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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20284, 2020 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219270

RESUMO

Machine learning methods provide powerful tools to map physical measurements to scientific categories. But are such methods suitable for discovering the ground truth about psychological categories? We use the science of emotion as a test case to explore this question. In studies of emotion, researchers use supervised classifiers, guided by emotion labels, to attempt to discover biomarkers in the brain or body for the corresponding emotion categories. This practice relies on the assumption that the labels refer to objective categories that can be discovered. Here, we critically examine this approach across three distinct datasets collected during emotional episodes-measuring the human brain, body, and subjective experience-and compare supervised classification solutions with those from unsupervised clustering in which no labels are assigned to the data. We conclude with a set of recommendations to guide researchers towards meaningful, data-driven discoveries in the science of emotion and beyond.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20755, 2020 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247177

RESUMO

Trial-by-trial texture classification analysis and identifying salient texture related EEG features during active touch that are minimally influenced by movement type and frequency conditions are the main contributions of this work. A total of twelve healthy subjects were recruited. Each subject was instructed to use the fingertip of their dominant hand's index finger to rub or tap three textured surfaces (smooth flat, medium rough, and rough) with three levels of movement frequency (approximately 2, 1 and 0.5 Hz). EEG and force data were collected synchronously during each touch condition. A systematic feature selection process was performed to select temporal and spectral EEG features that contribute to texture classification but have low contribution towards movement type and frequency classification. A tenfold cross validation was used to train two 3-class (each for texture and movement frequency classification) and a 2-class (movement type) Support Vector Machine classifiers. Our results showed that the total power in the mu (8-15 Hz) and beta (16-30 Hz) frequency bands showed high accuracy in discriminating among textures with different levels of roughness (average accuracy > 84%) but lower contribution towards movement type (average accuracy < 65%) and frequency (average accuracy < 58%) classification.

3.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3285-3288, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018706

RESUMO

Currently, myoelectric prostheses lack dexterity and ease of control, in part because of inadequate schemes to extract relevant muscle features that can approximate muscle activation patterns that enable individuated dexterous finger motion. This project seeks to apply a novel algorithm pipeline that extracts muscle activation patterns from one limb, as well as from forearm muscles of the opposite limb, to predict muscle activation data of opposite limb intrinsic hand muscles, with the long-range goal of informing dexterous prosthetic control.


Assuntos
Desarticulação , Punho , Eletromiografia , Mãos , Músculo Esquelético
4.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 422-425, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018018

RESUMO

Recent developments in wearable sensors demonstrate promising results for monitoring physiological status in effective and comfortable ways. One major challenge of physiological status assessment is the problem of transfer learning caused by the domain inconsistency of biosignals across users or different recording sessions from the same user. We propose an adversarial inference approach for transfer learning to extract disentangled nuisance-robust representations from physiological biosignal data in stress status level assessment. We exploit the trade-off between task-related features and person-discriminative information by using both an adversary network and a nuisance network to jointly manipulate and disentangle the learned latent representations by the encoder, which are then input to a discriminative classifier. Results on cross-subjects transfer evaluations demonstrate the benefits of the proposed adversarial framework, and thus show its capabilities to adapt to a broader range of subjects. Finally we highlight that our proposed adversarial transfer learning approach is also applicable to other deep feature learning frameworks.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Aprendizagem , Aprendizado de Máquina , Informações Pessoalmente Identificáveis , Registros
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832934

RESUMO

One important application of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is to map cortical motor topography by spatially sampling the motor cortex, and recording motor evoked potentials (MEP) with surface electromyography. Standard approaches to TMS mapping involve repetitive stimulations at different loci spaced on a (typically 1 cm) grid on the scalp. These mappings strategies are time consuming and responsive sites are typically sparse. Furthermore, the long time scale prevents measurement of transient cortical changes, and is poorly tolerated in clinical populations. An alternative approach involves using the TMS mapper expertise to exploit the map's sparsity through the use of feedback of MEPs to decide which loci to stimulate. In this investigation, we propose a novel active learning method to automatically infer optimal future stimulus loci in place of user expertise. Specifically, we propose an active Gaussian Process (GP) strategy with loci selection criteria such as entropy and mutual information (MI). The proposed method twists the usual entropy- and MI-based selection criteria by modeling the estimated MEP field, i.e., the GP mean, as a Gaussian random variable itself. By doing so, we include MEP amplitudes in the loci selection criteria which would be otherwise completely independent of the MEP values. Experimental results using real data shows that the proposed strategy can greatly outperform competing methods when the MEP variations are mostly conned in a sub-region of the space.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818205

RESUMO

A deep neural network (DNN) that can reliably model muscle responses from corresponding brain stimulation has the potential to increase knowledge of coordinated motor control for numerous basic science and applied use cases. Such cases include the understanding of abnormal movement patterns due to neurological injury from stroke, and stimulation based interventions for neurological recovery such as paired associative stimulation. In this work, potential DNN models are explored and the one with the minimum squared errors is recommended for the optimal performance of the M2M-Net, a network that maps transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex to corresponding muscle responses, using: a finite element simulation, an empirical neural response profile, a convolutional autoencoder, a separate deep network mapper, and recordings of multi-muscle activation. We discuss the rationale behind the different modeling approaches and architectures, and contrast their results. Additionally, to obtain a comparative insight of the trade-o between complexity and performance analysis, we explore different techniques, including the extension of two classical information criteria for M2M-Net. Finally, we find that the model analogous to mapping the motor cortex stimulation to a combination of direct and synergistic connection to the muscles performs the best, when the neural response profile is used at the input.

7.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 9(2): 10, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704416

RESUMO

Purpose: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), a leading cause of childhood blindness, is diagnosed by clinical ophthalmoscopic examinations or reading retinal images. Plus disease, defined as abnormal tortuosity and dilation of the posterior retinal blood vessels, is the most important feature to determine treatment-requiring ROP. We aimed to create a complete, publicly available and feature-extraction-based pipeline, I-ROP ASSIST, that achieves convolutional neural network (CNN)-like performance when diagnosing plus disease from retinal images. Methods: We developed two datasets containing 100 and 5512 posterior retinal images, respectively. After segmenting retinal vessels, we detected the vessel centerlines. Then, we extracted features relevant to ROP, including tortuosity and dilation measures, and used these features in the classifiers including logistic regression, support vector machine and neural networks to assess a severity score for the input. We tested our system with fivefold cross-validation and calculated the area under the curve (AUC) metric for each classifier and dataset. Results: For predicting plus versus not-plus categories, we achieved 99% and 94% AUC on the first and second datasets, respectively. For predicting pre-plus or worse versus normal categories, we achieved 99% and 88% AUC on the first and second datasets, respectively. The CNN method achieved 98% and 94% for predicting two categories on the second dataset. Conclusions: Our system combining automatic retinal vessel segmentation, tracing, feature extraction and classification is able to diagnose plus disease in ROP with CNN-like performance. Translational Relevance: The high performance of I-ROP ASSIST suggests potential applications in automated and objective diagnosis of plus disease.

8.
NPJ Digit Med ; 3: 48, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32258430

RESUMO

Using medical images to evaluate disease severity and change over time is a routine and important task in clinical decision making. Grading systems are often used, but are unreliable as domain experts disagree on disease severity category thresholds. These discrete categories also do not reflect the underlying continuous spectrum of disease severity. To address these issues, we developed a convolutional Siamese neural network approach to evaluate disease severity at single time points and change between longitudinal patient visits on a continuous spectrum. We demonstrate this in two medical imaging domains: retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in retinal photographs and osteoarthritis in knee radiographs. Our patient cohorts consist of 4861 images from 870 patients in the Imaging and Informatics in Retinopathy of Prematurity (i-ROP) cohort study and 10,012 images from 3021 patients in the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST), both of which feature longitudinal imaging data. Multiple expert clinician raters ranked 100 retinal images and 100 knee radiographs from excluded test sets for severity of ROP and osteoarthritis, respectively. The Siamese neural network output for each image in comparison to a pool of normal reference images correlates with disease severity rank (ρ = 0.87 for ROP and ρ = 0.89 for osteoarthritis), both within and between the clinical grading categories. Thus, this output can represent the continuous spectrum of disease severity at any single time point. The difference in these outputs can be used to show change over time. Alternatively, paired images from the same patient at two time points can be directly compared using the Siamese neural network, resulting in an additional continuous measure of change between images. Importantly, our approach does not require manual localization of the pathology of interest and requires only a binary label for training (same versus different). The location of disease and site of change detected by the algorithm can be visualized using an occlusion sensitivity map-based approach. For a longitudinal binary change detection task, our Siamese neural networks achieve test set receiving operator characteristic area under the curves (AUCs) of up to 0.90 in evaluating ROP or knee osteoarthritis change, depending on the change detection strategy. The overall performance on this binary task is similar compared to a conventional convolutional deep-neural network trained for multi-class classification. Our results demonstrate that convolutional Siamese neural networks can be a powerful tool for evaluating the continuous spectrum of disease severity and change in medical imaging.

9.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng ; 67(1): 69-78, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932828

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A variety of pattern analysis techniques for model training in brain interfaces exploit neural feature dimensionality reduction based on feature ranking and selection heuristics. In the light of broad evidence demonstrating the potential sub-optimality of ranking-based feature selection by any criterion, we propose to extend this focus with an information theoretic learning-driven feature transformation concept. METHODS: We present a maximum mutual information linear transformation and a nonlinear transformation framework derived by a general definition of the feature transformation learning problem. Empirical assessments are performed based on electroencephalographic data recorded during a four class motor imagery brain-computer interface (BCI) task. Exploiting the state-of-the-art methods for initial feature vector construction, we compare the proposed approaches with conventional feature selection-based dimensionality reduction techniques, which are widely used in brain interfaces. Furthermore, for the multi-class problem, we present and exploit a hierarchical graphical model-based BCI decoding system. RESULTS: Both binary and multi-class decoding analyses demonstrate significantly better performances with the proposed methods. CONCLUSION: Information theoretic feature transformations are capable of tackling potential confounders of conventional approaches in various settings. SIGNIFICANCE: We argue that this concept provides significant insights to extend the focus on feature selection heuristics to a broader definition of feature transformation learning in brain interfaces.

10.
IEEE Sens Lett ; 3(1)2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872171

RESUMO

Brain computer interfaces (BCIs) are one of the developing technologies, serving as a communication interface for people with neuromuscular disorders. Electroencephalography (EEG) and gaze signals are among the commonly used inputs for the user intent classification problem arising in BCIs. Fusing different types of input modalities, i.e. EEG and gaze, is an obvious but effective solution for achieving high performance on this problem. Even though there are some simplistic approaches for fusing these two evidences, a more effective method is required for classification performances and speeds suitable for real-life scenarios. One of the main problems that is left unrecognized is highly noisy real-life data. In the context of the BCI framework utilized in this work, noisy data stem from user error in the form of tracking a nontarget stimuli, which in turn results in misleading EEG and gaze signals. We propose a method for fusing aforementioned evidences in a probabilistic manner that is highly robust against noisy data. We show the performance of the proposed method on real EEG and gaze data for different configurations of noise control variables. Compared to the regular fusion method, robust method achieves up to 15% higher classification accuracy.

11.
IEEE Signal Process Lett ; 26(5): 710-714, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814690

RESUMO

Deep learning methods for person identification based on electroencephalographic (EEG) brain activity encounters the problem of exploiting the temporally correlated structures or recording session specific variability within EEG. Furthermore, recent methods have mostly trained and evaluated based on single session EEG data. We address this problem from an invariant representation learning perspective. We propose an adversarial inference approach to extend such deep learning models to learn session-invariant person-discriminative representations that can provide robustness in terms of longitudinal usability. Using adversarial learning within a deep convolutional network, we empirically assess and show improvements with our approach based on longitudinally collected EEG data for person identification from half-second EEG epochs.

12.
IEEE Access ; 7: 721-1735, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31528523

RESUMO

Fully convolutional deep neural networks have been asserted to be fast and precise frameworks with great potential in image segmentation. One of the major challenges in training such networks raises when data is unbalanced, which is common in many medical imaging applications such as lesion segmentation where lesion class voxels are often much lower in numbers than non-lesion voxels. A trained network with unbalanced data may make predictions with high precision and low recall, being severely biased towards the non-lesion class which is particularly undesired in most medical applications where false negatives are actually more important than false positives. Various methods have been proposed to address this problem including two step training, sample re-weighting, balanced sampling, and more recently similarity loss functions, and focal loss. In this work we trained fully convolutional deep neural networks using an asymmetric similarity loss function to mitigate the issue of data imbalance and achieve much better trade-off between precision and recall. To this end, we developed a 3D fully convolutional densely connected network (FC-DenseNet) with large overlapping image patches as input and an asymmetric similarity loss layer based on Tversky index (using F ß scores). We used large overlapping image patches as inputs for intrinsic and extrinsic data augmentation, a patch selection algorithm, and a patch prediction fusion strategy using B-spline weighted soft voting to account for the uncertainty of prediction in patch borders. We applied this method to multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion segmentation based on two different datasets of MSSEG 2016 and ISBI longitudinal MS lesion segmentation challenge, where we achieved average Dice similarity coefficients of 69.9% and 65.74%, respectively, achieving top performance in both challenges. We compared the performance of our network trained with F ß loss, focal loss, and generalized Dice loss (GDL) functions. Through September 2018 our network trained with focal loss ranked first according to the ISBI challenge overall score and resulted in the lowest reported lesion false positive rate among all submitted methods. Our network trained with the asymmetric similarity loss led to the lowest surface distance and the best lesion true positive rate that is arguably the most important performance metric in a clinical decision support system for lesion detection. The asymmetric similarity loss function based on F ß scores allows training networks that make a better balance between precision and recall in highly unbalanced image segmentation. We achieved superior performance in MS lesion segmentation using a patchwise 3D FC-DenseNet with a patch prediction fusion strategy, trained with asymmetric similarity loss functions.

13.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268499

RESUMO

Importance: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a leading cause of childhood blindness worldwide, but treatment failure and disease recurrence are important causes of adverse outcomes in patients with treatment-requiring ROP (TR-ROP). Objectives: To apply an automated ROP vascular severity score obtained using a deep learning algorithm and to assess its utility for objectively monitoring ROP regression after treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used data from the Imaging and Informatics in ROP consortium, which comprises 9 tertiary referral centers in North America that screen high volumes of at-risk infants for ROP. Images of 5255 clinical eye examinations from 871 infants performed between July 2011 and December 2016 were assessed for eligibility in the present study. The disease course was assessed with time across the numerous examinations for patients with TR-ROP. Infants born prematurely meeting screening criteria for ROP who developed TR-ROP and who had images captured within 4 weeks before and after treatment as well as at the time of treatment were included. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was mean (SD) ROP vascular severity score before, at time of, and after treatment. A deep learning classifier was used to assign a continuous ROP vascular severity score, which ranged from 1 (normal) to 9 (most severe), at each examination. A secondary outcome was the difference in ROP vascular severity score among eyes treated with laser or the vascular endothelial growth factor antagonist bevacizumab. Differences between groups for both outcomes were assessed using unpaired 2-tailed t tests with Bonferroni correction. Results: Of 5255 examined eyes, 91 developed TR-ROP, of which 46 eyes met the inclusion criteria based on the available images. The mean (SD) birth weight of those patients was 653 (185) g, with a mean (SD) gestational age of 24.9 (1.3) weeks. The mean (SD) ROP vascular severity scores significantly increased 2 weeks prior to treatment (4.19 [1.75]), peaked at treatment (7.43 [1.89]), and decreased for at least 2 weeks after treatment (4.00 [1.88]) (all P < .001). Eyes requiring retreatment with laser had higher ROP vascular severity scores at the time of initial treatment compared with eyes receiving a single treatment (P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This quantitative ROP vascular severity score appears to consistently reflect clinical disease progression and posttreatment regression in eyes with TR-ROP. These study results may have implications for the monitoring of patients with ROP for treatment failure and disease recurrence and for determining the appropriate level of disease severity for primary treatment in eyes with aggressive disease.

14.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268518

RESUMO

Importance: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a leading cause of childhood blindness worldwide, but clinical diagnosis is subjective and qualitative. Objective: To describe a quantitative ROP severity score derived using a deep learning algorithm designed to evaluate plus disease and to assess its utility for objectively monitoring ROP progression. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included images from 5255 clinical examinations of 871 premature infants who met the ROP screening criteria of the Imaging and Informatics in ROP (i-ROP) Consortium, which comprises 9 tertiary care centers in North America, from July 1, 2011, to December 31, 2016. Data analysis was performed from July 2017 to May 2018. Exposure: A deep learning algorithm was used to assign a continuous ROP vascular severity score from 1 (most normal) to 9 (most severe) at each examination based on a single posterior photograph compared with a reference standard diagnosis (RSD) simplified into 4 categories: no ROP, mild ROP, type 2 ROP or pre-plus disease, or type 1 ROP. Disease course was assessed longitudinally across multiple examinations for all patients. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mean ROP vascular severity score progression over time compared with the RSD. Results: A total of 5255 clinical examinations from 871 infants (mean [SD] gestational age, 27.0 [2.0] weeks; 493 [56.6%] male; mean [SD] birth weight, 949 [271] g) were analyzed. The median severity scores for each category were as follows: 1.1 (interquartile range [IQR], 1.0-1.5) (no ROP), 1.5 (IQR, 1.1-3.4) (mild ROP), 4.6 (IQR, 2.4-5.3) (type 2 and pre-plus), and 7.5 (IQR, 5.0-8.7) (treatment-requiring ROP) (P < .001). When the long-term differences in the median severity scores across time between the eyes progressing to treatment and those who did not eventually require treatment were compared, the median score was higher in the treatment group by 0.06 at 30 to 32 weeks, 0.75 at 32 to 34 weeks, 3.56 at 34 to 36 weeks, 3.71 at 36 to 38 weeks, and 3.24 at 38 to 40 weeks postmenstrual age (P < .001 for all comparisons). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that the proposed ROP vascular severity score is associated with category of disease at a given point in time and clinical progression of ROP in premature infants. Automated image analysis may be used to quantify clinical disease progression and identify infants at high risk for eventually developing treatment-requiring ROP. This finding has implications for quality and delivery of ROP care and for future approaches to disease classification.

15.
Neural Netw ; 118: 65-80, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254769

RESUMO

We consider learning from comparison labels generated as follows: given two samples in a dataset, a labeler produces a label indicating their relative order. Such comparison labels scale quadratically with the dataset size; most importantly, in practice, they often exhibit lower variance compared to class labels. We propose a new neural network architecture based on siamese networks to incorporate both class and comparison labels in the same training pipeline, using Bradley-Terry and Thurstone loss functions. Our architecture leads to a significant improvement in predicting both class and comparison labels, increasing classification AUC by as much as 35% and comparison AUC by as much as 6% on several real-life datasets. We further show that, by incorporating comparisons, training from few samples becomes possible: a deep neural network of 5.9 million parameters trained on 80 images attains a 0.92 AUC when incorporating comparisons.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais/classificação , Redes Neurais de Computação
16.
Autism Res ; 12(8): 1286-1296, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225952

RESUMO

Unpredictable and potentially dangerous aggressive behavior by youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can isolate them from foundational educational, social, and familial activities, thereby markedly exacerbating morbidity and costs associated with ASD. This study investigates whether preceding physiological and motion data measured by a wrist-worn biosensor can predict aggression to others by youth with ASD. We recorded peripheral physiological (cardiovascular and electrodermal activity) and motion (accelerometry) signals from a biosensor worn by 20 youth with ASD (ages 6-17 years, 75% male, 85% minimally verbal) during 69 independent naturalistic observation sessions with concurrent behavioral coding in a specialized inpatient psychiatry unit. We developed prediction models based on ridge-regularized logistic regression. Our results suggest that aggression to others can be predicted 1 min before it occurs using 3 min of prior biosensor data with an average area under the curve of 0.71 for a global model and 0.84 for person-dependent models. The biosensor was well tolerated, we obtained useable data in all cases, and no users withdrew from the study. Relatively high predictive accuracy was achieved using antecedent physiological and motion data. Larger trials are needed to further establish an ideal ratio of measurement density to predictive accuracy and reliability. These findings lay the groundwork for the future development of precursor behavior analysis and just-in-time adaptive intervention systems to prevent or mitigate the emergence, occurrence, and impact of aggression in ASD. Autism Res 2019, 12: 1286-1296. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: Unpredictable aggression can create a barrier to accessing community, therapeutic, medical, and educational services. The present study evaluated whether data from a wearable biosensor can be used to predict aggression to others by youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Results demonstrate that aggression to others can be predicted 1 min before it occurs with high accuracy, laying the groundwork for the future development of preemptive behavioral interventions and just-in-time adaptive intervention systems to prevent or mitigate the emergence, occurrence, and impact of aggression to others in ASD.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Agressão/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adolescente , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng ; 27(5): 798-804, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30869624

RESUMO

Electroencephalography (EEG) is an effective non-invasive measurement method to infer user intent in brain-computer interface (BCI) systems for control and communication, however, these systems often lack sufficient accuracy and speed due to low separability of class-conditional EEG feature distributions. Many factors impact system performance, including inadequate training datasets and models' ignorance of the temporal dependency of brain responses to serial stimuli. Here, we propose a signal model for event-related responses in the EEG evoked with a rapid sequence of stimuli in BCI applications. The model describes the EEG as a superposition of impulse responses time-locked to stimuli corrupted with an autoregressive noise process. The performance of the signal model is assessed in the context of RSVP keyboard, a language-model-assisted EEG-based BCI for typing. EEG data obtained for model calibration from 10 healthy participants are used to fit and compare two models: the proposed sequence-based EEG model and the trial-based feature-class-conditional distribution model that ignores temporal dependencies, which has been used in the previous work. The simulation studies indicate that the earlier model that ignores temporal dependencies may be causing drastic reductions in achievable information transfer rate (ITR). Furthermore, the proposed model, with better regularization, may achieve improved accuracy with fewer calibration data samples, potentially helping to reduce calibration time. Specifically, results show an average 8.6% increase in (cross-validated) calibration AUC for a single channel of EEG, and 54% increase in the ITR in a typing task.


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Eletroencefalografia , Adulto , Algoritmos , Área Sob a Curva , Calibragem , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Distribuição Normal , Desempenho Psicomotor , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int IEEE EMBS Conf Neural Eng ; 2019: 1097-1100, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818047

RESUMO

This study proposes a novel approach for evaluating the task invariance of muscle synergies, vital for potential implementation in improving prosthetic hand control. We do this by using a transfer learning paradigm to test for invariance across a relatively small set of hand/forearm muscle synergies, derived from electromyographic (EMG) activation patterns during voluntary behaviors such as finger spelling and grasp mimicking postures and unconstrained exploration. EMG for each task were decomposed using non-negative matrix factorization into synergy and weight matrices, and cross-task weights for each task were then reconstructed by employing the base matrices from different tasks. Support Vector Machine and Extreme Learning Machine classifiers were used to classify the resulting weights in order to compare their performance, as well as their behaviors as a function of synergy rank. Both algorithms showed robust and significantly higher performance, compared to two distinct randomized controls, with lower rank EMG representations, both within and between tasks/postures, supporting hypotheses of functional invariance of multi-muscle synergies. Our results suggest that this invariance could be leveraged to efficiently calibrate postures for prosthetic hand implementation by transferring learned EMG patterns from unconstrained movements to other tasks.

19.
Int IEEE EMBS Conf Neural Eng ; 2019: 1122-1125, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818048

RESUMO

Current knowledge of coordinated motor control of multiple muscles is derived primarily from invasive stimulation-recording techniques in animal models. Similar studies are not generally feasible in humans, so a modeling framework is needed to facilitate knowledge transfer from animal studies. We describe such a framework that uses a deep neural network model to map finite element simulation of transcranial magnetic stimulation induced electric fields (E-fields) in motor cortex to recordings of multi-muscle activation. Critically, we show that model generalization is improved when we incorporate empirically derived physiological models for E-field to neuron firing rate and low-dimensional control via muscle synergies.

20.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; 38(2): 470-481, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30138909

RESUMO

With an aim to increase the capture range and accelerate the performance of state-of-the-art inter-subject and subject-to-template 3-D rigid registration, we propose deep learning-based methods that are trained to find the 3-D position of arbitrarily-oriented subjects or anatomy in a canonical space based on slices or volumes of medical images. For this, we propose regression convolutional neural networks (CNNs) that learn to predict the angle-axis representation of 3-D rotations and translations using image features. We use and compare mean square error and geodesic loss to train regression CNNs for 3-D pose estimation used in two different scenarios: slice-to-volume registration and volume-to-volume registration. As an exemplary application, we applied the proposed methods to register arbitrarily oriented reconstructed images of fetuses scanned in-utero at a wide gestational age range to a standard atlas space. Our results show that in such registration applications that are amendable to learning, the proposed deep learning methods with geodesic loss minimization achieved 3-D pose estimation with a wide capture range in real-time (<100ms). We also tested the generalization capability of the trained CNNs on an expanded age range and on images of newborn subjects with similar and different MR image contrasts. We trained our models on T2-weighted fetal brain MRI scans and used them to predict the 3-D pose of newborn brains based on T1-weighted MRI scans. We showed that the trained models generalized well for the new domain when we performed image contrast transfer through a conditional generative adversarial network. This indicates that the domain of application of the trained deep regression CNNs can be further expanded to image modalities and contrasts other than those used in training. A combination of our proposed methods with accelerated optimization-based registration algorithms can dramatically enhance the performance of automatic imaging devices and image processing methods of the future.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Algoritmos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Feto/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
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