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2.
Eur Heart J ; 40(21): 1664-1666, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152549
3.
Eur Heart J ; 40(29): 2413-2420, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170283

RESUMO

AIMS: Genetic disposition and lifestyle factors are understood as independent components underlying the risk of multiple diseases. In this study, we aim to investigate the interplay between genetics, educational attainment-an important denominator of lifestyle-and coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: Based on the effect sizes of 74 genetic variants associated with educational attainment, we calculated a 'genetic education score' in 13 080 cases and 14 471 controls and observed an inverse correlation between the score and risk of CAD [P = 1.52 × 10-8; odds ratio (OR) 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73-0.85 for the higher compared with the lowest score quintile]. We replicated in 146 514 individuals from UK Biobank (P = 1.85 × 10-6) and also found strong associations between the 'genetic education score' with 'modifiable' risk factors including smoking (P = 5.36 × 10-23), body mass index (BMI) (P = 1.66 × 10-30), and hypertension (P = 3.86 × 10-8). Interestingly, these associations were only modestly attenuated by adjustment for years spent in school. In contrast, a model adjusting for BMI and smoking abolished the association signal between the 'genetic education score' and CAD risk suggesting an intermediary role of these two risk factors. Mendelian randomization analyses performed with summary statistics from large genome-wide meta-analyses and sensitivity analysis using 1271 variants affecting educational attainment (OR 0.68 for the higher compared with the lowest score quintile; 95% CI 0.63-0.74; P = 3.99 × 10-21) further strengthened these findings. CONCLUSION: Genetic variants known to affect educational attainment may have implications for a health-conscious lifestyle later in life and subsequently affect the risk of CAD.

5.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 12(5): e002376, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939045

RESUMO

Background Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia is a genetic disorder caused by rare protein-truncating variants (PTV) in the gene encoding APOB (apolipoprotein B), the major protein component of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles. Whether heterozygous APOB deficiency is associated with decreased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) is uncertain. We combined family-based and large scale gene-sequencing to characterize the association of rare PTVs in APOB with circulating LDL-C (LDL cholesterol), triglycerides, and risk for CHD. Methods We sequenced the APOB gene in 29 Japanese hypobetalipoproteinemia families, as well as 57 973 individuals derived from 12 CHD case-control studies-18 442 with early-onset CHD and 39 531 controls. We defined PTVs as variants that lead to a premature stop, disrupt canonical splice-sites, or lead to insertions/deletions that shift reading frame. We tested the association of rare APOB PTV carrier status with blood lipid levels and CHD. Results Among 29 familial hypobetalipoproteinemia families, 8 families harbored APOB PTVs. Carrying 1 APOB PTV was associated with 55 mg/dL lower LDL-C ( P=3×10-5) and 53% lower triglyceride level ( P=2×10-4). Among 12 case-control studies, an APOB PTV was present in 0.038% of CHD cases as compared to 0.092% of controls. APOB PTV carrier status was associated with a 43 mg/dL lower LDL-C ( P=2×10-7), a 30% decrease in triglycerides ( P=5×10-4), and a 72% lower risk for CHD (odds ratio, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.12-0.64; P=0.002). Conclusions Rare PTV mutations in APOB which are associated with lower LDL-C and reduced triglycerides also confer protection against CHD.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2959, 2019 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814609

RESUMO

The genetics of many congenital heart diseases (CHDs) can only unsatisfactorily be explained by known chromosomal or Mendelian syndromes. Here, we present sequencing data of a family with a potentially multigenic origin of CHD. Twelve of nineteen family members carry a familial mutation [NM_004329.2:c.1328 G > A (p.R443H)] which encodes a predicted deleterious variant of BMPR1A. This mutation co-segregates with a linkage region on chromosome 1 that associates with the emergence of severe CHDs including Ebstein's anomaly, atrioventricular septal defect, and others. We show that the continuous overexpression of the zebrafish homologous mutation bmpr1aap.R438H within endocardium causes a reduced AV valve area, a downregulation of Wnt/ß-catenin signalling at the AV canal, and growth of additional tissue mass in adult zebrafish hearts. This finding opens the possibility of testing genetic interactions between BMPR1A and other candidate genes within linkage region 1 which may provide a first step towards unravelling more complex genetic patterns in cardiovascular disease aetiology.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1060, 2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837465

RESUMO

Circulating levels of glycine have previously been associated with lower incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) but it remains uncertain if glycine plays an aetiological role. We present a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for glycine in 80,003 participants and investigate the causality and potential mechanisms of the association between glycine and cardio-metabolic diseases using genetic approaches. We identify 27 genetic loci, of which 22 have not previously been reported for glycine. We show that glycine is genetically associated with lower CHD risk and find that this may be partly driven by blood pressure. Evidence for a genetic association of glycine with T2D is weaker, but we find a strong inverse genetic effect of hyperinsulinaemia on glycine. Our findings strengthen evidence for a protective effect of glycine on CHD and show that the glycine-T2D association may be driven by a glycine-lowering effect of insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Glicina/sangue , Hiperinsulinismo/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glicina/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperinsulinismo/sangue , Hiperinsulinismo/epidemiologia , Incidência , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
8.
Cardiovasc Res ; 115(10): 1512-1518, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768153

RESUMO

AIM: A common genetic variant at the GUCY1A3 coronary artery disease locus has been shown to influence platelet aggregation. The risk of ischaemic events including stent thrombosis varies with the efficacy of aspirin to inhibit platelet reactivity. This study sought to investigate whether homozygous GUCY1A3 (rs7692387) risk allele carriers display higher on-aspirin platelet reactivity and risk of ischaemic events early after coronary intervention. METHODS AND RESULTS: The association of GUCY1A3 genotype and on-aspirin platelet reactivity was analysed in the genetics substudy of the ISAR-ASPI registry (n = 1678) using impedance aggregometry. The clinical outcome cardiovascular death or stent thrombosis within 30 days after stenting was investigated in a meta-analysis of substudies of the ISAR-ASPI registry, the PLATO trial (n = 3236), and the Utrecht Coronary Biobank (n = 1003) comprising a total 5917 patients. Homozygous GUCY1A3 risk allele carriers (GG) displayed increased on-aspirin platelet reactivity compared with non-risk allele (AA/AG) carriers [150 (interquartile range 91-209) vs. 134 (85-194) AU⋅min, P < 0.01]. More homozygous risk allele carriers, compared with non-risk allele carriers, were assigned to the high-risk group for ischaemic events (>203 AU⋅min; 29.5 vs. 24.2%, P = 0.02). Homozygous risk allele carriers were also at higher risk for cardiovascular death or stent thrombosis (hazard ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.08-2.68; P = 0.02). Bleeding risk was not altered. CONCLUSION: We conclude that homozygous GUCY1A3 risk allele carriers are at increased risk of cardiovascular death or stent thrombosis within 30 days after coronary stenting, likely due to higher on-aspirin platelet reactivity. Whether GUCY1A3 genotype helps to tailor antiplatelet treatment remains to be investigated.

9.
Atherosclerosis ; 282: 37-44, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High concentrations of low density lipoprotein (LDL) triglycerides have been associated with prevalent angiographic coronary artery disease. The present analysis was designed to investigate the association of LDL triglycerides with cardiovascular mortality and to explore possible mechanisms that may link LDL triglycerides to cardiovascular risk. METHODS: LDL triglycerides were measured in 3140 participants of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study. They were prospectively followed for cardiovascular mortality (median duration 9.9 years). Genome wide association data for LDL triglycerides were available for 2900 LURIC participants. Genetic data and measurements of hepatic lipase activity were available for 478 participants of the HERITAGE Family study. Genome wide association data for cardiovascular disease were available for 184,305 participants of the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortium. RESULTS: There was a continuous positive association between LDL triglycerides and cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio for 5th vs. 1st quintile = 2.53, p < 0.001) and this association was similar in males and females. Genome wide association analysis in LURIC revealed that LDL triglycerides were strongly associated with variation in the hepatic lipase region (p < 10-15 for rs1800588 and rs10468017). The LDL triglyceride raising alleles in rs1800588 and rs10468017 were associated with low hepatic lipase activity in HERITAGE and increased cardiovascular risk in CARDIoGRAMplusC4D. Two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis (HERITAGE and CARDIoGRAMplusC4D) using rs1800588 and rs10468017 as instrumental variable suggested that low hepatic lipase activity may cause increased cardiovascular risk (p = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: Low hepatic lipase activity may link high LDL triglycerides to increased cardiovascular risk.

10.
Biomolecules ; 8(4)2018 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563176

RESUMO

Despite its substantial clinical importance, specific genetic variants associated with depression have not yet been identified. We sought to identify genetic variants associated with depression by (a) focusing on a more homogenous subsample (vascular depression) and (b) applying a three-stage approach. First, we contacted 730 participants with a confirmed atherosclerotic disease (coronary artery disease) from a population-based study population (German Myocardial Infarction Family Study IV) for psychiatric assessment with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Second, we genotyped these patients using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Third, we characterized the SNP via in-silico analysis. The final sample consisted of 342 patients (78.3% male, age = 63.2 ± 9.9 years), 22.8% with a severe depressive disorder. Variant rs528732638 on chromosome 18q11.2 was a genome-wide significant variant and was associated with 3.6-fold increase in the odds of lifetime depression. The locus belongs to a linkage disequilibrium block showing expression quantitative trait loci effects on three putative cis-regulated genes, including the aquaporin 4 (AQP4) locus. AQP4 is already known to mediate the formation of ischemic edema in the brain and heart, increasing the size and extent of resulting lesions. Our findings indicate that AQP4 may also play a role in the etiopathology of vascular depression.


Assuntos
Aquaporina 4/genética , Depressão/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Doenças Vasculares/genética , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Doenças Vasculares/fisiopatologia
11.
Diabetes ; 2018 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389748

RESUMO

A genetic predisposition to higher waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI), a measure of body fat distribution, associates with increased risk for type 2 diabetes. We conducted an exome-wide association study of coding variation in UK Biobank (405569 individuals) to identify variants that lower WHRadjBMI and protect against type 2 diabetes. We identified four variants in the gene ACVR1C, encoding the activin-receptor like kinase 7 receptor expressed on adipocytes and pancreatic beta cells, which independently associated with reduced WHRadjBMI: Asn150His (-0.09 standard deviations, p=3.4*10-17), Ile195Thr (-0.15 SD, p=1.0*10-9), Ile482Val (-0.019 SD, p=1.6*10-5) and rs72927479 (-0.035 SD, p=2.6*10-12). Carriers of these variants exhibited reduced percent abdominal fat in dual energy X-ray imaging. Pooling across all four variants, a 0.2 SD decrease in WHRadjBMI through ACVR1C was associated with a 30% lower risk of type 2 diabetes (OR 0.70, CI 0.63, 0.77; p = 5.6*10-13). In an analysis of exome sequences from 55516 individuals, carriers of predicted damaging variants in ACVR1C were at 54% lower risk of type 2 diabetes (OR 0.46 CI 0.27, 0.81; p=0.006). These findings indicate that variants predicted to lead to loss of ACVR1C gene function influence body fat distribution and protect from type 2 diabetes.

12.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0204352, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously reported association of SCARB1 SNP rs10846744 with common carotid IMT (cIMT) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Since rs10846744 has been reported in association with Lp-PLA2 mass and activity, we hypothesized that inflammatory pathways might mediate the association of rs10846744 with atherosclerosis. METHODS: We first examined association of rs10846744 in CVD in multiple large-scale consortium-based genome-wide association studies. We further examined 27 parameters of interest, including Lp-PLA2 mass and activity, inflammatory markers, and plasma phospholipid fatty acids, and fatty acid ratios in participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), as potential mediators in the pathway linking rs10846744 with cIMT and incident CVD. Finally, we examined the association of rs10846744 with Lp-PLA2 activity, cardiovascular outcomes, and interaction with the Lp-PLA2 inhibitor, darapladib, in the Stabilization of Atherosclerotic Plaque by Initiation of Darapladib Therapy (STABILITY) and Stabilization of Plaque using Darapladib-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 52 (SOLID-TIMI 52) studies. RESULTS: SCARB1 rs10846744 was associated with coronary artery disease events in CARDIoGRAMplusC4D (odds ratio 1.05; 95% CI [1.02, 1.07]; P = 1.4x10-4). In combined analysis across race/ethnic groups in MESA, rs10846744 was associated with Lp-PLA2 mass (P = 0.04) and activity (P = 0.001), homocysteine (P = 0.03), LDL particle number (P = 0.01), docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] (P = 0.01), docosapentaenoic acid [DPA] (P = 0.04), DPA/ eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] ratio (P = 0.002), and DHA/EPA ratio (P = 0.008). Lp-PLA2 activity was identified as a mediator of rs10846744 with cIMT in a basic model (P = 8x10-5), but not after adjustment for CVD risk factors. There was no interaction or modifier effect of the Lp-PLA2 inhibitor darapladib assignment on the relationship between rs10846744 and major CVD events in either STABILITY or SOLID-TIMI 52. SUMMARY: SCARB1 rs10846744 is significantly associated with Lp-PLA2 activity, atherosclerosis, and CVD events, but Lp-PLA2 activity is not a mediator in the association of rs10846744 with cIMT in MESA.

13.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(9): e002115, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease in part caused by lipid uptake in the vascular wall, but the exact underlying mechanisms leading to acute myocardial infarction and stroke remain poorly understood. Large consortia identified genetic susceptibility loci that associate with large artery ischemic stroke and coronary artery disease. However, deciphering their underlying mechanisms are challenging. Histological studies identified destabilizing characteristics in human atherosclerotic plaques that associate with clinical outcome. To what extent established susceptibility loci for large artery ischemic stroke and coronary artery disease relate to plaque characteristics is thus far unknown but may point to novel mechanisms. METHODS: We studied the associations of 61 established cardiovascular risk loci with 7 histological plaque characteristics assessed in 1443 carotid plaque specimens from the Athero-Express Biobank Study. We also assessed if the genotyped cardiovascular risk loci impact the tissue-specific gene expression in 2 independent biobanks, Biobank of Karolinska Endarterectomy and Stockholm Atherosclerosis Gene Expression. RESULTS: A total of 21 established risk variants (out of 61) nominally associated to a plaque characteristic. One variant (rs12539895, risk allele A) at 7q22 associated to a reduction of intraplaque fat, P=5.09×10-6 after correction for multiple testing. We further characterized this 7q22 Locus and show tissue-specific effects of rs12539895 on HBP1 expression in plaques and COG5 expression in whole blood and provide data from public resources showing an association with decreased LDL (low-density lipoprotein) and increase HDL (high-density lipoprotein) in the blood. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports the view that cardiovascular susceptibility loci may exert their effect by influencing the atherosclerotic plaque characteristics.

14.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(8): e001977, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple loci associated with coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, but only a few of these loci are current targets for on-market medications. To identify drugs suitable for repurposing and their targets, we created 2 unique pipelines integrating public data on 49 coronary artery disease/myocardial infarction-genome-wide association studies loci, drug-gene interactions, side effects, and chemical interactions. METHODS: We first used publicly available genome-wide association studies results on all phenotypes to predict relevant side effects, identified drug-gene interactions, and prioritized candidates for repurposing among existing drugs. Second, we prioritized gene product targets by calculating a druggability score to estimate how accessible pockets of coronary artery disease/myocardial infarction-associated gene products are, then used again the genome-wide association studies results to predict side effects, excluded loci with widespread cross-tissue expression to avoid housekeeping and genes involved in vital processes and accordingly ranked the remaining gene products. RESULTS: These pipelines ultimately led to 3 suggestions for drug repurposing: pentolinium, adenosine triphosphate, and riociguat (to target CHRNB4, ACSS2, and GUCY1A3, respectively); and 3 proteins for drug development: LMOD1 (leiomodin 1), HIP1 (huntingtin-interacting protein 1), and PPP2R3A (protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit b-double prime, α). Most current therapies for coronary artery disease/myocardial infarction treatment were also rediscovered. CONCLUSIONS: Integration of genomic and pharmacological data may prove beneficial for drug repurposing and development, as evidence from our pipelines suggests.

15.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13678, 2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209331

RESUMO

Evidence for a shared genetic basis of association between coronary artery disease (CAD) and periodontitis (PD) exists. To explore the joint genetic basis, we performed a GWAS meta-analysis. In the discovery stage, we used a German aggressive periodontitis sample (AgP-Ger; 680 cases vs 3,973 controls) and the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D CAD meta-analysis dataset (60,801 cases vs 123,504 controls). Two SNPs at the known CAD risk loci ADAMTS7 (rs11634042) and VAMP8 (rs1561198) passed the pre-assigned selection criteria (PAgP-Ger < 0.05; PCAD < 5 × 10-8; concordant effect direction) and were replicated in an independent GWAS meta-analysis dataset of PD (4,415 cases vs 5,935 controls). SNP rs1561198 showed significant association (PD[Replication]: P = 0.008 OR = 1.09, 95% CI = [1.02-1.16]; PD [Discovery + Replication]: P = 0.0002, OR = 1.11, 95% CI = [1.05-1.17]). For the associated haplotype block, allele specific cis-effects on VAMP8 expression were reported. Our data adds to the shared genetic basis of CAD and PD and indicate that the observed association of the two disease conditions cannot be solely explained by shared environmental risk factors. We conclude that the molecular pathway shared by CAD and PD involves VAMP8 function, which has a role in membrane vesicular trafficking, and is manipulated by pathogens to corrupt host immune defense.

16.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2018 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218097

RESUMO

Periodontitis is one of the most common inflammatory diseases, with a prevalence of 11% worldwide for the severe forms and an estimated heritability of 50%. It is classified into the widespread moderate form chronic periodontitis (CP) and the rare early-onset and severe phenotype aggressive periodontitis (AgP). These different disease manifestations are thought to share risk alleles and predisposing environmental factors. To obtain novel insights into the shared genetic etiology and the underlying molecular mechanisms of both forms, we performed a two step-wise meta-analysis approach using genome-wide association studies of both phenotypes. Genotypes from imputed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of AgP and CP comprising 5,095 cases and 9,908 controls of North-West European genetic background were included. Two loci were associated with periodontitis at a genome-wide significance level. They located within the pseudogene MTND1P5 on chromosome 8 (rs16870060-G, P = 3.69 × 10-9, OR = 1.36, 95% CI = [1.23-1.51]) and intronic of the long intergenic non-coding RNA LOC107984137 on chromosome 16, downstream of the gene SHISA9 (rs729876-T, P = 9.77 × 10-9, OR = 1.24, 95% CI = [1.15-1.34]). This study identified novel risk loci of periodontitis, adding to the genetic basis of AgP and CP.

17.
Front Psychiatry ; 9: 338, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100883

RESUMO

Background: Psychological problems are common in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and are associated with poor outcome. However, data on the prevalence of distinct mental disorders and their relevance to patients' functioning in daily life are scarce. Method: In this retrospective study, a total of 514 German patients with CAD as diagnosed by cardiac catheterization were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview 5.0.0 (M.I.N.I.) and psychosocial functioning was evaluated using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale. Results: Twenty-nine percent of the participants suffered from at least one mental disorder after the onset of their CAD (mean time since onset = 10.86 years, SD = 8.15). In comparison to the period before onset of CAD, elevated prevalence rates were found for severe depressive episodes, agoraphobia, dysthymia, panic disorder, and hypochondria. Predictors of mental disorders after the onset of CAD were female gender, younger age at onset of CAD as well as mental disorders and low GAF scores before onset. GAF scores decreased after the onset of CAD, recovered only partially, and were influenced by mental disorders before onset in women but not in men. Conclusions: Mental disorders-especially depression and agoraphobia-are frequent in patients with CAD, with women, patients with a younger age at onset of CAD and patients with any history of mental disorders especially at risk. Regardless of whether patients meet any specific diagnostic criteria, psychosocial functioning is markedly impaired after the onset of CAD, underscoring the need for specific mental health programs for this patient population. Future research, ideally using a prospective design, is necessary to confirm these findings and to further the knowledge of prevalence rates of mental disorders and of modifiable risk factors for the development of mental disorders in patients with CAD.

18.
Stem Cell Res ; 31: 62-70, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30029055

RESUMO

Vascular calcification displays a major cause of death worldwide, which involve mainly vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Since 2007, there are increasing numbers of protocols to obtain different cell types from human induced-pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), however a protocol for calcification is missing. Few protocols exist today for the differentiation of iPSCs towards VSMCs and none are known for their calcification. Here we present a protocol for the calcification of iPSC-derived VSMCs. We successfully differentiated iPSCs into VSMCs based on a modified protocol. Calcification in VSMCs is induced by a commercial StemXVivo™ osteogenic medium. Calcification was verified using Calcein and Alizarin Red S staining or Calcium assays, and molecular analyses showed enhanced expression of calcification-associated genes. The presented method could help to study genetic risk variants, using the CRISPR/Cas technology through the introduction of Knockouts or Knockins of risk variants. Finally, this method can be applied for drug screening.

19.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1613, 2018 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691411

RESUMO

Less than 3% of protein-coding genetic variants are predicted to result in loss of protein function through the introduction of a stop codon, frameshift, or the disruption of an essential splice site; however, such predicted loss-of-function (pLOF) variants provide insight into effector transcript and direction of biological effect. In >400,000 UK Biobank participants, we conduct association analyses of 3759 pLOF variants with six metabolic traits, six cardiometabolic diseases, and twelve additional diseases. We identified 18 new low-frequency or rare (allele frequency < 5%) pLOF variant-phenotype associations. pLOF variants in the gene GPR151 protect against obesity and type 2 diabetes, in the gene IL33 against asthma and allergic disease, and in the gene IFIH1 against hypothyroidism. In the gene PDE3B, pLOF variants associate with elevated height, improved body fat distribution and protection from coronary artery disease. Our findings prioritize genes for which pharmacologic mimics of pLOF variants may lower risk for disease.

20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 5812, 2018 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29643466

RESUMO

Cardiovascular calcification is associated with high risk of vascular disease. This involves macrophage infiltration of injured vascular tissue and osteoclast-related processes. Splenic monocytes from mice, that are predisposed (C3H) or resistant (B6) to calcification, were isolated and differentiated in vitro with M-CSF to generate macrophages, which aggregate to form multinucleated (MN) cells in the presence of RANKL. MN cell formation was significantly decreased in monocytes from resistant compared with calcifying mice. Conditioned media from C3H macrophages strongly induced calcification in vitro. However, medium from B6 macrophages inhibited calcification. An increase in ICAM-1 was detected in conditioned media from C3H macrophages compared with B6, suggesting a key role for this molecule in calcification processes. Due to natural genetic loss of Abcc6, the causal gene for cardiac calcification, C3H mice have reduced plasma levels of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), a potential calcification inhibitor. Supplementation of C3H mice with PPi or Etidronate prevented but did not completely reverse cardiac calcification. Our data provide strong evidence of the pathogenesis of macrophages and MNs during tissue calcification and suggest PPi or its analogue Etidronate as a potential inhibitor of MN formation and calcification. Furthermore, the adhesion molecule ICAM-1 was shown to play a key role in calcification.

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