Bovinos/microbiologia , Humanos , Camundongos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Microbiologia do Solo , Zea mays/microbiologia
16.
Plant Cell Environ ; 43(10): 2571-2585, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598036

RESUMO

The mechanisms by which herbivores induce plant defenses are well studied. However, how specialized herbivores suppress plant resistance is still poorly understood. Here, we discovered a rice (Oryza sativa) leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase, OsLRR-RLK2, which is induced upon attack by gravid females of a specialist piercing-sucking herbivore, the brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens). Silencing OsLRR-RLK2 decreases the constitutive activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase (OsMPK6) and alters BPH-induced transcript levels of several defense-related WRKY transcription factors. Moreover, silencing OsLRR-RLK2 reduces BPH-induction of jasmonic acid and ethylene but promotes the biosynthesis of both elicited salicylic acid and H2 O2 ; silencing also enhances the production of volatiles emitted from rice plants infested with gravid BPH females. These changes decrease BPH preference and performance in the glasshouse and the field. These findings suggest that OsLRR-RLK2, by regulating the plant's defense-related signaling profile, increases the susceptibility of rice to BPH, and that BPH infestation influences the expression of OsLRR-RLK2, suppressing the resistance of rice to BPH.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Oryza/fisiologia , Defesa das Plantas contra Herbivoria , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/fisiologia , Animais , Clonagem Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transcriptoma
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8257, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427834

RESUMO

Natural enemies of herbivores are expected to adapt to the defence strategies of their preys or hosts. Such adaptations may also include their capacity to cope with plant metabolites that herbivores sequester as a defence. In this study, we evaluated the ability of Mexican entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) to resist benzoxazinoids that are sequestered from maize roots by the western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera; Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), an important maize pest in America and Europe. From maize fields throughout Mexico, we retrieved 40 EPN isolates belonging to five different species, with a majority identified as Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. In the laboratory, all nematodes readily infected non-sequestering larvae of the banded cucumber beetle (D. balteata), while infectivity varied strongly for WCR larvae. While some H. bacteriophora isolates seemed negatively affected by benzoxazinoids, most showed to be resistant. Thus, EPN from Mexican maize fields can cope with these plant defence metabolites, but the results also indicate that WCR larvae possess other mechanisms that help to resist EPN. This work contributes to a better understanding of the capacity of herbivore natural enemies to resist plant defence metabolites. Furthermore, it identifies several benzoxazinoid-resistant EPN isolates that may be used to control this important maize pest.


Assuntos
Benzoxazinas/farmacologia , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Besouros/parasitologia , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Nematoides/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Zea mays/parasitologia , Animais , Besouros/fisiologia , Herbivoria/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/parasitologia , Larva/fisiologia , México , Controle Biológico de Vetores
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(22): 12017-12028, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434917

RESUMO

Synthetic chemical elicitors, so called plant strengtheners, can protect plants from pests and pathogens. Most plant strengtheners act by modifying defense signaling pathways, and little is known about other mechanisms by which they may increase plant resistance. Moreover, whether plant strengtheners that enhance insect resistance actually enhance crop yields is often unclear. Here, we uncover how a mechanism by which 4-fluorophenoxyacetic acid (4-FPA) protects cereals from piercing-sucking insects and thereby increases rice yield in the field. Four-FPA does not stimulate hormonal signaling, but modulates the production of peroxidases, H2O2, and flavonoids and directly triggers the formation of flavonoid polymers. The increased deposition of phenolic polymers in rice parenchyma cells of 4-FPA-treated plants is associated with a decreased capacity of the white-backed planthopper (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera to reach the plant phloem. We demonstrate that application of 4-PFA in the field enhances rice yield by reducing the abundance of, and damage caused by, insect pests. We demonstrate that 4-FPA also increases the resistance of other major cereals such as wheat and barley to piercing-sucking insect pests. This study unravels a mode of action by which plant strengtheners can suppress herbivores and increase crop yield. We postulate that this represents a conserved defense mechanism of plants against piercing-sucking insect pests, at least in cereals.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides , Hemípteros , Imunidade Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bioensaio , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Herbivoria , Hordeum/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidases/análise , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Folhas de Planta/química , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Elife ; 92020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252891

RESUMO

Phytochemical diversity is thought to result from coevolutionary cycles as specialization in herbivores imposes diversifying selection on plant chemical defenses. Plants in the speciose genus Erysimum (Brassicaceae) produce both ancestral glucosinolates and evolutionarily novel cardenolides as defenses. Here we test macroevolutionary hypotheses on co-expression, co-regulation, and diversification of these potentially redundant defenses across this genus. We sequenced and assembled the genome of E. cheiranthoides and foliar transcriptomes of 47 additional Erysimum species to construct a phylogeny from 9868 orthologous genes, revealing several geographic clades but also high levels of gene discordance. Concentrations, inducibility, and diversity of the two defenses varied independently among species, with no evidence for trade-offs. Closely related, geographically co-occurring species shared similar cardenolide traits, but not glucosinolate traits, likely as a result of specific selective pressures acting on each defense. Ancestral and novel chemical defenses in Erysimum thus appear to provide complementary rather than redundant functions.


Assuntos
Erysimum/química , Erysimum/genética , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Plantas Tóxicas/genética , Erysimum/classificação , Evolução Molecular , Geografia , Fenótipo , Plantas Tóxicas/química , Plantas Tóxicas/classificação
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