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1.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1631, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hot weather leads to increased illness and deaths. The Heatwave Plan for England (HWP) aims to protect the population by raising awareness of the dangers of hot weather, especially for those most vulnerable. Individuals at increased risk to the effects of heat include older adults, particularly 75+, and those with specific chronic conditions, such as diabetes, respiratory and heart conditions. The HWP recommends specific protective actions which relate to five heat-health alert levels (levels 0-4). This study examines the attitudes to hot weather of adults in England, and the protective measures taken during a heatwave. METHODS: As part of a wider evaluation of the implementation and effects of the HWP, a survey (n = 3153) and focus groups, a form of group interview facilitated by a researcher, were carried out after the June 2017 level 3 heat-health alert. Survey respondents were categorised into three groups based on their age and health status: 'vulnerable' (aged 75+), 'potentially vulnerable' (aged 18-74 in poor health) and 'not vulnerable' (rest of the adult population) to hot weather. Multivariable logistic regression models identified factors associated with these groups taking protective measures. In-person group discussion, focused on heat-health, were carried out with 25 people, mostly aged 75 + . RESULTS: Most vulnerable and potentially vulnerable adults do not consider themselves at risk of hot weather and are unaware of the effectiveness of important protective behaviours. Only one-quarter of (potentially) vulnerable adults reported changing their behaviour as a result of hearing hot weather-related health advice during the level 3 alert period. Focus group findings showed many vulnerable adults were more concerned about the effects of the sun's ultra-violet radiation on the skin than on the effects of hot temperatures on health. CONCLUSIONS: Current public health messages appear to be insufficient, given the low level of (potentially) vulnerable adults changing their behaviour during hot weather. In the context of increasingly warmer summers in England due to climate change, public health messaging needs to convince (potentially) vulnerable adults of all the risks of hot weather (not just effects of sunlight on the skin) and of the importance of heat protective measures.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Temperatura Alta , Idoso , Atitude , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Tempo (Meteorologia)
2.
BMJ Open Qual ; 10(2)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This paper presents the results of the first UK-wide survey of National Health Service (NHS) general practitioners (GPs) and practice managers (PMs) designed to explore the service improvement activities being undertaken in practices, and the factors that facilitated or obstructed that work. The research was prompted by growing policy and professional interest in the quality of general practice and its improvement. The analysis compares GP and PM involvement in, and experience of, quality improvement activities. METHODS: This was a mixed-method study comprising 26 semistructured interviews, a focus group and two surveys. The qualitative data supported the design of the surveys, which were sent to all 46 238 GPs on the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) database and the PM at every practice across the UK (n=9153) in July 2017. RESULTS: Responses from 2377 GPs and 1424 PMs were received and were broadly representative of each group. Ninety-nine per cent reported having planned or undertaken improvement activities in the previous 12 months. The most frequent related to prescribing and access. Key facilitators of improvement included 'good clinical leadership'. The two main barriers were 'too many demands from external stakeholders' and a lack of protected time. Audit and significant event audit were the most common improvement tools used, but respondents were interested in training on other quality improvement tools. CONCLUSION: GPs and PMs are interested in improving service quality. As such, the new quality improvement domain in the Quality and Outcomes Framework used in the payment of practices is likely to be relatively easily accepted by GPs in England. However, if improving quality is to become routine work for practices, it will be important for the NHS in the four UK countries to work with practices to mitigate some of the barriers that they face, in particular the lack of protected time.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral , Clínicos Gerais , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Medicina Estatal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
3.
Soc Sci Med ; 274: 113803, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684699

RESUMO

There is ongoing debate about how the funding system for social care of older people in England should best be reformed. We investigated how public attitudes to individual and state responsibility for paying for social care in later life vary with demographic and socio-economic characteristics. Four vignettes of individuals in need of home care or residential care with varying levels of savings, income and housing wealth were presented to a sample of people aged 18-75 years (n = 3000) in December 2018. Respondents were asked if care costs should be paid by the user, the state or shared. They were also asked about the best way to pay for social care in old age. Latent class analysis was used to identify sub-groups with similar preferences for paying for care, and to explore their socio-demographic characteristics. We identified five classes. The majority (Class 1, 58%) preferred that the state and the user should share social care costs. Class 2 (18%) thought that the state should pay all costs regardless of users' savings, income or housing wealth. Class 3 (15%) preferred users to pay all costs at all levels of savings, income and housing wealth, with the exception of those unable to afford the costs. Classes 4 and 5 (5% each) were characterised by different patterns of 'don't know' answers. Socio-economic status was higher among those proposing higher user contributions (Class 3) and lower among those with several 'don't' know' responses (Classes 4 and 5). Concerns about care costs in old age were high among those proposing that the state pays all costs (Class 2) and those preferring that users pay all costs (Class 3). This study shows that public views on social care funding vary with respondents' characteristics and that proposals to reform the system need to be carefully calibrated.


Assuntos
Renda , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Inglaterra , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Classe Social , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 251, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In health research, population estimates are generally obtained from probability-based surveys. In market research surveys are frequently conducted from volunteer web panels. Propensity score adjustment (PSA) is often used at analysis to try to remove bias in the web survey, but empirical evidence of its effectiveness is mixed. We assess the ability of PSA to remove bias in the context of sensitive sexual health research and the potential of web panel surveys to replace or supplement probability surveys. METHODS: Four web panel surveys asked a subset of questions from the third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3). Five propensity scores were generated for each web survey. The scores were developed from progressively larger sets of variables, beginning with demographic variables only and ending with demographic, sexual identity, lifestyle, attitudinal and sexual behaviour variables together. The surveys were weighted to match Natsal-3 based on propensity score quintiles. The performance of each survey and weighting was assessed by calculating the average 'absolute' odds ratio (inverse of the odds ratio if less than 1) across 22 pre-specified sexual behaviour outcomes of interest comparing the weighted web survey with Natsal-3. The average standard error across odds ratios was examined to assess the impact of weighting upon variance. RESULTS: Propensity weighting reduced bias relative to Natsal-3 as more variables were added for males, but had little effect for females, and variance increased for some surveys. Surveys with more biased estimates before propensity weighting showed greater reduction in bias from adjustment. Inconsistencies in performance were evident across surveys and outcomes. For most surveys and outcomes any reduction in bias was only partial and for some outcomes the bias increased. CONCLUSIONS: Even after propensity weighting using a rich range of information, including some sexual behaviour variables, some bias remained and variance increased for some web surveys. Whilst our findings support the use of PSA for web panel surveys, the reduction in bias is likely to be partial and unpredictable, consistent with the findings from market research. Our results do not support the use of volunteer web panels to generate unbiased population health estimates.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Comportamento Sexual , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pontuação de Propensão , Viés de Seleção
5.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213835, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men and women are increasingly likely to stay sexually active into later life, but research shows that sexual activity and satisfaction decrease with increasing age. Ill health and medical treatments may affect sexual activity but there is little research on why some older people with a health problem affecting their sexual activity are satisfied with their sex life, and others are not. METHODS: A mixed method study integrating data and analyses from the third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (n = 3343 aged 55-74 years) and from follow-up in-depth interviews with 23 survey participants who reported having a health condition or taking medication affecting their sex life. RESULTS: Overall, 26.9% of men and 17.1% of women aged 55-74 reported having a health condition that affected their sex life. Among this group, women were less likely than men to be sexually active in the previous 6 months (54.3% vs 62.0%) but just as likely to be satisfied with their sex life (41.9% vs 42.1%). In follow-up interviews, participants sometimes struggled to tease out the effects of ill health from those of advancing age. Where effects of ill health were identified, they tended to operate through the inclination and capacity to be sexually active, the practical possibilities for doing so and the limits placed on forms of sexual expression. In close relationships partners worked to establish compensatory mechanisms, but in less close relationships ill health provided an excuse to stop sex or deterred attempts to resolve difficulties. Most fundamentally, ill health may influence whether individuals have a partner with whom to have sex. CONCLUSION: The data show complex interactions between health, lifestyle and relationship factors that affect sexual activity/satisfaction. When dealing with sexual problems in older people, practitioners need to take account of individual lifestyle, needs and preferences.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação Pessoal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
7.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0189607, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29293516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual orientation encompasses three dimensions: sexual identity, attraction and behaviour. There is increasing demand for data on sexual orientation to meet equality legislation, monitor potential inequalities and address public health needs. We present estimates of all three dimensions and their overlap in British men and women, and consider the implications for health services, research and the development and evaluation of public health interventions. METHODS: Analyses of data from Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles, a probability sample survey (15,162 people aged 16-74 years) undertaken in 2010-2012. FINDINGS: A lesbian, gay or bisexual (LGB) identity was reported by 2·5% of men and 2·4% of women, whilst 6·5% of men and 11·5% of women reported any same-sex attraction and 5·5% of men and 6·1% of women reported ever experience of same-sex sex. This equates to approximately 547,000 men and 546,000 women aged 16-74 in Britain self-identifying as LGB and 1,204,000 men and 1,389,000 women ever having experience of same-sex sex. Of those reporting same-sex sex in the past 5 years, 28% of men and 45% of women identified as heterosexual. INTERPRETATION: There is large variation in the size of sexual minority populations depending on the dimension applied, with implications for the design of epidemiological studies, targeting and monitoring of public health interventions and estimating population-based denominators. There is also substantial diversity on an individual level between identity, behaviour and attraction, adding to the complexity of delivering appropriate services and interventions.


Assuntos
Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Prática de Saúde Pública , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
8.
Br J Gen Pract ; 67(658): e370-e376, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28450345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Friends and Family Test (FFT) was introduced into general practices in England in 2015 to provide staff with information on patients' views of their experience of care. AIM: To examine the views of practice staff and patients of the FFT, how the results are used, and to recommend improvements. DESIGN AND SETTING: A qualitative study of a national representative sample of 42 general practices. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews with 43 clinicians, 48 practice managers, and 27 patient representatives. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analysed thematically. RESULTS: Although the FFT imposed little extra work on practices, it was judged to provide little additional insight over existing methods and to have had minimal impact on improving quality. Staff lacked confidence in the accuracy of the results given the lack of a representative sample and the risk of bias. The FFT question was judged to be inappropriate as in many areas there was no alternative practice for patients to choose, patients' individual needs would not be the same as those of their friends and relatives, and an overall assessment failed to identify any specific aspects of good- or poor-quality care. Despite being intended to support local quality improvement, there was widespread unease about the FFT, with many responders perceiving it as a tool for national bodies to monitor general practices. CONCLUSION: If the use of a single-item questionnaire is to continue, changes should be made to the wording. It should be focused on stimulating local quality improvement, and practice staff should be supported to use the results effectively.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Saúde da Família/normas , Medicina Geral/normas , Inglaterra , Retroalimentação , Controle de Acesso , Humanos , Satisfação do Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Melhoria de Qualidade , Saúde da População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Saúde da População Urbana
9.
PLoS One ; 12(3): e0174129, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28333973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Breakdown of marriage and cohabitation is common in Western countries and is costly for individuals and society. Most research on reasons for breakdown has focused on marriages ending in divorce and/or have used data unrepresentative of the population. We present prevalence estimates of, and differences in, reported reasons for recent breakdown of marriages and cohabitations in Britain. METHODS: Descriptive analyses of data from Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3), a probability sample survey (15,162 people aged 16-74 years) undertaken 2010-2012, using computer-assisted personal interviewing. We examined participants' reported reasons for live-in partnership breakdown in the past 5 years and how these varied by gender and partnership type (married vs. cohabitation). RESULTS: Overall, 10.9% (95% CI: 9.9-11.9%) of men and 14.1% (13.2-15.0%) of women reported live-in partnership breakdown in the past 5 years. Mean duration of men's marriages was 14.2 years (95% CI: 12.8-15.7) vs. cohabitations; 3.5 years (3.0-4.0), and for women: 14.6 years (13.5-15.8) vs. 4.2 years (3.7-4.8). Among 706 men and 1254 women reporting experience of recent breakdown, the reasons 'grew apart' (men 39%, women 36%), 'arguments' (27%, 30%), 'unfaithfulness/adultery' (18%, 24%, p<0.05), and 'lack of respect/appreciation' (17%, 25%, p<0.05) were the most common, irrespective of partnership type. A total of 16% of women vs. 4% of men cited domestic violence. After adjusting for age at interview and duration of partnership, there were no significant differences in reasons given for breakup by partnership type, except that men more commonly cited 'moving due to changing circumstances' as a reason for a cohabitation ending than for a marriage (AOR = 3.78, 95% CI: 1.08-13.21); and among women, 'not sharing housework' (0.54, 0.35-0.83) and 'sexual difficulties' (0.45, 0.25-0.84) were less commonly cited as reasons for cohabitation ending than marriage. CONCLUSION: These representative data on recently ended marriages and cohabitations among men and women in Britain show that there were more similarities than differences in the reasons reported for breakdown across partnership type. For both marriages and cohabitations, cited reasons relating to communication and relationship quality issues were most common, followed by unfaithfulness/adultery. Our findings support a focus on relationship quality, including communication and conflict resolution, in preventive and therapeutic interventions addressing breakdown of live-in partnerships.


Assuntos
Divórcio/estatística & dados numéricos , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude , Divórcio/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Casamento/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
10.
Lancet ; 388(10044): 586-95, 2016 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27229190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2000, a 10-year Teenage Pregnancy Strategy was launched in England to reduce conceptions in women younger than 18 years and social exclusion in young parents. We used routinely collected data and data from Britain's National Surveys of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal) to examine progress towards these goals. METHODS: In this observational study, we used random-effects meta-regression to analyse the change in conception rates from 1994-98 to 2009-13 by top-tier local authorities in England, in relation to Teenage Pregnancy Strategy-related expenditure per head, socioeconomic deprivation, and region. Data from similar probability sample surveys: Natsal-1 (1990-91), Natsal-2 (1999-2001), and Natsal-3 (2010-12) were used to assess the prevalence of risk factors and their association with conception in women younger than 18 years in women aged 18-24 years; and the prevalence of participation in education, work, and training in young mothers. FINDINGS: Conception rates in women younger than 18 years declined steadily from their peak in 1996-98 and more rapidly from 2007 onwards. More deprived areas and those receiving greater Teenage Pregnancy Strategy-related investment had higher rates of conception in 1994-98 and had greater declines to 2009-13. Regression analyses assessing the association between Teenage Pregnancy Strategy funding and decline in conception rates in women younger than 18 years showed an estimated reduction in the conception rate of 11.4 conceptions (95% CI 9.6-13.2; p<0.0001) per 1000 women aged 15-17 years for every £100 Teenage Pregnancy Strategy spend per head and a reduction of 8.2 conceptions (5.8-10.5; p<0.0001) after adjustment for socioeconomic deprivation and region. The association between conception in women younger than 18 years and lower socioeconomic status weakened slightly between Natsal-2 and Natsal-3. The prevalence of participation in education, work, or training among young women with a child conceived before age 18 years was low, but the odds of them doing so doubled between Natsal-2 and Natsal-3 (odds ratio 1.99, 95% CI 0.99-4.00). INTERPRETATION: A sustained, multifaceted policy intervention involving health and education agencies, alongside other social and educational changes, has probably contributed to a substantial and accelerating decline in conceptions in women younger than 18 years in England since the late 1990s. FUNDING: Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, Economic and Social Research Council, and Department of Health.


Assuntos
Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Taxa de Gravidez/tendências , Gravidez na Adolescência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Inglaterra , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Gravidez , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Sex Transm Infect ; 92(6): 455-63, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26965869

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine sociodemographic and behavioural differences between men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in recent UK convenience surveys and a national probability sample survey. METHODS: We compared 148 MSM aged 18-64 years interviewed for Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) undertaken in 2010-2012, with men in the same age range participating in contemporaneous convenience surveys of MSM: 15 500 British resident men in the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS); 797 in the London Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey; and 1234 in Scotland's Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey. Analyses compared men reporting at least one male sexual partner (past year) on similarly worded questions and multivariable analyses accounted for sociodemographic differences between the surveys. RESULTS: MSM in convenience surveys were younger and better educated than MSM in Natsal-3, and a larger proportion identified as gay (85%-95% vs 62%). Partner numbers were higher and same-sex anal sex more common in convenience surveys. Unprotected anal intercourse was more commonly reported in EMIS. Compared with Natsal-3, MSM in convenience surveys were more likely to report gonorrhoea diagnoses and HIV testing (both past year). Differences between the samples were reduced when restricting analysis to gay-identifying MSM. CONCLUSIONS: National probability surveys better reflect the population of MSM but are limited by their smaller samples of MSM. Convenience surveys recruit larger samples of MSM but tend to over-represent MSM identifying as gay and reporting more sexual risk behaviours. Because both sampling strategies have strengths and weaknesses, methods are needed to triangulate data from probability and convenience surveys.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Amostragem , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 11(2): e0147983, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26866687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interviewer-administered surveys are an important method of collecting population-level epidemiological data, but suffer from declining response rates and increasing costs. Web surveys offer more rapid data collection and lower costs. There are concerns, however, about data quality from web surveys. Previous research has largely focused on selection biases, and few have explored measurement differences. This paper aims to assess the extent to which mode affects the responses given by the same respondents at two points in time, providing information on potential measurement error if web surveys are used in the future. METHODS: 527 participants from the third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3), which uses computer assisted personal interview (CAPI) and self-interview (CASI) modes, subsequently responded to identically-worded questions in a web survey. McNemar tests assessed whether within-person differences in responses were at random or indicated a mode effect, i.e. higher reporting of more sensitive responses in one mode. An analysis of pooled responses by generalized estimating equations addressed the impact of gender and question type on change. RESULTS: Only 10% of responses changed between surveys. However mode effects were found for about a third of variables, with higher reporting of sensitive responses more commonly found on the web compared with Natsal-3. CONCLUSIONS: The web appears a promising mode for surveys of sensitive behaviours, most likely as part of a mixed-mode design. Our findings suggest that mode effects may vary by question type and content, and by the particular mix of modes used. Mixed-mode surveys need careful development to understand mode effects and how to account for them.


Assuntos
Atitude , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Internet , Comportamento Sexual , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 10(8): e0135203, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26252650

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Including questions about sexual health in the annual Health Survey for England (HSE) provides opportunities for regular measurement of key public health indicators, augmenting Britain's decennial National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal). However, contextual and methodological differences may limit comparability of the findings. We examine the extent of these differences between HSE 2010 and Natsal-3 and investigate their impact on parameter estimates. METHODS: Complex survey analyses of data from men and women in the 2010 HSE (n = 2,782 men and 3,588 women) and Natsal-3 undertaken 2010-2012 (n = 4,882 men and 6,869 women) aged 16-69y and resident in England, both using probability sampling, compared their characteristics, the amount of non-response to, and estimates from, sexual health questions. Both surveys used self-completion for the sexual behaviour questions but this was via computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) in Natsal-3 and a pen-and-paper questionnaire in HSE 2010. RESULTS: The surveys achieved similar response rates, both around 60%, and demographic profiles largely consistent with the census, although HSE participants tended to be less educated, and reported worse general health, than Natsal-3 participants. Item non-response to the sexual health questions was typically higher in HSE 2010 (range: 9-18%) relative to Natsal-3 (all <5%). Prevalence estimates for sexual risk behaviours and STI-related indicators were generally slightly lower in HSE 2010 than Natsal-3. CONCLUSIONS: While a relatively high response to sexual health questions in HSE 2010 demonstrates the feasibility of asking such questions in a general health survey, differences with Natsal-3 do exist. These are likely due to the HSE's context as a general health survey and methodological limitations such as its current use of pen-and-paper questionnaires. Methodological developments to the HSE should be considered so that its data can be interpreted in combination with those from dedicated sexual health surveys, thus improving our ability to monitor trends in sexual health.


Assuntos
Psicometria/métodos , Comportamento Sexual , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Inglaterra , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probabilidade , Assunção de Riscos , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMJ Open ; 5(2): e006090, 2015 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25667149

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate patients' experiences of the choice of general practitioner (GP) practice pilot. DESIGN: Mixed-method, cross-sectional study. SETTING: Patients in the UK National Health Service (NHS) register with a general practice responsible for their primary medical care and practices set geographic boundaries. In 2012/2013, 43 volunteer general practices in four English NHS primary care trusts (PCTs) piloted a scheme allowing patients living outside practice boundaries to register as an out of area patient or be seen as a day patient. PARTICIPANTS: Analysis of routine data for 1108 out of area registered patients and 250 day patients; postal survey of out of area registered (315/886, 36%) and day (64/188, 34%) patients over 18 years of age, with a UK mailing address; comparison with General Practice Patient Survey (GPPS); semistructured interviews with 24 pilot patients. RESULTS: Pilot patients were younger and more likely to be working than non-pilot patients at the same practices and reported generally more or at least as positive experiences than patients registered at the same practices, practices in the same PCT and nationally, despite belonging to subgroups of the population who typically report poorer than average experiences. Out of area patients who joined a pilot practice did so: after moving house and not wanting to change practice (26.2%); for convenience (32.6%); as newcomers to an area who selected a practice although they lived outside its boundary (23.6%); because of dissatisfaction with their previous practice (13.9%). Day patients attended primarily on grounds of convenience (68.8%); 51.6% of the day patient visits were for acute infections, most commonly upper respiratory infections (20.4%). Sixty-six per cent of day patients received a prescription during their visit. CONCLUSIONS: Though the 12-month pilot was too brief to identify all costs and benefits, the scheme provided a positive experience for participating patients and practices.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Satisfação do Paciente , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido
15.
Sex Transm Infect ; 91(2): 116-23, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25404706

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Men who pay for sex (MPS) are considered a bridging population for sexually transmitted infections (STI). However, the extent, characteristics and role of MPS in transmission is poorly understood. We investigate these questions using data from Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3). METHODS: We performed complex survey analyses of data from 6293 men aged 16-74 years resident in Britain who completed Natsal-3, a probability sample survey undertaken during 2010-2012, using computer-assisted personal interviewing and computer-assisted self-interview. RESULTS: 11.0% (95% CI10.1% to 11.9%) of all men reported ever paying for sex. Among MPS, 18.4% (95% CI 18.2% to 18.7%) of their lifetime sexual partners were paid. 3.6% (95% CI 3.1% to 4.2%) of men had paid for sex in the past 5 years. Partners of MPS constitute 14.7% of all reported partners and MPS report 15.6% of all reported STI diagnoses in the past 5 years. Paying for sex in the past 5 years was strongly associated with reporting larger numbers of sexual partners (adjusted OR, AOR for 5+ partners, past 5 years, 31.50, 95% CI 18.69 to 53.09). After adjusting for partner numbers, paying for sex remained strongly associated with reporting new foreign partners outside the UK (AOR 7.96; 95% CI 4.97 to 12.73) and STI diagnosis/es (AOR 2.34; 95% CI 1.44 to 3.81), all in the past 5 years. Among men ever paying for sex, 62.6% (95% CI 58.3% to 66.8%) reported paying for sex outside the UK, most often in Europe and Asia. CONCLUSIONS: MPS in Britain remain at greater risk of STI acquisition and onward transmission than men who do not. They report high numbers of partners, but the minority are paid partners. They are an important core group in STI transmission.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/transmissão , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Health Policy ; 119(4): 427-36, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25456019

RESUMO

There have been growing concerns that general practitioner (GP) services in England, which are based on registration with a single practice located near the patient's home, are not sufficiently convenient for patients. To inform the decision as to whether to change registration rules allowing patients to register 'out-of-area' and to estimate the demand for this wider choice, we undertook a discrete choice experiment with 1706 respondents. Latent class models were used to analyse preferences for GP practice registration comparing preferences for neighbourhood and non-neighbourhood practices. We find that there is some appetite for registering outside the neighbourhood, but this preference is not uniformly shared across the population. Specifically individuals who are less mobile (e.g. older people and those with caring responsibilities), or satisfied with their local practice are less likely to be interested in registering at a practice outside their neighbourhood. Overall, people feel most strongly about obtaining an appointment with a GP as quickly as possible. Respondents regarded weekend opening as less important than other factors, and particularly less important than extended practice opening hours from Monday to Friday. Assuming a constant demand for GP services, a policy encouraging GP practices to extend their opening hours during the week is likely to decrease the average patient waiting time for an appointment and is likely to be preferred by patients.


Assuntos
Clínicos Gerais , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Preferência do Paciente , Área de Atuação Profissional , Comportamento de Escolha , Inglaterra , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Medicina Estatal
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 16(12): e276, 2014 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25488851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonprobability Web surveys using volunteer panels can provide a relatively cheap and quick alternative to traditional health and epidemiological surveys. However, concerns have been raised about their representativeness. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to compare results from different Web panels with a population-based probability sample survey (n=8969 aged 18-44 years) that used computer-assisted self-interview (CASI) for sensitive behaviors, the third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3). METHODS: Natsal-3 questions were included on 4 nonprobability Web panel surveys (n=2000 to 2099), 2 using basic quotas based on age and sex, and 2 using modified quotas based on additional variables related to key estimates. Results for sociodemographic characteristics were compared with external benchmarks and for sexual behaviors and opinions with Natsal-3. Odds ratios (ORs) were used to express differences between the benchmark data and each survey for each variable of interest. A summary measure of survey performance was the average absolute OR across variables. Another summary measure was the number of key estimates for which the survey differed significantly (at the 5% level) from the benchmarks. RESULTS: For sociodemographic variables, the Web surveys were less representative of the general population than Natsal-3. For example, for men, the average absolute OR for Natsal-3 was 1.14, whereas for the Web surveys the average absolute ORs ranged from 1.86 to 2.30. For all Web surveys, approximately two-thirds of the key estimates of sexual behaviors were different from Natsal-3 and the average absolute ORs ranged from 1.32 to 1.98. Differences were appreciable even for questions asked by CASI in Natsal-3. No single Web survey performed consistently better than any other did. Modified quotas slightly improved results for men, but not for women. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with studies from other countries on less sensitive topics, volunteer Web panels provided appreciably biased estimates. The differences seen with Natsal-3 CASI questions, where mode effects may be similar, suggest a selection bias in the Web surveys. The use of more complex quotas may lead to some improvement, but many estimates are still likely to differ. Volunteer Web panels are not recommended if accurate prevalence estimates for the general population are a key objective.


Assuntos
Atitude , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Comportamento Sexual , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Amostragem , Adulto Jovem
18.
Health Policy ; 118(3): 273-8, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25467284

RESUMO

In 2015, the UK government plans to widen patient choice of general practitioner (GP) to improve access through the voluntary removal of practice boundaries in the English NHS. This follows a 12-month pilot in four areas where volunteer GP practices accepted patients from outside their boundaries. Using evidence from the pilot evaluation, we discuss the likely impact of this policy change on patient experience, responsiveness and equity of access. Patients reported positive experiences but in a brief pilot in four areas, it was not possible to assess potential demand, the impact on quality of care or health outcomes. In the rollout, policymakers and commissioners will need to balance the access needs of local residents against the demands of those coming into the area. The rollout should include full information for prospective patients; monitoring and understanding patterns of patient movement between practices and impact on practice capacity; and ensuring the timely transfer of clinical information between providers. This policy has the potential to improve choice and convenience for a sub-group of the population at lower marginal costs than new provision. However, there are simpler, less costly, ways of improving convenience, such as extending opening hours or offering alternatives to face-to-face consultation.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Medicina Geral , Política de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Satisfação do Paciente , Formulação de Políticas , Medicina Estatal , Inglaterra , Humanos
19.
Sex Transm Infect ; 90(2): 84-9, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24277881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data from the first two National Surveys of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles, carried out in 1990-1991 (Natsal-1) and 1999-2001 (Natsal-2), have been extensively used to inform sexual health policy in Britain over the past two decades. Natsal-3 was carried out from September 2010 to August 2012 in order to provide up-to-date measures of sexual lifestyles and to extend the scope of the previous studies by including an older age group (up to 74 years), an extended range of topics and biological measures. METHODS: We describe the methods used in Natsal-3, which surveyed the general population in Britain aged 16-74 years (with oversampling of younger adults aged 16-34 years). RESULTS: Overall, 15 162 interviews were completed, with a response rate of 57.7% and a cooperation rate of 65.8%. The response rate for the boost sample of ages 16-34 years was 64.8%, only marginally lower than the 65.4% achieved for Natsal-2, which surveyed a similar age range (16-44). The data were weighted by age, gender and region to reduce possible bias. Comparisons with census data show the weighted sample to provide good representation on a range of respondent characteristics. The interview involved a combination of face-to-face and self-completion components, both carried out on computer. Urine samples from 4550 sexually-experienced participants aged 16-44 years were tested for a range of STIs. Saliva samples from 4128 participants aged 18-74 years were tested for testosterone. CONCLUSIONS: Natsal-3 provides a high quality dataset that can be used to examine trends in sexual attitudes and behaviours over the past 20 years.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Estilo de Vida , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Reprodutiva , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Reprodutiva/tendências , Fatores de Risco , Saliva/metabolismo , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/urina , Testosterona/metabolismo , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
20.
Sex Transm Infect ; 90(2): 90-3, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24277882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Britain's second National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-2) was conducted in 1999-2001 and the third (Natsal-3) was conducted in 2010-2012 to update prevalence estimates of sexual behaviours and assess changes over time. We investigated whether there was a change in reporting bias between these two cross-sectional surveys. METHODS: We analysed data from the 'common birth cohort' of participants born during 1956-1983, who were eligible to take part in Natsal-2 (n=10 764) and Natsal-3 (n=6907). We compared estimates for outcomes that occurred before Natsal-2 and expected these to be consistent between surveys if no change in reporting bias had occurred. RESULTS: A greater proportion of non-white men and women were in Natsal-3 consistent with demographic changes in Britain. Reporting behaviours was largely consistent between surveys for men. Fewer women in Natsal-3 reported early first intercourse or having child(ren) before age 20; they were also more likely to report not discussing sex with their parents at age 14. Men and women in Natsal-3 were more likely to report tolerant attitudes towards same-sex partnerships but less tolerance towards unfaithfulness in marriage and one-night-stands. CONCLUSIONS: We found little evidence of change in reporting bias among men since Natsal-2. Among women, a modest change in reporting bias was observed for a small number of experiences, possibly due to changes in participation, social acceptability and methodological differences between surveys. Changes in the reporting of sexual behaviours and attitudes over time observed in the wider Natsal-3 study are therefore likely to largely reflect real changes in the population.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Estilo de Vida , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Reprodutiva , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Viés , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Homossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Reprodutiva/tendências , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
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